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the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed in- 17 But thine eyes and thine heart are not nocent blood in this place.

but for thy covetousness, and for to shed 4 For if ye do this thing indeed, 'then innocent blood, and for oppression, and for shall there enter in by the gates of this house

this house 'violence, to do it. kings sitting upon the throne of David, riding 18 Therefore thus saith the LORD conin chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, cerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of and his people.

Judah ; They shall not lament for him, say5 But if ye will not hear these words, I ing, Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! they swear by myself, saith the LORD, that this shall not lament for him, saying, Ah lord ! or, house shall become a desolation.

Ah his glory! 6 For thus saith the LORD unto the king's 19 He shall be buried with the burial of house of Judah ; Thou art Gilead unto me, an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates and the head of Lebanon : yet surely I will of Jerusalem. make thee a wilderness, and cities which are 20 1 Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift not inhabited.

up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from the pas7 And I will prepare destroyers against sages: for all thy lovers are destroyed. thee, every one with his weapons: and they 21 I spake unto thee in thy 'prosperity; shall cut down thy choice cedars, and cast but thou saidst, I will not hear. This hath them into the fire.

been thy manner from thy youth, that thou 8 And many nations shall pass by this city, obeyedst not my voice. and they shall say every man to his neighbour,

22 The wind shall eat up all thy pastors, "Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto and thy lovers shall go into captivity: surely this great city?

then shalt thou be ashamed and confounded 9 Then they shall answer, Because they for all thy wickedness. have forsaken the covenant of the Lord their . 23 inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest God, and worshipped other gods, and served thy nest in the cedars, how gracious shalt thou them.

be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of 10 1 Weep ye not for the dead, neither a woman in travail ! bemoan him: but weep sore for him that 24 As I live, saith the LORD, though Cogoeth away: for he shall return no more, nor niah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were see his native country.

the signet upon my right hand, yet would I 11 For thus saith the Lord touching pluck thee thence; Shallum the son of Josiah king of Judah, 25 And I will give thee into the hand of which reigned instead of Josiah his father, them that seek thy life, and into the hand of which went forth out of this place; He shall them whose face thou fearest, even into the not return thither any

hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, 12 But he shall die in the place whither and into the hand of the Chaldeans. they have led him captive, and shall see this 26 And I will cast thee out, and thy mother land no more.

that bare thee, into another country, where 13 | Woe unto him that buildeth his ye were not born; and there shall ye

die. house by unrighteousness, and his chambers 27 But to the land whereunto they "desire by wrong ; that useth his neighbour's service to return, thither shall they not return. without wages, and giveth him not for his 28 Is this man Coniah a despised broken work;

idol ? is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure 14 That saith, I will build me a wide wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed, house and olarge chambers, and cutteth him and are cast into a land which they know out 'windows; and it is ceiled with cedar, not? and painted with vermilion.

29 O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of 15 Shalt thou reign, because thou closest the LORD. thyself in cedar? did not thy father eat and 30 Thus saith the Lord, Write ye this drink, and do judgment and justice, and then man childless, a man that shall not prosper in it was well with him ?

his days : for no man of his seed shall prosper, 16 He judged the cause of the poor and sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling needy; then it was well with him : was not

more:

any more in Judah. this to know me? saith the LORD. 2 Chap. 17. 25. 3 Heb. for David upon his throne. 6 Heb. thorough-aired. 7 Or, my windoros.

. Heb. prosperities.

11 Heb. lift up their mind.

4 Deut. 29. 24. 1 Kings 9. 8.

8 Or, incursion.

5 Lev. 19. 13. Deut. 24. 14, 15. Heb. 2. 9.

10 IIeb. inhabitress.

Verse 18." They shall not lament for him, saying, Ah my afterwards. From this it seems that Mohammed had brother ! or, Ah sister !... Ah lord! or, Ah his glory!- heard in the street the cry by which she expected to gain This doubtless describes some of the more customary cries renown.—' Abdullah-bin Rawahah was senseless when he of the women and children when a person died, or of the was ill and near dying; and his sister, whose name was people on the demise of some chief person, especially a Amrah, stood crying, and said, “O mountain! 0 that! king. Of the professional mourners we have already and o the other !” when she was enumerating his accomwritten under chap. ix. 17; but the present case seems plishments, and praised him, wailing. And Abdullah more especially to refer to the lamentations of actual said to Amrah, when he recovered, “ There is not one of mourners. When a death takes place in a family, par- those qualities, which you have ascribed to me, but will ticularly of one of its chief members, the sudden cry be spoken of to me in a troublesome way.” Again, which is raised in the house, and continued at intervals, • Abu-Musa-al-Ashari said, I heard the prophet say, is most appalling; and it is interspersed with such excla- “There is no dead person, the people of whose tribe stood mations as the present, praising the dead and lamenting crying and saying, O mountain, O chief! (and such like, his loss. Mohammed endeavoured to put down this which is said in wailing); but God appoints two angels practice, considering the outrageous lamentation which for him, to shake him, and to say in a taunting manner, usually took place as an act of rebellion against the Divine Were you as they said ?"! It is very remarkable that will, although he allowed tears and silent sorrow to be Mohammed, in mentioning his dislike to the custom, lets becoming; but he failed in this and many other of his us know that it was his time exhibited in a most attempts against ancient usages, which still continue in as

exaggerated form by the Jews in Arabia. Compare this full operation as ever. The following, from the Mishat- with what Mr. Lane says of the modern Egyptian practice. ul-Masabih, will shew the ancient Arabian usages in this Before the spirit has departed, or the moment after, the matter. 'Omm Salmah said, When Abù Salmah, who women of the family raise the cries of lamentation, called was my first husband before the prophet, died, I said he we'lwelleh, or wilwa'l ; uttering the most piercing shrieks, was a stranger, and died in a strange land. Verily I will and calling upon the name of the deceased. The most cry a cry for him, which shall be related among men, say. common cries that are heard upon the death of the master ing, “She cried as no person ever did.” Then I was of the family, from the lips of his wife, or wives, and ready to cry for Abù Salmah; when unexpectedly a children, are, “O my master!” “O my camel !” (that is, woman came to me, and wished to assist and accompany "O thou that broughtest my provisions, and hast carried me in crying. Then the prophet came and said, “ Do you my burdens !") "O my lion !”.“O camel of the house !" wish, O woman! to bring the devil into the house, from “O my dear one!" “O my only one !" "O my father!” which God has brought him forth twice?”... When his “O my misfortune!" ; highness said this, I desisted from crying, and did not cry

CHAPTER XXIII.

Israel shall dwell safely : and this is his name

whereby he shall be called, "THE LORD I He prophesieth a restoration of the scattered flock. OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.

5 Christ shall rule and save them. 9 Aguinst false prophets, 33 and mockers of the true prophets.

7 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith

the Lord, that they shall no more say, The 'Woe be unto the pastors that destroy and LORD liveth, which brought up the children scatter the sheep of my pasture ! saith the of Israel out of the land of Egypt ; LORD.

8 But, The LORD liveth, which brought 2 Therefore thus saith the LORD God of up and which led the seed of the house of Israel against the pastors that feed my people; Israel out of the north country, and from all Ye have scattered my flock, and driven them countries whither I had driven them; and away, and have not visited them : behold, I they shall dwell in their own land. will visit upon you the evil of your doings, 9 | Mine heart within me is broken besaith the LORD.

cause of the prophets ; all my bones shake; 3 And I will gather the remnant of my I am like a drunken man, and like a man flock out of all countries whither I have whom wine hath overcome, because of the driven them, and will bring them again to Lord, and because of the words of his holitheir folds; and they shall be fruitful and increase.

10 For the land is full of adulterers ; for 4 And I will set up 'shepherds over them because of 'swearing the land mourneth ; the which shall feed them: and they shall fear pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall they and their "course is evil, and their force is not be lacking, saith the Lord.

right. 5 1 Behold, 'the days come, saith the 11 For both prophet and priest are proLORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous fane ; yea, in my house have I found their Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper,

wickedness, saith the LORD. and shall execute judgment and justice in the 12 Wherefore their ways shall be unto earth.

them as slippery ways in the darkness: they 6 'In his days Judah shall be saved, and shall be driven on, and fall therein : for I

3. Isa. 4. 2, and 40. 11. Chap. 33. 14, 1:5. 8 Chap. 16. 14, 15.

7 Or, cursing.

8 Or, violence

ness.

Dan. 9. 24. John 1. 45.

I Ezek. 34. 2. 4 Deut. 33. 28.

9 Chap. 3. 15. Ezek. 34. 11, &c.

5 ileb. Jehovah-isidkonu. Y

385

VOL. II.

will bring evil upon them, even the year of 25 I have heard what the prophets said, their visitation, saith the LORD.

that prophesy lies in my name, saying, I have 13 And I have seen l'folly in the pro- dreamed, I have dreamed. phets of Samaria ; they prophesied in Baal, 26 How long shall this be in the heart of and caused my people Israel to err.

the prophets that prophesy lies ? yea, they are 14 I have seen also in the prophets of prophets of the deceit of their own heart; Jerusalem "an horrible thing: they commit 27 Which think to cause my people to adultery, and walk in lies: they strengthen forget my name by their dreams which they also the hands of evildoers, that none doth tell every man to his neighbour, "as their return from his wickedness: they are all of fathers have forgotten my name for Baal. them unto me as "Sodom, and the inhabitants 28 The prophet ?that hath a dream, let thereof as Gomorrah.

him tell a dream; and he that hath my word, 15 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts

let him speak my word faithfully. What is concerning the prophets; Behold, I will feed the chaff to the wheat ? saith the LORD. them with wormwood, and make them drink 29 Is not my word like as a fire ? saith the the water of gall: for from the prophets of LORD; and like a hammer that breaketh the Jerusalem is '*profaneness gone forth into all rock in pieces ? the land.

30 Therefore, behold, ?I am against the 16 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Hearken prophets, saith the LORD, that steal my words not unto the words of the prophets that pro- every one from his neighbour. phesy unto you: they make you vain : they 31 Behold, I am against the prophets, speak a vision of their own heart, and not out saith the LORD, Sthat use their tongues, and of the mouth of the LORD.

say, He saith. 17 They say still unto them that despise 32 Behold, I am against them that prome, The Lord hath said, "Ye shall have phesy false dreams, saith the Lord, and do peace; and they say unto every one that tell them, and cause my people to err by their walketh after the 'imagination of his own lies, and by their lightness; yet I sent them heart, No evil shall come upon you.

not, nor commanded them : therefore they 18 For who hath stood in the ''counsel of shall not profit this people at all, saith the the LORD, and hath perceived and heard his Lord. word ? who hath marked his word, and 33 | And when this people, or the

proheard it?

phet, or a priest, shall ask thee, saying, 19 Behold, a ''whirlwind of the Lord is What is the burden of the LORD? thou shalt gone forth in fury, even a grievous whirlwind : then say unto them, What burden? I will it shall fall grievously upon the head of the even forsake

you,

saith the Lord. wicked.

34 And as for the prophet, and the priest, 20 The "anger of the LORD shall not and the people, that shall say, The burden return, until he have executed, and till he of the Lord, I will even punish that man have performed the thoughts of his heart: in and his house. the latter days ye shall consider it perfectly.

35 Thus shall ye say every one to his 21 'I have not sent these prophets, yet neighbour, and every one to his brother, they ran : I have not spoken to them, yet what hath the Lord answered ? and, What they prophesied.

hath the LORD spoken ? 22 But if they had stood in my counsel, 36 And the burden of the LORD shall ye and had caused my people to hear my words, mention no more: for every man's word shall then they should have turned them from their be his burden; for ye have perverted the evil way, and from the evil of their doings. words of the living God, of the LORD of hosts

23 Am I a God at hand, saith the LORD, and not a God afar off ?

37 Thus shalt thou say to the prophet, 24 Can any *'hide himself in secret places What hath the LORD answered thee? and, that I shall not see him ? saith the LORD. What hath the Lord spoken? Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the 38 But since ye say, The burden of the LORD.

LORD; therefore thus saith the LORD ; Be

our God.

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3 Or, an absurd thing.
10 Heb. unsavoury.

11 Or, filthiness.

12 Isa. 1. 9.

13 Chap. 8. 14, and 9. 13. 14 Or, hypocrisy. 15 Chap. 6. 14, and 8. 11. Ezek. 13. 10. Zech. 10. 2.

16 Or, stubbornncss.

17 Or, secret. 18 Chap 30. 23.

19 Chap 30. 24,
20 Chap. 14. 14, and 27. 15.

21 Psal. 139.7, &c. Amos 9. 2, 3. 29 Judg. 3. 7, and 8. 33, 34,

23 Heb. with whom is. 24 Deut. 18. 20. Chap. 14. 14, 15. 25 Or, that smooth their tongues.

26 Heb, visit upon.

cause ye say this word, The burden of the the city that I gave you and your fathers, Lord, and I have sent unto you, saying, Ye and cast you out of my presence : shall not say, The burden of the LORD; 40 And I will bring an everlasting re

39 Therefore, behold, I, even I, will ut- proach upon you, and a perpetual shame, terly forget you, and I will forsake you, and which shall not be forgotten.

9 Chap 20. 11.

Verse 15. Wormwood.-The original word is nay's | the LA'ANAH of Scripture.

thelminthic. This, if any particular species, is probably la'anah, which is used in a figurative sense in most of the 25. ' That prophesy lies in my name, saying, I have passages in which it occurs (Deut. xxix. 18; Prov. v. 4; dreamed.'— They professed to have received dreams from Jer. ix. 15; xxiii. 15; Lam. iii. 15, 19; Amos v. 7, 12). God; or, having had dreams, pretended that they were In the last text cited it is translated 'hemlock; but every- oracles and intimations from God. The facility of this where else, as here, 'wormwood. It is clear that it de- kind of imposition, and the impossibility of immediate notes some plants of the extremest bitterness, and is hence detection, rendered this a common method by which the adopted as a type or figure of the sins and miseries of men. old Pagan priests and prophets deluded the people. BeThe Septuagint and Arabic translators substitute the pro- sides extraordinary and professedly unsought dreams, there per term which they conceived the plant to denote, except were some of the heathen gods which were considered to in Prov, v. 4 ; Lam, iii. 19, where the latter, as well as deliver their oracles principally, if not exclusively, through the other Oriental versions, have words signifying 'worm- their instrumentality, such as Osiris, Isis, and Serapis, in wood, and this has been adopted throughout by the Vul- Egypt; Hercules (so called by Tacitus, but perhaps Baal), gate, and, after that, by most modern versions, our own in Mesopotamia ; Amphiaraus, in Attica; Pasiphae, in included. There is in fact little doubt that a species of Sparta, and many others. When a responsive dream was Artemisia or Absinthium or wormwood is really intended; sought, some observances were practised ; after which the but as various species are common in Palestine, and as dream was supposed to give the required answer. Often many of them resemble each other very closely in their the dream-seeker slept in the temple of the idol, and someproperties, it is difficult to say which particular species, times upon the skins of the victims which had been offered or whether any species in particular, is denoted by the in sacrifice. Those who sought a prophetic dream someHebrew word. The probability seems to be that it is a times fasted the previous day, and abstained three days generic name for all the plants of this kind, which are from wine ; those who did not fast were careful to eat distinguished for their intense bitterness. The species nothing difficult of digestion, such as beans and raw fruit. particularly noticed by travellers are Artemisia Judaica, It was sometimes considered necessary that the dreamer A. Nilotica, A. fruticosa, A. cinerea. The first is parti- should wear a white garment; and the dreams of the cularly noticed by Rauwolff as growing everywhere in morning were those to which most attention was paid. Palestine. He describes it as having small, ash-coloured Such were some of the practices of the heathen dreamers, leaves and many small stalks, and affording a great abun- and which were very probably

adopted by the false prodance of small, yellowish seeds; and that it is of an un- phets of the Hebrews. See Banier (Mythology, i. 345, pleasant smell, very bitter, with a saline sharpness. Both 353); Rosinus (Antiq. Romanarum, ii. 2); and Harwood the leaves and seeds of the plant are used medicinally in (Grec. Antiq. p. 192). Similar practices, for similar purthe East, and are reported to be stomachic, tonic, and an- poses, still prevail in different parts of Pagan Asia.

CHAPTER XXIV.

4 1 Again the word of the LORD came

unto me, saying, 1 Under the type of good and bad figs, 4 he foresheweth

5 Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel; the restoration of them that were in captivity, 8 and the desolation of Zedekiah and the rest.

Like these good figs, so will I acknow

ledge *them that are carried away captive THE LORD shewed me, and, behold, two bas- of Judah, whom I have sent out of this kets of figs were set before the temple of the place into the land of the Chaldeans for their LORD, after that Nebuchadrezzar 'king of good. Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah 6 For I will set mine eyes upon them for the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, and the good, and I will bring them again to this princes of Judah, with the carpenters and land and I will build them, and not pull smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them them down; and I will plant them, and not to Babylon.

pluck them up: 2 One basket had very good figs, even like 7 And I will give them ‘an heart to know the figs that are first ripe: and the other basket me, that I am the LORD: and they shall be had very naughty figs, which could not be 'my people, and I will be their God : for eaten, 'they were so bad.

they shall return unto me with their whole 3 Then said the LORD unto me, What heart. seest thou, Jeremiah ? And I said, Figs; the 8.1 And as the evil 'figs, which cannot be good figs, very good ; and the evil, very evil, eaten, they are so evil ; surely thus saith the that cannot be eaten, they are so evil. LORD, So will I give Zedekiah the king of Judah, and his princes, and the residue of and a curse, in all places whither I slrall drive Jerusalem, that remain in this land, and them them. that dwell in the land of Egypt :

1 2 Kings 24. 12, &c. 2 Chron. 36. 10. 2 Heb. for badness. 2 Heb. the captivity. 4 Deut. 30. 6. Chap. 32. 39. Ezek, 11, 19, and 36. 26, 27. 8 Chap. 30. 22, and 31. 33, and 32.38.

o Chap. 29. 17.

10 And I will send the sword, the famine, 9 And I will deliver them to be removed and the pestilence, among them, till they be into all the kingdoms of the earth for their consumed from off the land that I hurt, to be a reproach and a proverb, a taunt them and to their fathers. 7 Ileb. for removing, or, veration.

8 Deut. 28. 25. Chap. 15, 1.

gave unto

Verse 2. The figs that are first ripe.'— The figs here called ningz, baccuroth, or first-ripe figs

, still bear the same name in the Levant. There are three sorts of figs : the first, that here mentioned, makes its appearance about the vernal equinox, and comes to maturity about the middle or latter end of June. Before it is ripe it is called, in Scripture, the green fig, but when ripe, the untimely (i. e., precocious) fig. It is generally considered to have a flavour superior to any other, and is deemed a great delicacy-partly perhaps from its earliness, which renders it the more prized, as all early fruits are. Then there is, second, the summer or dry fig (called kermez), which appears about the middle of June, and is ripe in August. This is

the sort which is dried in the sun and preserved in masses, called 'cakes' in our version ; and which is to be considered as the proper and regular fig. Lastly, there is the winter fig, which appears in August, and is not ripe till towards the end of November. This is usually of a longer figure and darker colour than the others. When the weather is favourable, some of these figs will hang ripening upon the tree after the leaves are shed, and through the winter, being gathered as delicious morsels early in the spring. All figs fall when they are ripe, and especially the early figs. This circumstance is alluded to in Nahum iii. 12.

CHAPTER XXV.

7 Yet ye have not hearkened unto me, saith

the Lord; that ye might provoke me to anger 1 Jeremiah reproving the Jews' disobedience to the

with the works of your hands to your own prophets, 8 foretelleth the seventy years' captivity, 12 and after that, the destruction of Babylon. 15

hurt. Under the type of a cup of wine he foresheweth the 8 Therefore thus saith the LORD of destruction of all nations. 34 The howling of the hosts; Because ye have not heard my words, shepherds.

9 Behold, I will send and take all the famiThe word that came to Jeremiah concerning lies of the north, saith the LORD, and Nebuall the people of Judah in the fourth year of chadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, and will bring them against this land, and that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king

of Nebuchadrezzar king against the inhabitants thereof, and against all of Babylon;

these nations round about, and will utterly 2 The which Jeremiah the prophet spake destroy them, and make them an astonishunto all the people of Judah, and to all the ment, and an hissing, and perpetual desoinhabitants of Jerusalem, saying,

lations. 3 From the thirteenth year of Josiah the 10 Moreover 'I will take from them the son of Amon king of Judah, even unto this voice of mirth, and the ‘voice of gladness, the day, that is the three and twentieth year, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the word of the Lord hath come unto me, and I bride, the sound of the millstones, and the have spoken unto you, rising early and speak- light of the candle. ing; but ye have not hearkened.

11 And this whole land shall be a desola4 And the Lord hath sent unto you all his tion, and an astonishment; and these nations servants the prophets, 'rising early and send- shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. ing them; but ye have not hearkened, nor 12 1 And it shall come to pass, when inclined your ear to hear.

seventy years are accomplished, that I will 5 They said, "Turn ye again now every one 'punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, from his evil way, and from the evil of your saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual hath given unto you and to your fathers for desolations. ever and ever:

13 And I will bring upon that land all my 6 And go not after other gods to serve words which I have pronounced against it

, them, and to worship them, and provoke me

even all that is written in this book, which Jenot to anger with the works of your hands ; remiah hath prophesied against all the nations. and I will do you no hurt.

14 For many nations and great kings shall 2 2 Kings 17. 13. Chap. 18. 11, and 35. 15. Jonah 3. 8. 3 Heb. I will cause to perish from them, 4 Chap. 7. 34, and 16. 9. Ezek. 26. 13. Hos. 2. 11. 52 Chron. 36. 21, 22. Ezra 1. 1. Chap. 29. 10. Dan. 9. 2.

1 Chap. 29. 19.

6 Heb. visit upon

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