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And of such mystic fancies, in the range
once more on my feet. We found ourselves in a splendid Of these deep-cavern'd sepulchres are found
apartment of great magnitude, adorned with sacred paintThe wildest images, unheard of, strange,
ings and hieroglyphics.' The ceiling, which was also Striking, uncouth, odd, picturesque, profound, painted, was supported by several rows of pillars. How That ever puzzled antiquarian's brain;
similar to this was the entrance of the prophet, through Prisoners of different nations, bound and slain,
a hole in the wall,' to a similar chamber of imagery in Genii with heads of birds, hawks, ibis, drakes, the Lord's own temple! Our present engraving affords a Of lions, foxes, cats, fish, frogs, and snakes,
view of one of the richest and best preserved of those Bulls, rams, and monkeys, hippopotami,
Egyptian chambers of imagery' which the Hebrew idolWith knife in paw, suspended from the sky;
ators imitated. Gods germinating men, and men turn'd gods,
14. Women weeping for Tammuz'—As the former deSeated in honour with gilt crooks, and rods;
scription referred to forms of idolatry borrowed from the Vast scarabæi, globes by hands upheld
Egyptians, so this applies to another form derived from From chaos springing, 'mid an endless field
the Phænicians; but which was however in many respects Of forms grotesque-the sphynx, the crocodile,
similar to the Égyptian worship of Osiris and Isis. We And other reptiles from the slime of Nile.'
do not find any reason to doubt the correctness of the * EGYPT,' in Hall's Life of Salt, vol. ii. p. 416. usual identification of this Tammuz with the being who is Under 1 Kings vi. we gave a representation of the great better known to most readers by the classical name of temple at Edfou, with the view of suggesting some idea as Adonis. The story seems to be a mixture of history and to the possible general disposition of parts in Solomon's allegory, as most of the ancient mythological fables are temple. Now this temple has precisely such a chamber - arising from the fact that most, perhaps all, of the of imagery' as the idolatrous Jews had at this time formed beings to which they refer were once living persons, deified in that same temple at Jerusalem. The only means of after death, and whose memories were made the types and access now afforded also suggests an analogy to the present symbols of some ordinary or extraordinary phenomena of text by which we were much struck when reading it in nature. There are different versions of the story of Madden's Travels in Turkey, Egypt, etc.
The Arabs Adonis : but as the one best known, that of Ovid, bears have a miserable village upon the roof of this temple; its evident marks of alteration from the original Phænician sanctuary is blocked up with a dunghill; part of the fable, to adapt it to classical notions, we shall, in the brief splendid portico is converted into a stable, and the whole explanation which seems necessary, follow the version interior is so filled up with rubbish, that it is deemed im- which is preferred by Selden, Marsham, and Le Clere, as possible to enter. But an old man, to whose family the derived from Phurnatus and other mythologists. It will traveller had afforded medical relief, apprized him of a be seen that this story essentially identifies him with the secret passage, which had never before been made known Osiris of Egypt, and his wife Astarte with the Egyptian to any Frank, and through which he undertook to conduct
Isis. him. Considerably below the surface of the adjoining Adonis was the son of Ammon, by Myrrha the daughter buildings he pointed out to me a chink in an old wall, of Cinyras, a Phænician king, whose residence was at which he told me I should creep through on my hands Byblos. Myrrha, having given offence to her father, was and feet; the aperture was not two feet and a half high, banished, and withdrew, with her husband and infant son, and scarcely three feet and a half broad; my companion into Arabia. After some stay there they went into Egypt, had the courage to enter first, thrusting in a lamp before where, after his father's death, the young Adonis applied him. I followed, and after me the son of the old man himself to the improvement of the Egyptians, teaching crept also; the passage was so narrow, that my mouth and them agriculture and enacting many laws concerning the nose were sometimes buried in the dust, and I was nearly property of lands. There Astarte became his wife, and suffocated. After proceeding about ten yards in utter the greatest attachment subsisted between them. Adonis, darkness, the heat became excessive, breathing was labo- having gone into Syria, was wounded by a wild boar in rious, the perspiration poured down my face, and I would the forests of Mount Lebanon, where he had been huuting. have given the world to have got out; but my companion, Astarte thought his wound mortal, and manifested such whose person I could not distinguish, though his voice an intensity of grief that the people believed him to be was audible, called out to me to crawl a few feet farther, actually dead, and Egypt and Phænicia made great la. and that I should find plenty of space. I joined him at mentation for him. However, he recovered, and their length, and had the inexpressible satisfaction of standing | mourning was then exchanged for the most rapturous joy. To perpetuate the memory of this event, an annual festival when wounded by the wild boar; and which was alleged was instituted, during which the people first mourned annually to commemorate the event by renewing its disbitterly for him as dead, and then abandoned themselves coloration. In fact, Maundrell describes the stream as of to joy for his restoration to life. The story adds that a surprising redness, when seen by him, owing, no doubt, Adonis was in the end killed in battle, and his wife pro- as he explains, to a sort of red earth washed into its bed cured his deification. She continued to govern Egypt by the violence of the rains. We cannot forbear from peacefully for many years; and after her death divine citing, in conclusion, the lines in which Milton alludes to honours were paid to her also. Such, in brief, is the story
these circumstances :of Adonis, which, thus told, is clearly but a different version of that of Osiris and Isis ; and as these were in Egypt
- Thammuz came next behind,
Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured the representatives of the sun and moon, so were Adonis and Astarte in Phænicia. We are also told that while
The Syrian damsels to lament his fate, the feast of Osiris was celebrated in Egypt, another like it
In amorous ditties all a summer's day;
While smooth Adonis, from his native rock, was observed in Phænicia for Adonis—first mourning and then rejoicing. Indeed, it is stated that the Egyptians,
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood during their celebration of the festival, used to set upon
Of Thammuz yearly wounded : The love-tale the Nile an osier basket containing a letter, which by the
Infected Sion's daughters with like heat, course of the waves was conveyed to the coast of Phænicia
Whose wanton passions in the sacred porch
Ezekiel saw, when, by the vision led, near Byblos, where it no sooner arrived than the people gave over their mourning for Adonis, and began to rejoice
His eye survey'd the dark idolatries
Of alienated Judah.'— Paradise Lost, B. i., 446. for his return to life. In fact, the circumstance, which was, both by the Egyptians and Phænicians, celebrated 16. They worshipped the sun.”—To this other leading with mourning succeeded by rejoicing, was, as acknow- form of idolatry to which the Hebrews were addicted, we ledged by themselves, the same thing differently typified have already given some attention under Job xxxi. -being the annual diminution and recovery of the power 17. • They put the branch to the nose.' — This is not very and glory of the sun; expressed in Egypt by the death intelligible. The Septuagint reads, And, lo, they are as and dismemberment of Osiris and the recovery of his scat- * sneerers' or 'mockers; and this interpretation is justified tered remains, and in Phænicia, by the wound and revival by several Hebrew manuscripts, which, instead of the of Adonis. It is no use to expound this story further, or present 77101 z'morah, ' a branch,' have 7701 zamrah, to seek analogies, or to settle the discrepancies of different which, in the Chaldee, signifies any noise indicative of versions. Our only intention is to explain the object of scorn or contempt. So also equivalently in Aquila and the mourning which the prophet mentions, and concerning Symmachus. Accordingly Newcome renders, . They send which all the versions agree. Lucian says he was a wit- forth a scornful noise through their nostrils ;' and some of ness of the celebration of the festival in Phænicia. There our elder translators took the same view. Those who was a great mourning throughout the country-the people prefer the present translation, think that the text alludes shaved their heads, smote themselves, and lamented bitterly, to a custom among the ancient Persians, who are said offering sacrifices to Adonis ; but suddenly all was changed when they prayed to have held in their hands a small when the time came to celebrate his revival. We pur- bundle of twigs, which was called in their language posely omit to mention the atrocious obscenities which BORSAM, and which they held before their faces opposite attended this celebration, and which, in the Divine view, the holy fire. It is also to be observed that the ancient rendered it a • greater abomination' than even the deeds heathen in the worship of their deities held forth branches of the elders in their chambers of imagery.'
of those trees which were dedicated to them; and it is The name of Adonis was given to a river of Lebanon with reference to this custom that Jerome and others exwhich was supposed to have been stained with his blood plain the text.
4 And the LORD said unto him, Go through 1 A vision, whereby is shewed the preservation of Jerusalem, and ‘seta mark upon the fore
the midst of the city, through the midst of some, 5 and the destruction of the rest. 8 God cannot be intreated for them.
heads of the men that sigh and that cry for all
the abominations that be done in the midst He cried also in mine ears with a loud voice, thereof. saying, Cause them that have charge over the 5 And to the others he said in ®mine city to draw near, even every man with his hearing, Go ye after him through the city, destroying weapon in his hand.
and smite : let not your eye spare, neither have 2 And, behold, six men came from the way
ye pity : of the higher gate, 'which lieth toward the 6 Slay ’utterly old and young, both maids, north, and every man ’a slaughter weapon in and little children, and women : but come his hand ; and one man among them was not near any man upon whom is the mark; clothed with linen, with a writer's inkhorn Oby and begin at my sanctuary. Then they began his side: and they went in, and stood beside at the ancient men which were before the the brasen altar.
house. 3 And the glory of the God of Israel was 7 And he said unto them, Defile the house, gone up from the cherub, whereupon he was, and fill the courts with the slain : go ye to the threshold of the house. And he called forth. And they went forth, and slew in the to the man clothed with linen, which had the city. writer's inkhorn by his side;
8 T And it came to pass, while they were | Heb, which is turned. 2 Heb. a weapon of his breaking in pieces. 3 Heb, upon his loins. 4 Heb. mark a mark, 6 Heb. mine cars.
5 Exod. 12. 7. Revel. 7. 3.
7 Heb. to destruction.
slaying them, and I was left, that I fell upon LORD hath forsaken the earth, and the LORD my face, and cried, and said, Ah Lord God! seeth not. wilt thou destroy all the residue of Israel 10 And as for me also, mine "eye shall in thy pouring out of thy fury upon Jerusa- not spare, neither will I have pity, but I will lem?
recompense their way upon their head. 9 Then said he unto me, The iniquity of 11 And, behold, the man clothed with linen, the house of Israel and Judah is exceeding which had the inkhorn by his side, "reported great, and the land is full of blood, and the the matter, saying, I have done as thou hast city full of 'perverseness : for they say, ''The commanded me. 8 Heb. filled with. 9 Or, wresting of judgment. 10 Chap. 8. 12.
1 Chap. 5. 11, and 7. 4, and 8. 18.
12 Heb. returned the word.
Verse 2.. With a writer's inkhorn by his side.'— It is still the custom in the East to wear the inkhorn stuck in the girdle. Scribes carry them constantly in their girdles, and ministers of state wear them in the same manner as symbols of their office. The form of these receptacles is adapted to this custom, as will appear by our present engraving. That in most general use is a flat case, about nine inches long by an inch and a quarter broad and half
an inch thick, the hollow of which serves to contain the reed pens and penknife. It is furnished at one end with a lid attached by a hinge. To the flat side of this shaft, towards the end furnished with the lid, is soldered the inkvessel, which has at the top a lid with a hinge and clasp, fitting very closely. The ink-vessel is usually twice as heavy as the shaft. The latter is passed through the girdle, and is prevented from slipping through by the projecting
PERSIAN INSTRUMENTS OF WRITING.
1. Kalından, or Case for Pen and Ink ; 2, 3. Parts of the same, separate, i.e. 3. drawn out of 2. ; 4. Spoon for watering the ink ; 5. Pen, formed
of a Reed ; 6. Thin piece of Ilorn, on which the Pen is mended ; 7. Whetstone ; 8. Ink-holder, with a compass. ink-vessel. The whole is usually of polished metal, brass, netic needle (as in our specimen), under a glass, to enable copper, or silver. The case for pens and ink is worn in the proprietor to find the direction of Mecca when he prays. the same manner by the Persians, but it is very different Then there is a little spoon, from which water is dropped in its form and appearauce. It is a long case, eight or nine into the inkstand, for the purpose of diluting the ink when inches long, by about one and a half broad, and rather less become too thick or dry. The case also usually contains in depth, rounded at each end. It is made of paper, stiff four or five pens of reed, whence the whole is called a as board, and the whole exterior is japanned and covered pencase,' rather than an .inkstand.' As these peps are with richly coloured drawings. This case contains another, too thick-pointed to be nibbed on the nail, after our fashion which fits it exactly, and may be considered as a long with quill pens, a thin piece of horn is provided, on which drawer; it is of course uncovered at top, and slips into the the pen is laid for the purpose. These are the more essenouter case at one end, so that it can be easily drawn out, tial articles, but often a small whetstone is added, and also wholly or partially, to give access to the contents. These a pair of scissors for clipping paper. The former we have are shewn in our engraving, and furnish an interesting given, but not the latter. Of these two sorts of inkhorus,' slaves, were not only marked upon the forehead as a punishment for offences or for attempts to escape from servitude, but to distinguish them as the property of their masters, to deter them from running away, or to facilitate their recovery if they should do so. The mark usually consisted of the name or some peculiar character belonging to the master. It was also a custom, but perhaps not a general one, to mark soldiers in the same manner, only they bore their marks on the hand, not on the forehead, just as our sailors like to have marks impressed upon their arms. Hence also the votaries of some of the gods were marked with signs, intended to denote that they were the devoted servants and worshippers of the god whose symbols they bore. Sometimes they contained the name of the god, but as often his particular symbol, as the thunderbolt of Jove, the trident of Neptune, the ivy of Bacchus, and so on; or else they marked themselves with a mystical number, whereby the name of the god was understood to be described. Thus the sun, which was signified by the number DCVIII., is said to have been represented by the two numeral characters, XH. It is well to explain this here ; but it will be observed that in Rev. xiii. 16, 17, all these different methods are
so to call them, the first is best adapted to be worn in the girdle, but the Persian is certainly more light and elegant, and at least equally convenient with reference to its proper use; but neither of them is at all suited for such thin inks as we employ. It may be difficult to say which of them the “inkhorns' of the Hebrews most resembled; but from its being worn in the girdle it was doubtless something of the same kind.
4. 'Set a mark upon the foreheads of the men.'— See the MODERN EGYPTIAN WRITING-CASE AND INSTRUMENTS.
note on Lev. xix. 28. There is no difficulty in perceiving
that the object of this was to distinguish those who had exhibition of the utensils required by an Oriental writer. the mark in the forehead, as the Lord's servants and the First there is the ink-stand, which is so put into the case objects of his peculiar care. Compare Rev. vii. 3, and that it is the first thing that offers when the drawer is other texts indicated in the margin. The ancient customs pulled out. It is of brass or silver, the upper surface being in this matter, and which still subsist in different parts of sometimes ornamented with mother-of-pearl and other the world, exceedingly well illustrate all the passages of materials; and is sometimes furnished with a small mag. Scripture which refer to the subject. Bond servants, or
more distinctly enumerated :—He causeth all . . . to receive a mark in their right hands or in their foreheads ; and no man might buy or sell save he that had the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. As tokens of devotement to the service and worship of particular idols, such marks are much mentioned by ancient writers as common in different nations. Lucian, for instance, says that the worshippers of the Syrian goddess distinguished themselves by particular marks either upon their hands or necks, and Philo and others allude to it as a very general custom. That the Christians soon adopted a modification of this custom by impressing the figure of the cross or the monogram of Jesus Christ upon their arms, we learn from Procopius and others: and that the custom in a modified form is still kept up by the Oriental Christians, Roman Catholics, and pilgrims to the Holy Land, we have already intimated. The marks were in ancient times formed either by the impress of a hot iron, or by the punctures of needles, afterwards rubbed over by a colouring powder or composition, as described in the note to Isa. xlix. 14; the process being the same as continues to be in use. The marks were indelible. See also the notes on Lev. xix. 28, and Isa. xliv. 5.
clothed with linen : who took it, and went
out. 1 The vision of the coals of fire, to be scattered over the city. 8 The vision of the cherubims.
8 And there appeared in the cherubims
the form of a man's hand under their Then I looked, and, behold, in the 'firma- | wings. ment that was above the head of the cheru- 9 And when I looked, behold the four bims there appeared over them as it were a wheels by the cherubims, one wheel by one sapphire stone, as the appearance of the like- cherub, and another wheel by another cherub: ness of a throne.
and the appearance of the wheels was as the 2 And he spake unto the man clothed with colour . linen, and said, Go in between the wheels, 10 And as for their appearances, they four even under the cherub, and fill "thine hand had one likeness, as if a wheel had been in the with coals of fire from between the cherubims, midst of a wheel. and scatter them over the city. And he went 11 When they went, they went upon their in in my sight.
four sides; they turned not as they went, 3 Now the cherubims stood on the right but to the place whither the head looked side of the house, when the man went in; and they followed it; they turned not as they the cloud filled the inner court.
went. 4 Then the glory of the Lord 'went up 12 And their whole "body, and their backs, from the cherub, and stood over the threshold and their hands, and their wings, and the of the house; and the house was filled with wheels, were full of eyes round about, even the the cloud, and the court was full of the bright wheels that they four bad. ness of the Lord's glory.
13 As for the wheels, "it was cried unto 5 And the sound of the cherubims' wings them in my hearing, 0 wheel. was heard even to the outer court, as the voice 14 And every one had four faces: the first of the Almighty God when he speaketh. face was the face of a cherub, and the second
6 And it came to pass, that when he had face was the face of a man, and the third the commanded the man clothed with linen, saying, face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an Take fire from between the wheels, from be-eagle. tween the cherubims; then he went in, and 15 And the cherubims were lifted up. stood beside the wheels.
This is the living creature that I saw by the 7 And one cherub 'stretched forth his hand river of Chebar. from between the cherubims unto the fire that 16 And when the cherubims went, the was between the cherubims, and took thereof, wheels went by them: and when the cheruand put it into the hands of him that was bims lifted up their wings to mount up from i Chap. 1. 22. ? Heb, the holloro of thine hand.
3 Heb. was lifted up. 4 Chap. 1. 24. 6 lieb. sent forth. 6 Chap. 1. 16. 7 Keb. flesh. 8 Or, they were called in my hearing, icheel, or galgal,
the earth, the same wheels also turned not and the glory of the God of Israel was over from beside them.
them above. 17 When they stood, these stood; and 20 This is the living creature that I saw when they were lifted up, these lifted up them- under the God of Israel by the river of Cheselves also : for the spirit 'of the living crea- bar; and I knew that they were the cheruture was in them.
bims. 18 Then the glory of the LORD departed 21 Every one had four faces apiece, and from off the threshold of the house, and stood every one four wings; and the likeness of the over the cherubims.
hands of a man was under their wings. 19 And the cherubims lifted up their 22 And the likeness of their faces was the wings, and mounted up from the earth in my same faces which I saw by the river of Chebar, sight: when they went out, the wheels also their appearances and themselves : they went uere beside them, and every one stood at the every one straight forward. door of the east gate of the Lord's house ;
9 Or, of life.
thereof, and deliver you into the hands of 1 The presumption of the princes. 4 Their sin and strangers, and will execute judgments among judgment. 13 Ezekiel complaining, God sheweth
you. him his purpose in saving a remnant, 21 and 10 Ye shall fall by the sword; I will judge punishing the wicked. 22 The glory of God leaveth you in the border of Israel; and ye shall
the city. 24 Ezekiel is returned to the captivity. know that I am the LORD. MOREOVER the spirit lifted me up, and 11 This city shall not be your caldron, brought me unto the east gate of the Lord's neither shall ye be the flesh in the midst house, which looketh eastward : and behold thereof; but I will judge you in the border of at the door of the gate five and twenty men; Israel : among whom I saw Jaazaniah the son of 12 And ye shall know that I am the LORD: Azur, and Pelatiah the son of Benaiah, for ye have not walked in my statutes, neiprinces of the people.
ther executed my judgments, but have done 2 Then said he unto me, Son of man, these after the manners of the heathen that are are the men that devise mischief, and give round about you. wicked counsel in this city :
13 | And it came to pass, when I pro3 Which say, 'It is not ’near; let us build phesied, that Pelatiah the son of Benaiah houses : this city is the caldron, and we be the died. Then fell I down upon my face, and flesh.
cried with a loud voice, and said, Ah Lord 4 1 Therefore prophesy against them, pro- | God! wilt thou make a full end of the remphesy, O son of man.
nant of Israel ? 5. And the Spirit of the LORD fell upon 14 | Again the word of the Lord came me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the unto me, saying, LORD; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: 15 Son of man, thy brethren, even thy for I know the things that come into your brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the mind, every one of them.
house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom 6 Ye have multiplied your slain in this the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get city, and ye have filled the streets thereof you far from the LORD: unto us is this land with the slain.
given in possession. 7 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; 16 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord Your slain whom ye have laid in the midst of God; Although I have cast them far off it, they are the flesh, and this city is the cal- among the heathen, and although I have scatdron : but I will bring you forth out of the tered them among the countries, yet will I be midst of it.
to them as a little sanctuary in the countries 8 Ye have feared the sword; and I will where they shall come. bring a sword upon you, saith the Lord 17 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord God.
God; I will even gather you from the people, 9 And I will bring you out of the midst and assemble you out of the countries where i Or, It is not for us to build houses near.
3 Or, which have not walked.
2 2 Pet. 3. 4.