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God of Israel ; As mine anger and my fury Pray for us unto the Lord our God : and hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants according unto all that the Lord our God of Jerusalem ; so shall my fury be poured shall say, so declare unto us, and we will forth upon you,



shall enter into do it. Egypt: and ye shall be an execration, and an 21 And now I have this day declared it to astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; you ; but ye have not obeyed the voice of the and ye shall see this place no more.

LORD your God, nor any thing for the which 19 1 The Lord hath said concerning you, he hath sent me unto you. O ye remnant of Judah; Go ye not into 22 Now therefore know certainly that ye Egypt: know certainly that I have ‘admo- shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by nished you this day.

the pestilence, in the place whither ye desire 20 For 'ye dissembled in your hearts, when to go and to sojourn. ye sent me unto the LORD your God, saying,

4 Heb. testified against you.

5 Or, you have used deceit against your souls.

Verse 16. The sword...shall overtake you there in the after, by the Babylonians. We shall see this more clearly land of Egypt.This and the other denunciations were presently. fulfilled when Egypt was invaded and ravaged, not long

throne upon


left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son 1 Johanan, discrediting Jeremiah's prophecy, carrieth

of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Jeremiah and others into Egypt. 8 Jeremiah pro

Baruch the son of Neriah. phesieth by a type the conquest of Egypt by the 7 So they came into the land of Egypt: Babylonians.

for they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: And it came to pass, that when Jeremiah had thus came they even to Tahpanhes. made an end of speaking unto all the people 8 | Then came the word of the Lord unto all the words of the LORD their God, for Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, saying, which the LORD their God had sent him to 9 Take great stones in thine hand, and them, even all these words,

hide them in the clay in the brickkiln, which 2 Then spake Azariah the son of Hoshaiah, is at the entry of Pharaoh's house in Tahand Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the panhes, in the sight of the men of Judah ; proud men, saying unto Jeremiah, Thou 10 And say unto them, Thus saith the speakest falsely: the LORD our God hath not LORD of hosts, the God of Israel ; Behold, I sent thee to say, Go not into Egypt to sojourn will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the king there :

of Babylon, my servant, and will set his 3 But Baruch the son of Neriah setteth

these stones that I have hid ; and thee on against us, for to deliver us into the he shall spread his royal pavilion over them. hand of the Chaldeans, that they might put 11 And when he cometh, he shall smite us to death, and carry us away captives into the land of Egypt, and deliver 'such as are Babylon.

for death to death ; and such as are for cap4 So Johanan the son of Kareah, and all tivity to captivity ; and such as are for the the captains of the forces, and all the people, sword to the sword. obeyed not the voice of the LORD, to dwell in 12 And I will kindle a fire in the houses the land of Judah.

of the gods of Egypt; and he shall burn 5 But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all them, and carry them away captives : and he the captains of the forces, took all the remnant shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as of Judah, that were returned from all nations, a shepherd putteth on his garment; and he whither they had been driven, to dwell in the shall go forth from thence in peace. land of Judah;

13 He shall break also the 'images of 6 Even men, and women, and children, and *Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; the king's daughters, and every person that and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard had shall he burn with fire. · Chap. 15. 2. Zech. 11. 9. 2 Heb. statues, or, standing images.

3 Or, the house of the sun.

Verse 10, I will send ... Nebuchadrezzar.'—The histo- so, when that service had terminated in this unprofitable rical event to which the present and several other prophe- result, he marched his army into Egypt, which was then cies refer may thus be stated : Soon after Nebuchadnezzar in a state of such deplorable disorder as promised him an had completed the ruin of the Hebrew nation, he turned easy conquest, and an ample indemnity for his recent dishis attention towards Tyre. That rich and powerful city appointment. What opposition he met with, or what held out against him for thirteen years, and, when at last arrangement he made on withdrawing finally from the taken by assault, he found no reward for what Ezekiel country, is not certainly known. But it is certain that he calls his service against Tyre, as the inhabitants, fore- ravaged the country from one end to the other, commitseeing the result, had previously removed all their valu- ting much devastation, and slaying great numbers of the able property to the neighbouring island, on which they people, and that he finally returned with an immense afterwards founded that new Tyre which ultimately rose booty, which probably formed no small part of the treato an eminence of power and wealth not inferior to that sure he expended in his magnificent improvements and of the old city which had been destroyed. But as the great undertakings at Babylon. See L'Art de Vérifier les Lord had, by his prophets, promised to give the spoils of Dates, ii. 359; Universal History, ii. 88; and Hales's Egypt to Nebuchadrezzar for his service against Tyre, | Analysis, ii. 454.


other gods in the land of Egypt, whither ye 1 Jeremiah expresseth the desolation of Judah for their

be gone to dwell, that ye might cut youridolatry. 11 He prophesieth their destruction, who

selves off, and that ye might be a curse and commit idolatry in Egypt. 15 The obstinacy of the a reproach among all the nations of the earth ? Jews. 20 Jeremiah threateneth them for the same, 9 Have ye forgotten the 'wickedness of 29 and for a sign prophesieth the destruction of your fathers, and the wickedness of the kings Egypt.

of Judah, and the wickedness of their wives, The word that came to Jeremiah concerning and your own wickedness, and the wickedness all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, of your wives, which they have committed in which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jeruand at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, salem ? saying,

10 They are not 'humbled even unto this 2 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God day, neither have they feared, nor walked in of Israel ; Ye have seen all the evil that I my law, nor in my statutes, that I set before have brought upon Jerusalem, and upon all you and before your fathers. the cities of Judah ; and, behold, this day 11 | Therefore thus saith the LORD of they are a desolation, and no man dwelleth hosts, the God of Israel ; Behold, 'I will set therein,

my face against you for evil, and to cut off 3 Because of their wickedness which they all Judah. have committed to provoke me to anger, in 12 And I will take the remnant of Judah, that they went to burn incense, and to serve that have set their faces to go into the land other gods, whom they knew not, neither they, of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all ye, nor your fathers.

be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; 4 Howbeit I sent unto you all my servants they shall even be consumed by the sword the prophets, rising, early and sending them, and by the famine : they shall die, from the saying, Oh, do not this abominable thing that least even unto the greatest, by the sword and I hate.

by the famine : and they shall be an execra5 But they hearkened not, nor inclined tion, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a their ear to turn from their wickedness, to reproach. burn no incense unto other gods.

13 For I will punish them that dwell in 6 Wherefore my fury and mine anger was the land of Egypt, as I have punished Jerupoured forth, and was kindled in the cities of salem, by the sword, by the famine, and by Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem ; and the pestilence : they are wasted and desolate, as at this day. 14 So that none of the remnant of Judah,

* Therefore now thus saith the Lord, the which are gone into the land of Egypt to God of hosts, the God of Israel ; Wherefore sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that commit ye this great evil against your souls, they should return into the land of Judah, to to cut off from you man and woman, child the which they 'have a desire to return to and suckling, 'out of Judah, to leave you dwell there : for none shall return but such none to remain;

as shall escape. 8 In that ye provoke me unto wrath with 15 | Then all the men which knew that the works of your hands, burning incense unto their wives had burned incense unto other 1 Heb. out of the midst of Judah. 2 Heb. wickednesses, or, punishments, &c.

Ileb. lift up their soul.

3 Heb. contrite.

Amos 9. 4.

gods, and all the women that stood by, a great nor walked in his law, nor in his statutes, nor multitude, even all the people that dwelt in in his testimonies; therefore this evil is hapthe land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jere- pened unto you, as at this day. miah, saying,

24 Moreover Jeremiah said unto all the 16 As for the word that thou hast spoken people, and to all the women, Hear the word unto us in the name of the LORD, we will not of the LORD, all Judah that are in the land hearken unto thee.

of Egypt : 17 But we will certainly do whatsoever 25 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to of Israel, saying; Ye and your wives have burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and both spoken with your mouths, and fulfilled to pour out drink offerings unto her, as we with your hand, saying, We will surely perhave done, we, and our fathers, our kings, form our vows that we have vowed, to burn and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour in the streets of Jerusalem : for then had we out drink offerings unto her : ye will surely plenty of "victuals, and were well, and saw accomplish your vows, and surely perform no evil.

your vows. 18 But since we left off to burn incense to 26 Therefore hear ye the word of the the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink LORD, all Judah that dwell in the land of offerings unto her, we have wanted all things, Egypt; Behold, I have sworn by my great and have been consumed by the sword and by name, saith the Lord, that my name shall no the famine.

more be named in the mouth of any man of 19 'And when we burned incense to the Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, The queen of heaven, and poured out drink offer- Lord God livetlı. ings unto her, did we make her cakes to 27 Behold, I will watch over them for evil, worship her, and pour out drink offerings unto and not for good : and all the men of Judah her, without our Tomen ?

that are in the land of Egypt shall be con20 | Then Jeremiah said unto all the sumed by the sword and by the famine, until

to the and there be an end of them. all the people which had given him that 28 Yet a small number that escape the answer, saying,

sword shall return out of the land of Egypt 21 The incense that ye burned in the into the land of Judah, and all the remnant cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jeru- of Judah, that are gone into the land of salem, ye, and your fathers, your kings, and Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose your princes, and the people of the land, did words shall stand, 'mine, or their's. not the LORD remember them, and came it 29 | And this shall be a sign unto you, not into his mind ?

saith the LORD, that I will punish you in this 22 So that the LORD could no longer bear, place, that ye may know that my words shall because of the evil of your doings, and be- surely stand against you for evil : cause of the abominations which

have com-

30 Thus saith the Lord; Behold, I will mitted ; therefore is your land a desolation, give Pharaoh-hophra king of Egypt into the and an astonishment, and a curse, without an hand of his enemies, and into the hand of inhabitant, as at this day.

them that seek his life ; as I gave

Zedekiah 23 Because ye have burned incense, and king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadbecause ye have sinned against the Lord, rezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that and have not obeyed the voice of the LORD, I sought his life. Or, frame of heaven.

7 Chap. 7. 18.

11 Heb. from me or from them.

8 Heb. bread.

9 Chap. 7. 18.

10 Or, husbands.

Verse 1. Migdol!-A place of this name is mentioned in Exod. xiv. 2, as situate near the Red Sea; but that does not appear to be the place here intended. The Dame . Migdol signifies a tower, and may have been common to several places distinguished by a conspicuous object of that kind. We may very fairly presume the present town to have been the Magdolus mentioned by Herodotus, Hecatæus, and others, and which Antoninus fixes at the entrance of Egypt from Palestine, about twelve miles from Pelusium. This was too far distant from the Red Sea to be in the route of the Israelites when depart

ing from Egypt; but its situation in the neighbourhood of Tahpanhes, or Daphnæ, and its distance from Judea, favour the supposition of its being the present Migdol. Bochart, who adopts this opinion, observes that, under the determination suggested, we find the places to be named exactly in the order of their distance from Judea : first, Migdol, or Magdolus; secondly, Tahpanhes, or Daphnæ; thirdly, Noph, or Memphis; and, lastly, the district of Pathros, or Thebais._See Blayney's note on this verse.

The country of Pathros.'-It will be observed that this country of Bathros' is in this verse distinguished from the land of Egypt,' properly so called. The latter enemies, etc.—This Pharaoh-hophra was unquestionably term appears to denote generally, in Scripture, the whole the Apries of the Greek historians. He was the grandof Lower Egypt, which was the part of the country best son of Necho, and began his reign about the same time as known to the Hebrews, but of which the Delta, separately Zedekiah in Judæa, and reigned twenty-five years. His taken, is sometimes called Rahab. Then the country of tyrannical disposition raised discontents among the people, Pathros' appears to answer to Upper Egypt, or that which broke out into an open revolt of the army, which southern part of the country which the Greeks called imagined that a disastrous expedition against Cyrene, in Thebais, from Thebes its ancient capital. The name which many perished, had been purposely planned for appears to be derived from that of Pathrus, the son of their destruction—that, freed from them, he might tyranMizraim, by whom it was probably first peopled. That nize without control over the rest of his subjects. This imPathros was Upper Egypt appears to be confirmed by pression produced a general defection. The king sent Ptolemy's mention of a city called Pathyris not far from Amasis to pacify the revolters; but they saluted this Thebes, as well as from the Nomus Phaturites of Pliny, popular person as king, and persuaded him to put himwhich, from its position in his list, must have been one of self at the head of their cause. He did so; and, in the the nomes of the Thebais. Hist. Nat. v. 9.

neighbourhood of Memphis, with an army of native 17. "To burn incense unto the queen of heaven.'—See the Egyptians, defeated a body of 30,000 foreign mercenaries note on chap. vii. 18.

in the pay of Apries. The king himself being taken by 19. Without our men.'—This clearly shews that it is the the conquerors, Amasis wished to spare his life; but the women who here speak, and who, being more particularly people were implacable in their vengeance, and he was addicted to the reprobated worship, take upon themselves obliged to give him up into the hands of those who to answer. That at least this latter part of the answer is sought his life,' by whom he was strangled. That Nebutheirs, is clear from the context, which states that the chadnezzar appeared in Egypt during these troubles is women as well as the men answered Jeremiah, and that very evident; but the precise state of the contest when he he rejoined to both. Indeed, that the men had been par- came, and the part which Apries and Amasis took, with ticipators in their crime had been stated by Jeremiah him- respect to this foreign enemy, or the manner in which self, in ch. vii. If therefore we give the first part of this Nebuchadnezzar acted towards them, are points involved answer to the men, we see that they justified the idolatrous in uncertainty. However, from the fact that Amasis was act by their alleged experience of its benefits; while the left on the throne, as compared with dates and small cirwomen adduce the concurrence of their men, who alone cumstances, it seems probable that the Babylonians ad. had a legal right to control them, as an adequate justifi- vanced towards Egypt soon after the outbreak of the cation of their conduct. This appeal to the concurrence revolt; and that Apries, not being able, in the state of his of the men obtains the more force when we consider that, affairs, to make a stand against him, withdrew into Upper by the law of Moses (Num. xxx.), the men had an inde. Egypt. It would also appear that Nebuchadnezzar, when pendent power of binding themselves by any religious he withdrew after having ravaged the country, left Amavow or obligation; whereas the vows of women were sis in the possession of the kingdom-according to the of no force without the consenting knowledge of the father plan which he had repeatedly followed in Judæa; and or husband, and whose consent was presumed if he did that Apries then returned to Lower Egypt, to make one not at the time make known his disapproval.

grand effort for the recovery of his crown, with the result 30. ‘I will give Pharaoh-hophra... into the hands of his which we have already stated.

the Lord hath added grief to my sorrow;

I 1 Baruch being dismayed, 4 Jeremiah instructeth and

fainted in my sighing, and I find no rest. comforteth him.

4 Thus shalt thou say unto him, The

LORD saith thus ; Behold, that which I have The word that Jeremiah the prophet spake built will I break down, and that which I unto Baruch the son of Neriah, when he had have planted I will pluck up, even this whole written these words in a book at the mouth of land. Jeremiah, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the 5 And seekest thou great things for thyson of Josiah king of Judah, saying,

self? seek them not: for, behold, I will bring 2 Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, evil upon all flesh, saith the LORD: but thy unto thee, O Baruch ;

life will I give unto thee 'for a prey in all 3 Thou didst say, Woe is me now! for places whither thou goest.

1 Chap. 39. 18.


the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which 1 Jeremiah prophesieth the overthrow of Pharaoh's

Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote in army at Euphrates, 13 and the conquest of Egypt the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah by Nebuchadrezzar. 27 He comforteth Jacob in king of Judah. their chastisement.

3 Order ye the buckler and shield, and The word of the LORD which came to Jere- draw near to battle. miah the prophet against the Gentiles ;

4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye 2 Against Egypt, against the army of horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets ; Pharaoh-necho king of Egypt, which was by furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines.

5 Wherefore have I seen them dismayed Egypt is but a noise ; he hath passed the and turned away back ? and their mighty time appointed. ones are 'beaten down, and are 'fled apace, 18 As I live, saith the king, whose name is and look not back : for fear was round about, the LORD of hosts, Surely as Tabor is among saith the LORD.

the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so 6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the shall he come. mighty man escape; they shall stumble, and 19 Othou daughter dwelling in Egypt, fall toward the north by the river Euphrates. "furnish thyself to go into captivity: for Noph

7 Who is this that cometh up as a flood, shall be waste and desolate without an inwhose waters are moved as the rivers ?

habitant. 8 Egypt riseth up like a flood, and his 20 Egypt is like a very fair heifer, but dewaters are moved like the rivers; and he struction cometh; it cometh out of the north. saith, I will go up, and will cover the earth; 21 Also her hired men are in the midst of I will destroy the city and the inhabitants her like 'fatted bullocks; for they also are thereof.

turned back, and are fled away together : 9 Come up, ye horses ; and rage, ye cha- they did not stand, because the day of their riots; and let the mighty men come forth; calamity was come upon them, and the time *the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle of their visitation. the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and 22 The voice thereof shall go like a serbend the bow.

pent; for they shall march with an army, and 10 For this is the day of the Lord God of come against her with axes, as hewers of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge wood. him of his adversaries : and the sword shall 23 They shall cut down her forest, saith devour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk the Lord, though it cannot be searched ; with their blood : for the Lord God of hosts because they are more than the grasshoppers, hath a sacrifice in the north country by the and are innumerable. river Euphrates.

24 The daughter of Egypt shall be con11 Go up into Gilead, and take balm, 0 founded ; she shall be delivered into the hand virgin, the daughter of Egypt: in vain shalt of the people of the north. thou use many medicines; for 'thou shalt not 25 The Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, be cured.

saith ; Behold, I will punish the multitude 12 The nations have heard of thy shame, of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their and thy cry hath filled the land : for the gods, and their kings ; even Pharaoh, and all mighty man hath stumbled against the mighty, them that trust in him : and they are fallen both together.

26 And I will deliver them into the hand 13 | The word that the LORD spake to of those that seek their lives, and into the Jeremiah the prophet, how Nebuchadrezzar hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, king of Babylon should come and smite the and into the hand of his servants: and afterland of Egypt.

ward it shall be inhabited, as in the days of 14 Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in old, saith the LORD. Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tah- 27 | "But fear not thou, O my servant panhes : say ye, Stand fast, and prepare thee ; Jacob, and be not dismayed, O Israel : for, for the sword shall devour round about thee. behold, I will save thee from afar off, and thy

15 Why are thy valiant men swept away ? seed from the land of their captivity; and they stood not, because the LORD did drive Jacob shall return, and be in rest and at ease, them.

and none shall make him afraid. 16 He 'made many to fall, yea, one fell 28 Fear thou not, O Jacob my servant, upon another : and they said, Arise, and let saith the LORD: for I am with thee; for I us go again to our own people, and to the will make a full end of all the nations whither land of our nativity, from the oppressing I have driven thee : but I will not make "a sword.

full end of thee, but correct thee in measure; 17 They did cry there, Pharaoh king of yet will I ":not leave thee wholly unpunished. i Heb. broken in pieces.

2 Heb. fled a flight. 6 Heb, multiplied the faller. 7 Heb. make thee instruments of captivity. 8 Heb. bullocks of the stall. 9 Or, nourisher.

11 Isa, 41, 13, and 43. 5, and 44. 2. Chap. 30. 10. 12 Chap. 1o. 24, and 30, 11.

13 Or, not utterly cut thee off.

8 Heb. Cush.

4 Heb. Put.

3 Heb. no cure shall be unto thee.

To Heb. Amon.

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