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24 The Lord is my 'portion, saith my 46 All our enemies have opened their soul; therefore will I hope in him.

mouths against us. 25 The LORD is good unto them that 47 "Fear and a snare is come upon us, dewait for him, to the soul that seeketh him. solation and destruction.

26 It is good that a man should both hope 48 Mine eye runneth down with rivers of and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD. water for the destruction of the daughter of

27 It is good for a man that he bear the my people. yoke in his youth.

49 Mine eye trickleth down, and ceaseth 28 He sitteth alone and keepeth silence, not, without any intermission, because he hath borne it

upon
him.

50 Till the LORD look down, and behold 29 He putteth his mouth in the dust; if so from heaven. be there

may
be hope.

51 Mine eye affecteth *®mine heart be30 He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth cause of all the daughters of my city. him : he is filled full with reproach.

52 Mine enemies chased me sore, like a 31 For the LORD will not cast off for ever: bird, without cause.

32 But though he cause grief, yet will he 53 They have cut off my life in the dunhave compassion according to the multitude of geon, and cast a stone upon me. his mercies.

54 Waters flowed over mine head; then I 33 For he doth not afflict ''willingly nor said, I am cut off. grieve the children of men.

55 9 I called upon thy name, O Lord, 34 To crush under his feet all the prisoners out of the low dungeon. of the earth,

56 Thou hast heard my voice : hide not 35 To turn aside the right of a man before

thine ear at my breathing, at my cry. the face of the most High,

57 Thou drewest near in the day that I 36 To subvert a man in his cause, the called upon thee: thou saidst, Fear not. Lord 'approveth not.

58 O LORD, thou hast pleaded the causes 37 T Who is he 'Sthat saith, and it cometh of my soul ; thou hast redeemed my life. to pass, when the LORD commandeth it not? 59 O Lord, thou hast seen my wrong:

38 Out of the mouth of the most High pro-judge thou my cause. ceedeth not "evil and good ?

60 Thou hast seen all their vengeance and 39 Wherefore doth a living man 'com- all their imaginations against me. plain, a man for the punishment of his sins? 61 Thou hast heard their reproach, O

40 L us search and try our ways, and Lord, and all their imaginations against turn again to the LORD.

me; 41 Let us lift up our heart with our hands 62 The lips of those that rose up against untu God in the heavens.

me, and their device against me all the day. 12 We have transgressed and have re- 63 Behold their sitting down, and their belled: thou hast not pardoned.

rising up ; I am their musick. 43 Thou hast covered with anger, and per

64 Render unto them a recompence, O secuted us : thou hast slain, thou hast not | LORD, according to the work of their hands. pitied.

65 Give them *'sorrow of heart, thy curse 44 Thou hast covered thyself with a cloud, unto them. that our prayer should not pass through. 66 Persecute and destroy them in anger

45 Thou hast made us as the "offscouring from under the ''heavens of the Lord. and refuse in the midst of the people. 9 Psal. 16. 5, and 73. 26, and 119.57. Jer. 10. 16. 10 Heb. from his heart. 11 Or, a superior. 12 Or, secih nor.

18 Heb. my soul. 19 Ox, more than all.

20 Or, obstinacy of heart.

13 Psal. 33, 9.

14 Amos 3, 6,

15 Or, murm tur.

16 i Cor. 4, 13.

17 Isı, 24. 17.

21 Psal. 8. 3.

Verse 10. A bear lying in wait.'-As the bear does not, like the lion and other animals of the feline race, spring forth from its secret covert upon its prey, the fact of its lying in wait has not been so much noticed. It is true however that the bear remains in ambush in some suitable place, as under a thicket, or on the skirts of a wood, and there waits patiently till an unwary passenger, or some other victim, not only appears, but seems to be off his guard, and then steals in silence upon him. If the intended human victim discover the bear's approach, the

animal will seldom persevere in its design, but withdraws sulkily to its covert, frequently looking back as if expecting to be pursued. That the bear comes suddenly upon the unwary, without its approach having been noticed, has been frequently mentioned, but it has not so often been stated, which, however, is obvious, that it bad previously been on the watch for the favourable moment. Compare Lewis and Clarke's Travels, i. 362, with various anecdotes in the Third voyage of William Barents,' in Harris's Collection, p. 552, etc.

13. "The urrows of his quiver.'-Literally, the sons of his quiver.' It is thus frequent in Hebrew, and indeed in most Oriental languages, to call the subject, adjunct, accident, effect, etc., the son or daughter of the object, place, circumstance, or feeling. (See chap. ii. 18.) Perhaps, in the present instance, there is, as Aben Ezra conjectures, a more definite comparison of the quiver to a preg

nant woman—the arrows being then properly the sons'
of its womb. This comparison is very natural, and is not
unknown in classical poetry. So Horace (lib. i. Ode 22):
The man, who knows not guilty fear,
Nor wants the bow, nor pointed spear;
Nor needs, while innocent of heart,
The quiver, teeming with the poison’d dart.'— FRANCIS.

CHAPTER IV.

kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured

the foundations thereof. i Zion bewaileth her pitiful estate. 13 She confesseth her sins. 21 Edom is threatened. 22 Zion is com

12 The kings of the earth, and all the forted.

inhabitants of the world, would not have

believed that the adversary and the enemy How is the gold become dim ! how is the should have entered into the gates of Jerumost fine gold changed ! the stones of the salem. sanctuary are poured out in the top of every 13 ?For the sins of her prophets, and the street.

iniquities of her priests, that have shed the 2 The precious sons of Zion, comparable blood of the just in the midst of her, to fine gold, how are they esteemed as 14 They have wandered as blind men in earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the the streets, they have polluted themselves potter!

with blood, &so that men could not touch their 3 Even the 'sea monsters draw out the garments. breast, they give suck to their young ones : 15 They cried unto them, Depart ye; "it the daughter of my people is become cruel, is unclean ; depart, depart, touch not : when like the ostriches in the wilderness.

they fled away and wandered, they said among 4 The tongue of the sucking child cleaveth the heathen, They shall no more sojourn to the roof of his mouth for thirst : the young there. children ask bread, and no man breaketh it 16 The 'anger of the LORD hath divided unto them.

them; he will no more regard them : they 5 They that did feed delicately are deso- respected not the persons of the priests, they late in the streets: they that were brought up favoured not the elders. in scarlet embrace dunghills.

17 As for us, our eyes as yet failed for 6 For the 'punishment of the iniquity of our vain help: in our watching we have the daughter of my people is greater than the watched for a nation that could not save us. punishment of the sin of Sodom, that was 18 They hunt our steps, that we cannot Soverthrown as in a moment, and no hands go

in our streets : our end is near, our days stayed on her.

are fulfilled; for our end is come. 7 Her Nazarites were purer than snow, 19 Our persecutors are swifter than the they were whiter than milk, they were more eagles of the heaven : they pursued us upon ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was the mountains, they laid wait for us in the of sapphire :

wilderness. 8 Their visage is blacker than a coal ; 20 The breath of our nostrils, the they are not known in the streets: their skin anointed of the Lord, was taken in their pits, cleaveth to their bones; it is withered, it is of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall become like a stick.

live among the heathen. 9 They that be slain with the sword are 21 | Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of better than they that be slain with hunger : for Edom, that dwellest in the land of Uz; the these 'pine away, stricken through for want of cup also shall pass through unto thee : thou the fruits of the field.

shalt be drunken, and shalt make thyself 10 The hands of the pitiful women have naked. sodden their own children: they were their 22 The punishment of thine iniquity is 'meat in the destruction of the daughter of accomplished, o daughter of Zion; he will my people.

no more carry thee away into captivity : he 11 The LORD hath accomplished bis fury; will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; he hath poured out his fierce anger, and hath he will discover thy sins. . Or, iniquity.

4 Heb. darker than blackness. 5 Heb. flow out. 6 Deut. 28. 57. 2 Kings 6. 29. 7 Jer. 5. 31, and 23. 21. 3 Or, in that they could not but touch. 9 Or, ye polluted. 10 Or, face. 12 Or, thine iniquity. 13 Or, carry thee captive for thy sins.

i Or, sea-calves.

3 Gen. 19. 25.

11 Gen, 2, 7.

Verse 3. . Even the sea monsters give suck to their Their polishing was of supphire.' — This is not very young ones.'— The word here rendered sea-monsters' (139 easily understood, nor is it clear how the sense of 'to tannin) is the same that is translated 'great whales' in polish' should be assigned to the word 7 gazar. Its Gen. i., and which is there explained. It certainly in- usual meaning is to divide or intersect; and as the veins cludes all the mammiferous animals of the deep; and the thus intersect the body, and moreover present a blue apcreatures of this class suckle their young ones, and ex- pearance, which is considered beautiful, and may be comhibit the greatest attachment to them, encountering any pared in colour to the sapphire, Braunius, and, after him, danger in their defence. The cerebral hemispheres in Blayney and others, think the veins must be intended, cetaceous animals are large and well developed ; and, translating — Their veining was that of sapphires.' whether from this or other causes, they far exceed the

20. The breath of our nostrils,' etc.—This doubtless reother inhabitants of the sea in sagacity, as well as in ma

fers to the king Zedekiah, whose fiight was intercepted by ternal tenderness.

the Chaldæans. 7. 'Her Nazarites,' etc. -The word 7 nazar means Under his shadow we shall live among the heathen.' to separate, set apart, distinguish, from the common. —The word rendered heathen' (Dos goyim) means naHence it gave a title to the Nazarites, who were separated tious and peoples in the widest sense; and also in the and distinguished by a religious vow; but it also applies more restricted, of foreign nations, as distinguished from to nobles, chiefs, and others distinguished from the mass the Jews. It is probably here to be understood of ‘naof the people by their dignity or rank. The context com. tions' indefinitely; and would then suggest that the Hemonly distinguishes the sense in which the term is to be brews, in expecting to live under their king's shadow understood. In the present instance it does not so very among the nations, had hoped, to the last, that their disclearly; but it seems more properly to refer to the nobles tinct political existence, as one among the nations, under and persons delicately brought up, than to the religious their own king, would be preserved, as it had been on Nazarites.

former occasions, whatever else might happeu to them.

CHAPTER V.

11 They ravished the women in Zion, and

the maids in the cities of Judah. A pitiful complaint of Zion in prayer unto God.

12 Princes are hanged up by their hand : REMEMBER, O Lord, what is come upon us :

the faces of elders were not honoured. consider, and behold our reproach.

13 They took the young men to grind, and 2 Our inheritance is turned to strangers,

the children fell under the wood. our houses to aliens.

14 The elders have ceased from the gate, 3 We are orphans and fatherless, our the young men from their musick. mothers are as widows.

15 The joy of our heart is ceased ; our 4 We have drunken our water for money ;

dance is turned into mourning. our wood 'is sold unto us.

16 °The crown is fallen from our head : 5 'Our necks are under persecution : we woe unto us, that we have sinned ! labour, and have no rest.

17 For this our heart is faint; for these 6 We have given the hand to the Egyp- things our eyes are dim. tians, and to the Assyrians, to be satisfied 18 Because of the mountain of Zion, which with bread.

is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. 7 'Our fathers have sinned, and are not ; 19 Thou, O LORD, "remainest for ever; and we have borne their iniquities.

thy throne from generation to generation. 8 Servants have ruled over us: there is 20 Wherefore dost thou forget us for ever, none that doth deliver us out of their hand. and forsake us "so long time? 9 We gat our bread with the peril of our

21 "Turn thou us unto thee, O Lord, lives because of the sword of the wilder- and we shall be turned ; renew our days as ness.

of old. 10 Our 'skin was black like an oven be- 22 °But thou hast utterly rejected us ; cause of the 'terrible famine.

thou art very wroth against us. i Heb. cometh for price. 2 Heb, on our necks are we persecuted. 3 Or, terrors, or, storms. 6 Heb. the crown of our head is fallen. 7 Psal. 9.7, and 29. 10, and 102. 12, and 145. 13. 8 Heb. for length of days.

10 Or, For wilt thou utterly reject us:

8 Jer. 31. 29. Ezek. 18. 2.

4 Psal. 119.83.

9 Jer. 31. 18.

Verse 4. • We have drunken our water for money.'-In the East all water, except at a private well or fountain, is free; but it is so far bought, that householders, who have no supply of water close at hand, are necessarily obliged to pay persons for the labour of bringing it, as often as wanted, to their houses, unless this is done by members or servants of the family. Such payment can scarcely be supposed the present subject of complaint, since it is voluntary, and may be avoided by those who choose rather to labour than to pay the price of labour. If the prophet

speaks of Jerusalem, or of places in its neighbourhood, we know that there were no streams or rivers which fur. nished a constant and full supply of water, the most considerable being dry for a great part of the year. It appears that the supply was, in summer at least, derived from wells, fountains, and pools, which were free to the people, as appears from many passages of Scripture. The most obvious explanation of this passage is therefore to suppose that the Chaldæans took possession of those sources of supply, and required payment from the persons

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PURCHASING WATER. who applied for water. This may have been a measure Departing twenty miles from these cities, about thirty either of gain or precaution, or both: but it does appear, of our company perished for lack of water, and divers from the frequent mention of suffering from thirst, here others were overwhelmed with sand. Going somewhat and in the prophecy, that a drought at this time prevailed : further forward, we found a little mountain, at the foot and this fact will perhaps, better than anything else, sup- whereof we found water, and therefore made our abode ply the required explanation ; for the Chaldæans, or any there. The day following, early in the morning, came unto other ruling power, would naturally under such circum- us 24,000 Arabians, asking money for the water which stances take possession of the existing public supply of we had taken. We answered that we would pay nothing, water, and sell it to the mass of the people, to ensure a because it was given us by the goodness of God. Imdiminished consumption.

mediately we came to hand strokes. We gathering ourMany illustrations of the purchase of water for money, selves together on the said mountain, as in the safest and at a high price, may be found. The following, oc- place, used our camels in the stead of a bulwark, and curring in the wilderness of Sinai, is related by Ali Bey :- placed the merchants in the midst of the army, that is in

I was witness to a very disagreeable scene at this place. the midst of the camels, while we fought manfully on Forty poor mendicant pilgrims on foot had exhausted all every side. The battle continued so long that water their water, and being tormented with thirst they shed failed both us and our enemies in the space of two days. tears, and uttered most lamentable cries: but no one The Arabians compassed about the mountain, crying and could assist them, for we were in the middle of a desert, threatening that they would break in among the camels. and were obliged to keep the water which we had as a At the length to make an end of the conflict, our captain treasure. A pilgrim on horseback, who also had no

assembling the merchants, commanded a thousand and two water, bought about half a pint from an Arab for the hundred pieces of gold to be given to the Arabians, who value of five francs. I gave some to a few of the pil- when they had received the money, said that the sum of grims, but how could I quench the thirst of all these un- ten thousand pieces of gold should not satisfy them for happy people? I was obliged at last to shut my eyes and the water which we had drawn. Whereby we perceived stop my ears, to prevent my servants and myself from that they begun further to quarrel with us, and to demand becoming victims of our compassion.'

some other thing than money. Whereupon our captain In • The Navigation and Voyages of Lewes Vertomanus, gave commandment that whosoever in all our company gentelman of the citie of Rome, to the regions of Arabia, were able to bear arms should not mount upon the camels, Egypte, Persia, Syria, Ethiopia, and East India, both within but should with all expedition prepare themselves to fight. and without the river Ganges, etc. In the yeere of our The day following, in the morning, sending the camels Lord 1503, conteyning many Notable and Straunge things, before and enclosing our army, being about three hundred both Hystoricall and Naturall,' Lond. 1576; we find in in number, we met with the enemies and gave the onset. the 10th Chapter Of the Cities of Sodoma and Gomorrha,' In this conflict we lost only a man and a woman, and had a passage very strikingly illustrative of this text, as well none other damage: we slew of the Arabians a thousand as of the offer of the Israelites to the king of Edom :-'If and five hundred, whereof you need not marvel, if you I and my cattle drink thy water, then I will pay for it.' consider that they are unarmed, and wear only a thin loose (Num. xx. 19.) In fact the adventure occurred very vesture, and are beside almost naked; their horses also nearly in the same neighbourhood, being some twenty being as evil furnished, and without saddles or other furmiles to the south of the Dead Sea.

niture.'

457

Our wood is sold unto us.'—This is less remarkable places. The Jews allege a regulation of Joshua to this than that, as the complaint implies, their wood should not effect. Thus they had nothing to pay for wood, unless previously have been sold to them. It appears, however, they saw fit to employ others to perforin for them the ser

vice of cutting the wood and bringing it to their homes. It may therefore be conjectured that the Chaldæans, coming from a country where wood was scarce and costly, did not understand this state of things, but appropriated the forests as royal property, and obliged the remaining inhabitants to pay for the wood they required. Some conjecture that this verse, if not the whole chapter, applies to the condition of the Jews in captivity at Babylon. If so, they most certainly had to pay, for the wood they needed there, a price which must have seemed to them enormous. The condition of that country with respect to wood seems, from the ancient historians, to have been then much the same as at present. The fuel chiefly consists of brushwood, with which the rivers are in some parts very thickly lined. It is cut down by men who make this their employment, and who convey it to the towns for sale in clumsy boats laden half-mast high. On account of the distance from which it is brought, and the time and labour employed in cutting it down and transporting it, such a price is required from the consumer as renders it, although very sparingly used, one of the most costly articles of domestic consumption in the country. It is sold hy weight, and the sellers are notorious for fraudulence in their dealings.

13. The children fell under the wood.-In Palestine fire-wood is usually carried to the towns on the backs of mules and donkeys. Such doubtless was the case in ancient times, and ihat children should be employed in the labour of carrying heavy burdens of wood was therefore a sign of poverty and degradation. “Children'implies young people, whether male or female. It is not now unusual in Western Asia-nor indeed in Europe, to see young women coming from the woods with enormous faggots upon their heads, but in the East it strikes one more unpleasingly than in Europe, as asses are so generally employed for such uses. Mr. Paxton, in his Letters on Palestine, writes, near Jerusalem :-'We met a number of females with large parcels of wood on their backs making their way towards the city. In some cases they must have to carry it from six to ten miles. What a labour for females! It is now as in the days of old, the women and children sink under the wood. In fact in these countries, as well as in Egypt, the duty of collecting fuel, whether wood or animal duny, falls upon the women and children of the peasantry, who are too poor to buythough when the fuel becomes an object of sale, men employ themselves in obtaining it, with the aid of asses.

Hence the text seems to imply that the children of nobles GIRL BEARING Wood.

were reduced to employments in which only the children that the woods in Israel were anciently common to the of the poorest peasantry had been hitherto employed. We inhabitants; so that those persons who lived in towns or were ourselves much struck in journeying through the villages, the vicinity of which did not supply them with north-eastern part of Asia Minor, frequently to see at the sufficient wood for fuel or other purposes, might obtain same moment women with immense loads of wood upon what they required from the common forests and wooded their heads, and men sauntering about-knitting socks!

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