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38 They shall roar together like lions : they graven images : and through all her land the shall 2°yell as lions' whelps.

wounded shall groan. 39 In their heat I will make their feasts, 53 Though Babylon should inount up to and I will make them drunken, that they may heaven, and though she should fortify the rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not height of her strength, yet from me shall wake, saith the LORD.

spoilers come unto her, saith the LORD. 40° I will bring them down like lambs to | 54 A sound of a cry cometh from Babylon, the slaughter, like rams with he goats. and great destruction from the land of the

41 How is Sheshach taken! and how is the Chaldeans : praise of the whole earth surprised ! how is 55 Because the Lord hath spoiled BabyBabylon become an astonishment among the lon, and destroyed out of her the great voice; nations!

when her waves do roar like great waters, a 42 The sea is come up upon Babylon : she noise of their voice is uttered : is covered with the multitude of the waves 56 Because the spoiler is come upon her, thereof.

even upon Babylon, and her mighty men are 43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, taken, every one of their bows is broken: for and a wilderness, a land wherein no man the Lord God of recompences shall surely dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass requite. thereby.

57 And I will make drunk her princes, and 44 And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and her wise men, her captains, and her rulers, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which her mighty men : and they shall sleep a perhe hath swallowed up: and the nations shall petual sleep, and not wake, saith the king, not flow together any more unto him: yea, the whose name is the LORD of hosts. wall of Babylon shall fall.

58 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; ?"The 45 My people, go ye out of the midst of broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly her, and deliver ye every man his soul from broken, and her high gates shall be burned the fierce anger of the LORD.

with fire; and the people shall labour in vain, 46 And lest your heart faint, and ye fear and the folk in the fire, and they shall be for the rumour that shall be heard in the weary. land; a rumour shall both come one year, and 59 | The word which Jeremiah the proafter that in another year shall come a rumour, phet commanded Seraialı the son of Neriah, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. the son of Maaseiah, when he went with

47 Therefore, behold, the days come, that I Zedekiah the king of Judah into Babylon in will * 'do judgment upon the graven images of the fourth year of his reign. And this Seraiah Babylon : and her whole land shall be con- was a o'quiet prince. founded, and all her slain shall fall in the 60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all the midst of her.

evil that should come upon Babylon, cren all 48 Then the heaven and the earth, and all these words that are written against Babylon. that is therein, shall sing for Babylon : for 61 And Jeremial said to Seraiah, When the spoilers shall come unto her from the thou comest to Babylon, and shalt see, and north, saith the LORD.

shalt read all these words ; 49 'As Babylon hath caused the slain of 62 Then shalt thou say, O Lord, thou hast Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain spoken against this place, to cut it off, that of all 23 the earth.

none shall remain in it, neither man nor beast, 50 Ye that have escaped the sword, go but that it shall be desolate for ever. away, stand not still: remember the Lord 63 And it shall be, when thou hast made afar off, and let Jerusalem come into your an end of reading this book, that thou shalt mind.

bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst 51 We are confounded, because we have of Euphrates : heard reproach: shame hath covered our 64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall Babylon faces : for strangers are come into the sanc- sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I tuaries of the Lord's house.

will bring upon her : and they shall be weary. 52 Wherefore, behold, the days come, saith Th

Thus far are the words of Jeremiah. the LORD, that I will do judgment upon

her 20 Or, shake themselves.

22 Or, both Babylon is to fall, 0 ye slain of Israel, and with Babylon, &c. 23 Or, the country. 24 Or, The walls of broad Babylon.

26 Or, on the behalf of. 27 Or, prince of Menucha, or, chief chamberlain.

21 Heb, visit upon.

25 Or, made naked.

28 Heb. desolations.

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Verse 13. Thou that dwellest

upon many waters.'-The

(Cyrop. vii. 5) is somewhat different, but agrees in every great river Euphrates, the neighbouring lakes and essential point. Herodotus adds that, if the Babylonians marshes, with the numerous canals

of communication and had been before apprised of the intention of Cyrus, or if irrigation, give a striking propriety to this allusion to its they had learned at the moment what he was doing, they many waters.'

might not only have saved themselves, but might have 25. Make thee a burnt mountain.'--See the conclusion made the stratagem of the Persians recoil upon their own of the statement concerning the Mujelibe, under Gen. xi. 4. heads; for, had they closed the gates towards the river,

30. ^ The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, and ascended the walls which ran along it, the besiegers ete.-When the king of Babylon heard of the approach of would have been taken as in a net. But the Persians the army of Cyrus, he marched out to meet and give him came upon them quite unexpectedly, and from a quarter battle; but was defeated with little difficulty, and re- whence no danger was apprehended. All this was as the treated to Babylon. From that time the Babylonians prophets had foretold long before Cyrus was born. They

forbore to fight,' and remained in their strong city had said that the city should be taken unexpectedly, on a during the two years in which it was besieged by the night of festivity; that the inhabitants should be then Persians. Relying upon the high and thick walls, and drunk or asleep (verse 57); that the gates should not be having stored up provisions for many years, besides what shut (Isa. xlv. 1); and that at the same time the stream might be produced within the walls of the town itself, of the great river should be exhausted. How convincing they seem to have waited the result with little appre- is all this! Many other most exact agreements might be hension.

pointed out; but, as our limits do not permit this, we may They have burned her dwelling places.'-In the recommend it to our readers, as a most interesting study, short speech which Cyrus is reported by Xenophon to to compare the details of the prophecies concerning the have addressed to his troops before they entered the bed taking of Babylon with the narratives of the event which of the Euphrates, he alludes to their principal danger, are given by Xenophon and Herodotus. which appears to have been regarded with apprehension, 39. Drunken,' etc.- We bave just explained that there of being assaulted by missiles from the house-tops as they was a festival on the night when the city was taken. The passed through the streets. He said that, if the inha- speech of Cyrus shews that his anticipations corresponded bitants retired to the house-tops, the best course would be with the prophetic predictious. He reminded his soldiers to assail their doors by setting them on fire. He observed that the people against whom they now acted were the that the porches were very combustible, being made of same whom they had formerly defeated, when they were palm-wood and coated with bitumen; and, as the army sober, armed, and in battle array; and how much more was supplied with torches and tow in abundance, it would easy a victory might now be expected, at a time when be easy to set the houses in flames; so that the inha- many of them were asleep, many drunk, and all in conbitants must either run from them or be consumed in fusion. them. This plan was probably carried into effect, and to 42. The sea is come,' etc.-We are again to underthis the prophet may seem to refer.

stand the Euphrates. This is true now, as we have 31. One post shall run to meet another ....to shew the shewn in the note ou Isa. xiv. 23. In connection with king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end.'—' From this subject, our present engraving of the Mujelibe will end to end, is Blayney's translation. The prediction be considered of peculiar interest, as it shews how the river clearly means that couriers should run from different comes up on Babylon, and overflows it so extensively as parts, and so fall in with one another, all of them bring- to form large 'pools of water' even around that dising intelligence to the king, that the city was taken at tant heap of ruin. The Birs Nemrud is shewn under the the point from which they started. This is to be ex. same circumstances in the cut given in Gen. x. plained by a reference to the vast extent of the city, which 58. The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken.' Herodotus (who was a great traveller) says exceeded that - These walls were so broad that, according to the ancient of any city he had ever seen (Clio, 180). In another historians, six chariots could be driven on them abreast, place (191) he states that he was informed by some of or a chariot with four horses might pass and turn upon the inhabitants, that, owing to the great extent of Ba- them. They existed as walls for above a thousand years bylon, those who dwelt in the outskirts were taken after this prophecy was delivered; and long after the prisoners by the Persians, before the people in the centre sentence of extermination had been pronounced upon them. of the town knew that the place was taken.

They were still numbered among the seven wonders of 36. I will dry up her sea.' – The Euphrates must be the world. But now they have utterly disappeared, acmeant by the sea, that title being frequently applied in cording to this prediction—strong as they were, vast as Scripture to large rivers, such as the Nile and Euphrates. was the mass of materials which they contained, no trace We are doubtless to understand this as one of several of them can now be discovered. All accounts agree,' allusions to the remarkable stratagem by which the city says Mr. Rich, ‘in the height of the walls, which was fifty was at last taken by the Persians, after they had vainly cubits, having been reduced to these dimensions, from the wasted two years in the siege. To understand this, how- prodigious height of three hundred and fifty feet, by ever, it should be premised that the Euphrates ran through Darius Hystaspes after the rebellion of the town, in the middle of the city, and that not only was the city order to render it less defensible. I have not been forwalled all round towards the open country, but also along tunate enough to discover the least trace of any part of each side of the river. Cyrus was informed that a great the ruins at Hillah, which is rather an unaccountable cirannual festival was to be kept in the town, when the in- cumstance, considering that they survived the final ruin habitants were accustomed to spend the night in all of the town, long after they had served as an enclosure manner of debauchery and drunkenness (see verses 39, for a park; in which comparatively perfect state St. 57, and ch. 1. 24), and he thought this a favourable oppor- Jerome informs us they remained in his time.' Calmet tunity to surprise them. He therefore made a distribu- and other older interpreters suppose that the prophecy was tion of the whole army, placing one part above the city accomplished by the act of Darius, to which Rich referswhere the river entered, and another below, where it and that, no doubt, would have been sufficieut to bear out came forth ; giving directions that, as soon as the river the text; but we now see how far more complete and should appear fordable, they were to enter its bed at both literal the accomplishment has been. There is every ends. Towards evening he opened the great dam of the reason to think, not only from the testimony of Rich, but trenches communicating with the lake, by which means of many other travellers, that the walls are virtually exthe stream was diverted from its proper course, and the tinct. Captain Frederick, of whose journey it was the channel soon became fordable. The Persians then entered principal object to search for remains of the wall and by the bed of the river, the water being little more than ditch by which this great city was enclosed, states that knee-deep, and took the city by surprise. This is the neither of these have been seen by any modern traveller. account of Herodotus (Clio, 191): that of Xenophon All my inquiries among the Arabs,' he adds, 'on this

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subject, completely failed in producing the smallest effect. Within the space of twenty-one miles in length along the banks of the Euphrates, and twelve miles across it in breadth, I was unable to perceive anything that could admit of my imagining that either a wall or a ditch had existed within this extensive area. If any remains do exist of the walls, they must have been of greater circumference than is allowed by modern geographers. I may possibly have been deceived; but I spared no pains to prevent it. I never was employed in riding and walking less than eight hours for six successive days, and upwards of twelve on the seventh.'

Major Keppel relates that he and the party who accompanied him, “in common with other travellers, had totally failed in discovering any trace of the city walls; and he adds, • The Divine predictions against Babylon have been so literally fulfilled in the appearance of the ruins, that I am disposed to give the fullest signification to the words of Jeremiah, — The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly

broken.' It is not after this to be expected that the utmost research will be rewarded with the discovery of more than a few detached fragments of this ancient work. Mr. Buckingham, who, in his Truvels in Mesopotamia, has a chapter of sixty pages, entitled Search after the Walls of Babylon,' was, after a long and fruitless search, only enabled to discover, on the eastern boundary of the ruins, on the summit of an oval mound from seventy to eighty feet in height, and from three to four hundred feet in circumference, ó A mass of solid wall about thirty feet in length by twelve to fifteen in thickness, yet evidently once of much greater dimensions each way, the work being in its present state broken and incomplete in every part.' This is the only even hypothetical claim that has been made to the discovery of any portion of the wall, and it appears to us entirely improbable that this piece of wall upon the top of a detached oval mound could ever have formed part of the broad walls of Babylon.'

put out.

CHAPTER LII.

2 And he did that which was evil in the i Zedekiah rebelleth. 4 Jerusalem is besieged and cyes of the Lord, according to all that Jetaken. 8 Zedekiah's sons killed, and his own eyes

hojakim had done. 12 Nebuzar-adan burneth and spoileth the 3 For through the anger of the LORD it city. 24 He carrieth away the captives. ` 31 Evil

came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, till merodach advanceth Jehoiachin.

he had cast them out from his presence, that ZEDEKIAII was 'one and twenty years old Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Bawhen he began to reign, and he reigned bylon. eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's 4 | And it came to pass in the ninth year name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth of Libnah.

day of the month, that Nebuchadrezzar king 1 2 Kings 24. 18. & Heb. reigned.

3 2 Kings 25. 1. Chap. 39. 1.

ment upon

of Babylon came, he and all his army, against the house of the LORD, and the bases, and Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and built the brasen sea that was in the house of the forts against it round about.

LORD, the Chaldeans brake, and carried all 5 So the city was besieged unto the eleventh the brass of them to Babylon. year of king Zedekiah.

18 The caldrons also, and the shovels, 6 And in the fourth month, in the ninth and the snuffers, and the "bowls, and the day of the month, the famine was sore in the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith city, so that there was no bread for the people they ministered, took they away; of the land.

19 And the basons, and the 'firepans, and 7 Then the city was broken up, and all the bowls, and the caldrons, and the candlethe men of war fled, and went forth out of the sticks, and the spoons, and the cups ; that city by night by the way of the gate between which was of gold in gold, and that which was the two walls, which was by the king's garden; of silver in silver, took the captain of the (now the Chaldeans were by the city round guard away. about :) and they went by the way of the plain. 20 The two pillars, one sea, and twelve

8 9 But the army of the Chaldeans pur- brasen bulls that were under the bases, which sued after the king, and overtook Zedekiah king Solomon had made in the house of the in the plains of Jericho ; and all his army was Lord: the brass of all these vessels was scattered from him.

without weight. 9 Then they took the king, and carried 21 And concerning the ''pillars, the height him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah of one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a in the land of Hamath ; where he gave judg- fillet of twelve cubits did compass it; and him.

the thickness thereof was four fingers : it was 10 And the king of Babylon slew the sons hollow. of Zedekiah before his eyes : he slew also all 22 And a chapiter of brass was upon it; the princes of Judah in Riblah.

and the height of one chapiter was five cubits, 11 Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah ; with network and pomegranates upon the and the king of Babylon bound' him in 'chains, chapiters round about, all of brass. The and carried him to Babylon, and put him in second pillar also and the pomegranates were Oprison till the day of his death.

like unto these. 12 | Now in the fifth month, in the tenth 23 And there were ninety and six pomeday of the month, which was the nineteenth granates on a side; and all the pomegrayear of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, nates upon the network were an hundred round came Nebuzar-adan, " 'captain of the guard, about. which 'served the king of Babylon, into Jeru- 24 | And the captain of the guard took salem,

Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the 13 And burned the house of the LORD, second priest, and the three keepers of the and the king's house ; and all the houses of ''door : Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great 25 He took also out of the city an eunuch, men, burned he with fire :

which had the charge of the men of war; and 14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, seven men of them that ''were near the king's that were with the captain of the guard, brake person, which were found in the city; and down all the walls of Jerusalem round about. the ''principal scribe of the host, who mustered

15 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain of the the people of the land ; and threescore men guard carried away captive certain of the of the people of the land, that were found in poor of the people, and the residue of the the midst of the city. people that remained in the city, and those 26 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of the that fell away, that fell to the king of Ba- guard took them, and brought them to the bylon, and the rest of the multitude.

king of Babylon to Riblah. 16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the 27 And the king of Babylon smote them, guard left certain of the poor of the land for and put them to death in Riblah in the land vinedressers and for husbandmen.

of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away 17 1 Also the ""pillars of brass that were in captive out of his own land.

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4 Heb. blinded.

5 Or, fetters.
6 Heb. house of the wards.

7 Or, chief marshal. 8 Heb. chief of the erecutioners, or, slaughtermen. And so vers. 14, &c. 9 Heb. stood before.

10 Chap. 27. 19. 1 Or, instruments to remove the ashes.

12 Or, basins.
13 Or, censers.

14 Heb. their brass. 15 | Kings 7. 15. 2 Kings 25. 17. 2 Chron. 3. 15. 16 Heb. thread. 17 Heb. ihreshold, 18 Heb. saw the face of the king. 19 Or, scribe of the captain of the host.

28 1 This is the people whom Nebuchad- king of Judah, in the twelfth month, in the rezzar carried away captive: in the seventh five and twentieth day of the month, that year three thousand Jews and three and Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the first twenty :

year of his reign lifted up the head of Jehoia29 In the eighteenth year of Nebuchad- chin king of Judah, and brought him forth rezzar he carried away captive from Jeru

out of prison, salem eight hundred thirty and two oper- 32 And spake 'kindly unto him, and set sons:

his throne above the throne of the kings that 30 In the three and twentieth year of were with him in Babylon, Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzar-adan the captain 33 And changed his prison garments: and of the guard carried away captive of the he did continually eat bread before him all Jews seven hundred forty and five persons : the days of his life. all the persons were four thousand and six 34 And for his diet, there was a continual hundred.

diet given him of the king of Babylon, "every 31 | And it came to pass in the seven and day a portion until the day of his death, all thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin the days of his life. 21 Feb. good things with him.

12 Heb. the matter of the day in his dvy.

20 Heb, souls.

[APPENDIX, No. 66.]

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