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operation of shaving the head was probably performed time; and then applies the razor, shaving from the top of much in the same manner as is now usual in the East, and the head downward. The instrument is generally rude, a representation of which has been given under Judges xvi. and not remarkably sharp, as compared with our own: The facility with which this operation is performed by the but in consequence of the previous handling of the head, Oriental barbers, and the soothing sensation which is ex- the hair is removed with such extreme ease that the properienced by the patient, have been described by most cess is scarcely felt, or felt only as an agreeable sensation, travellers whose experience enabled them to do so. The by the person subject to it, and who is not roused by it operator rubs the head gently and comfortably with his from the gentle slumber into which he may have been hand, moistened with water. This he does a considerable soothed by the preceding part of the operation.

CHAPTER VI.

9 And they that escape of you shall re

member me among the nations whither they 1 The judgment of Israel for their idolatry. 8 A remnant shall be saved. 11 The faithful are ex

shall be carried captives, because I am broken horted to repent their calamities.

with their whorish heart, which hath departed

from me, and with their eyes, which go a And the word of the Lord came unto me, whoring after their idols : and they shall lothe saying,

themselves for the evils which they have com2 Son of man, set thy face toward the mitted in all their abominations. 'mountains of Israel, and prophesy against 10 And they shall know that I am the them,

Lord), and that I have not said in vain that I 3 And say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear would do this evil unto them. the word of the Lord God; Thus saith the 11 9 Thus saith the Lord God; Smite Lord God to the mountains, and to the hills, *with thine hand, and stamp with thy foot, to the rivers, and to the valleys; Behold, I, and say, Alas for all the evil abominations of even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I the house of Israel ! for they shall fall by will destroy your high places.

the sword, by the famine, and by the pesti4 And your altars shall be desolate, and lence. your images shall be broken: and I will 12 He that is far off shall die of the pesticast down

your

slain men before your idols. lence; and he that is near shall fall by the 5 And I will Ölay the dead carcases of the sword; and he that remaineth and is besieged children of Israel before their idols; and I shall dic by the famine: thus will I accomwill scatter your bones round about your plish my fury upon them. altars.

13 Then shall ye know that I am the 6 In all your dwellingplaces the cities shall LORD, when their slain men shall be among be laid waste, and the high places shall be their idols round about their altars, upon desolate ; that your altars may be laid waste every high hill, in all the tops of the mounand made desolate, and your idols may be tains, and under every green tree, and under broken and cease, and your images may be every thick oak, the place where they did cut down, and your works may be abolished. offer sweet savour to all their idols.

7 And the slain shall fall in the midst of 14 So will I stretch out my hand upon you, and ye shall know that I am the LORD. them, and make the land desolate, yea, 'more

8 [ Yet will I leave a remnant, that ye desolate than the wilderness toward Diblath, may have some that shall escape the sword in all their habitations : and they shall know among the nations, when ye shall be scattered that I am the LORD. through the countries. I Chap. 36. 1. 2 01, sur images, and so verse 6.

3 Heb. give.

• Chap. 21. 17. 5 Or, desolate from the wilderness.

Verse 11. • Smile with thine hand and stamp with thy fuot.' --This was probably to smite the thigh with the band, which we know to have been an action of grief (Jer. xxxi. 19; Ezek. xxi. 12). Stamping with the foot is not elsewhere mentioned as an expression of feeling; but it probably denoted indignation. Grief with indignation are the feelings obvious to the occasion, and which the text indeed expresses.

13. Did offer sweet savour to all their idols.'-- It was a very common act of worship, in all countries, to offer incense to all descriptions of idols. We have already

spoken of incense and incense offerings under Exod. xxx.; and as a suitable illustration of the present text, which mentions the offering of incense to idols, we here introduce an engraving representing the emperor Trajan offering incense to Diana. It is copied from a bas-relief upon the arch of Constantine, many of the sculptures on which were taken from that of Trajan. This illustration is the more appropriate as Diana answered to that 'queen of heaven' (the moon), for burning incense to whom the apostate Hebrews are severely reproached by the prophets.

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CHAPTER VII.

that dwellest in the land : the time is come, 1 The final desolation of Israel. 16 The mournful

the day of trouble is near, and not the soundrepentance of them that escape. 20 The enemies ing again of the mountains. defile the sanctuary because of the Israelites' abomi- 8 Now will I shortly pour out my fury nations. 23 Under the type of a chain is shewed

upon thee, and accomplish mine anger upon their miserable captivity.

thee: and I will judge thee according to thy MOREOVER the word of the Lord came unto ways, and will recompense thee for all thine me, saying,

abominations. 2 Also, thou son of man, thus saith the 9 And mine eye shall not spare, neither Lord God unto the land of Israel ; An end, the will I have pity : I will recompense "thee end is come upon the four corners of the land. according to thy ways and thine abominations

3 Now is the end come upon thee, and I that are in the midst of thee; and ye shall will send mine anger upon thee, and will know that I am the LORD that smiteth. judge thee according to thy ways, and will 10 Behold the day, behold, it is come: the *recompense upon thee all thine abominations. morning is gone forth; the rod hath blos

4 And mine eye shall not spare thee, nei- somed, pride hath budded. ther will I have pity: but I will recompense

11 Violence is risen up into a rod of thy ways upon thee, and thine abominations wickedness: none of them shall remain, nor shall be in the midst of thee: and ye shall of their "multitude, nor of any of theirs : know that I am the LORD.

neither shall there be wailing for them. 5 Thus saith the Lord God; An evil, an 12 The time is come, the day draweth only evil, behold, is come.

near: let not the buyer rejoice, nor the seller 6 An end is come, the end is come: it mourn: for wrath is upon all the multitude 'watcheth for thee; behold, it is come.

thereof. 7 The morning is come unto thee, O thou 13 For the seller shall not return to that 1 Heb. give. . Heb. awaketh against thee. 3 Or, echo. 4 Heb. upon thee.

5 Or, tumult. 6 Or, their tumultuous persons.

which is sold, ’although they were yet alive : 20 q As for the beauty of his ornament, for the vision is touching the whole multitude he set it in majesty: but they made the images thereof, which shall not return; neither shall of their abominations and of their detestable any strengthen himself 'in 'the iniquity of his things therein: therefore have I set it far life.

from them. 14 They have blown the trumpet, even 21 And I will give it into the hands of the to make all ready: but none goeth to the strangers for a prey, and to the wicked of the battle : for my wrath is upon all the multitude

all the multitude earth for a spoil; and they shall pollute it. thereof.

22 My face will I turn also from them, 15 The sword is without, and the pesti- and they shall pollute my secret place : for lence and the famine within : he that is in the "robbers shall enter into it, and defile it. the field shall die with the sword; and he 23 | Make a chain : for the land is full of that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall bloody crimes, and the city is full of violence. devour him.

24 Wherefore I will bring the worst of the 16 9 But they that escape of them shall heathen, and they shall possess their houses : escape, and shall be on the mountains like I will also make the pomp of the strong to doves of the valleys, all of them mourning, cease; and "Stheir holy places shall be defiled. every one for his iniquity.

25 Destruction cometh ; and they shall 17 All "hands shall be feeble, and all seek peace, and there shall be none. knees shall be weak as water.

26* Mischief shall come upon mischief, and 18 They shall also "gird themselves with rumour shall be upon rumour; then shall they sackcloth, and horror shall cover them ; and seek a vision of the prophet; but the law shall shame shall be upon all faces, and baldness perish from the priest, and counsel from the upon all their heads.

ancients. 19 They shall cast their silver in the 27 The king shall mourn, and the prince streets, and their gold shall be removed : shall be clothed with desolation, and the their "silver and their gold shall not be able hands of the people of the land shall be trouto deliver them in the day of the wrath of the bled : I will do unto them after their way, LORD: they shall not satisfy their souls, nei- and according to their deserts will I judge ther fill their bowels: "because it is the them; and they shall know that I am the stumblingblock of their iniquity.

LORD. 7 Heb. though their life were yet among the living.

& Or, whose life is in his iniquity. 9 Heb. his iniquity.

13 Heb. for a separation, or, uncleanness. 14 Prov, 11. 4. Zeph. 1. 18. Ecclus. 5. 8. 15 Or, because their iniquity is their stumbling-block. 16 Or, made it unto them an unclean thing. 17 Or, burglers. 18 Or, they shall inherit their holy places. 19 Heb. cutting off.

20 Heb. with their judgments.

10 Isa, 13. 1. Jer. 6. 24.

11 Heb. go into water.

12 Isa. 15. 2, 3. Jer. 48. 37.

Verse 16. • Shall be on the mountains like doves of the young, in the palm-trees which grew in the court of the valleys.'—Newcome has, as moaning doves ;' following house in which the writer of this note resided at Baghdad; the reading of Houbigant, founded on some Greek copies. but they disappeared, as did others which had settled in This certainly makes a good sense; but so does the com- the town, during the siege of the place by Ali Pashamon reading, which therefore we see no reason to disturb. being doubtless frightened by the noise of war. The Paxton is mistaken in supposing the doves of the valleys' flight of doves, under similar circumstances, to the clefts were necessarily tame ones; for the wild ones not only and caverns of the mountains, has supplied many allusions harbour in valleys, but in the trees around and in Oriental also to the heathen poets. Thus Homer describes the cities, and even in the courts of houses. These would flight of Diana from the power of Juno's arm (Il. xxi. naturally fly to the security and quiet of the mountains, 493) — when alarmed by the noise and confusion of war, supply- • So, when the falcon wings her way above, ing the very apt comparison which the prophet employs. To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove, Two pairs of wild doves harboured and reared their

Not fated yet to die.' ---POPE.

CHAPTER VIII.

2 Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the i Ezekiel, in a vision of God at Jerusalem, 5 is

appearance of fire: from the appearance of shewed the image of jealousy, 7 the chambers of his loins even downward, fire; and from his imagery, 13 the mourners for Tummuz, 15 and the loins even upward, as the appearance of brightworshippers towards the sun. 18 God's wrath for

ness, as the colour of amber. their idolatry.

3 And he 'put forth the form of an hand, And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the and took me by a lock of mine head; and the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as spirit lifted me up between the earth and the I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah heaven, and brought me in the visions of God sat before me, that the hand of the Lord God to Jerusalem, to the door of the inner gate fell there upon me.

that looketh toward the north ; where was the

471

1 Dan. 5. 5.

seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh 12 Then said he unto me, Son of man,

hast to jealousy.

thou seen what the ancients of the house of 4 And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel do in the dark, every man in the Israel was there, according to the vision that chambers of his imagery? for they say, 'The I 'saw in the plain.

LORD seeth us not; the LORD hath forsaken 5 Then said he unto me, Son of man, the earth. lift up thine eyes now the way toward the 13 9 He said also unto me, Turn thee yet north. So I lifted up mine eyes the way again, and thou shalt see greater abominatoward the north, and behold northward at tions that they do. the gate of the altar this image of jealousy in 14 Then he brought me to the door of the

gate of the Lord's house which was toward 6 He said furthermore unto me, Son of the north ; and, behold, there sat women weepman, seest thou what they do? even the great ing for Tammuz. abominations that the house of Israel com- 15 Then said he unto me, Hast thou seen mitteth here, that I should go far off from my this, son of man? turn thee yet again, sanctuary? but turn thee yet again, and thou and thou shalt see greater abominations than

these.

the entry.

at se And he trought me to the door of the 1416 And he brought me into the inner

court; and when I looked, behold a hole in court of the Lord's house, and, behold, at the the wall.

door of the temple of the LORD, between the 8 Then said he unto me, Son of man, dig porch and the altar, were about five and twenty now in the wall: and when I had digged in men, with their backs toward the temple of the the wall, behold a door.

LORD, and their faces toward the east; and 9 And he said unto me, Go in, and be- they worshipped the sun toward the east. hold the wicked abominations that they do 17 1 Then he said unto me, Hast thou seen here.

this, O son of man? "Is it a light thing to 10 So I went in and saw; and behold the house of Judah that they commit the every form of creeping things, and abomi- abominations which they commit here? for nable beasts, and all the idols of the house of they have filled the land with violence, and Israel, pourtrayed upon the wall round about. have returned to provoke me to anger: and,

11 And there stood before them seventy lo, they put the branch to their nose. men of the ancients of the house of Israel, 18 Therefore will I also deal in fury: mine and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity : son of Shaphan, with every man his censer in and though they cry in mine ears with a loud his hand; and a thick cloud of incense went up. / voice, yet will I not hear them. 9 Chap. 1. 23. 3 Chap. 9. 9. * Or, Is there any thing lighter than to commit.

3 Chap. 5. ll, and 7. 4.

6 Prov. 1. 28. Isa. 1. 15. Jer, 11. 11. Mic. 3. 4.

Verse 2. ' Amber.'— The original (napr. hhasmalah) is rendered extpov by the Septuagint; and this was certainly the Greek name for amber, but it was also the name of a very precious metal, so called from being of the colour of amber. The question is, which of the two is intended ? The general opinion is perhaps in favour of the metal called electrum, and which we may therefore describe as being composed of fine gold alloyed with one-fifth of silver. The brilliant lustre of this compound, and its paler colour, was considered to render it more agreeable to the eye, and in other respects preferable to pure gold. We have not, however, been able to meet with one good reason why amber itself should not be here understood. That amber becomes dim when it feels the fire is no reason at all, because the prophet does not say that what he saw was amber, but of the colour of amber; and as the electrum itself derives its name from being of the colour of amber, it seems far more reasonable to suppose that the reference is to the colour of the amber itself than to the colour of that which was distinguished for being like amber. We think there can be no reason to doubt that amber was known to the Hebrews. It is found in different parts of the world, but most abundantly on the shores of the Baltic. Without inquiring whether it might not have been obtained from sources known to the Hebrews, it will be enough to shew that it might have been obtained through the Phænicians, their neighbours ; for

Herodotus expressly says that ainber was brought by that enterprising people from the northern sea, coupling which with the fact that the Baltic was always celebrated for its amber, we may gather that the Phænician traffic extended even to that remote region. But indeed amber is also found in Spain, with which country the Phænicians maintained extensive and intimate connections.

This beautiful substance is found floating on the coasts, particularly after tempests, having doubtless been detached from the shore or the submarine repositories; and it is also obtained from mines often far removed from the sea. When obtained from the latter source, the upper surface is composed of sand, under which is found a stratum of loam; below this is a bed of wood, partly entire, and partly changed into a bituminous substance, and under this occurs a stratum of an aluminous mineral in which the amber is found in lumps of various forms and sizes. This solid, hard, semi-pellucid substance is too well known to need description. On account of its beautiful yellow colour, its transparency, and the fine polish it receives, amber was anciently ranked among gems of the first class, and employed in all kinds of ornamental dress. The was and honey yellow colours were most esteemed, not only on account of their beauty, but because they are more solid than the yellowish white varieties. This therefore may explain the particular colour of amber which the prophet had in view. The high esteem in which it was

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held may be judged from Pliny's statement, that a small inner chambers and sanctuaries of the Egyptian temples, piece of wrought amber was more than equivalent to the the tombs, and mystic cells, must be obvious to any one price of a strong and robust slave. Its present uses for who has read the various descriptions and seen the reprenecklaces, bracelets, snuff-boxes, and other articles of sentations which modern travellers have supplied. The luxury, is well known; and has long been highly valued walls are covered with representations, sculptured or in the East, as it is now in this country, for mouth-pieces painted in vivid colours, of sacred animals, and of gods of smoking-pipes, for which it is admirably adapted. The represented in the human form, and under various circumvarieties of colour already mentioned are still those to stances, or in various monstrous combinations of the which the preference is given.

animal and human forms. These things now appear even 3. The seat of the image of jealousy.'— Much ingenious more conspicuously in the tombs than in the temples, perconjecture has been expended in the attempt to discover haps because the decorations of the latter have suffered what false god this image of jealousy 'represented. If more from the hand of man. And although the illustra. any particular idol be intended, it seems impossible to tion to be derived from the existing temples is abundantly ascertain what it was; but, as a mere conjecture, the opi- adequate to the elucidation of the prophetical description, nion that it represented a personification of the sun or that to be obtained from tombs is not to be regarded as moon (Baal or Ashtaroth), seems the most probable. It will something different and distinct; for we are to recollect be recollected that the Lord is often described as “ jealous? that the Egyptian tombs and temples appear to have been at the idolatries of his people, and that idols are mentioned closely connected in their origin, and that those of royal as the objects of his . jealousy; and therefore the image persons often formed in fact cells of the temple, being of jealousy' is to be understood of some idol by which the within its sacred inclosure; and there is every probability Divine jealousy was provoked. This chapter contains a and some authority for the conclusion, which is also suplively representation of the principal forms of idolatry to ported by the character of the decorations which many of which the Hebrews were addicted; and Bishop Warburton them exhibit, that they were not merely tombs, but cells for conjectures, with some reason, that the image of jealousy, the celebration of the darker mysteries and idolatries of a which introduces the description, is idolatry itself personi- most debasing superstition. A pious traveller, the Rev. W. fied and described as an idol.

Jowett, who visited Thebes, quotes the present text as fur10. Behold every form of creeping things, and abomi- nishing an exact description of the tombs found there, addnable beasts, and all the idols of the house of Israel, pour- ing, “The Israelites were but copyists, the master sketches trayed upon the wall round about.'--Here begins the being to be seen in all the ancient temples and tombs of description of the idolatries which the Hebrews borrowed Egypt.' In the following passage Mr. Salt graphically from their neighbours. This first was unquestionably enumerates in verse the forms of creeping things, abominable taken from the Egyptians. How exactly it describes the beasts, and idols, which are portrayed upon their walls :

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