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CHAPTER X.

13 When he uttereth his voice, there is a

13 multitude of waters in the heavens, and he 1 The unequal comparison of God and idols. 17 The causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends prophet echorteth to flee from the calamity to come.

of the earth ; he maketh lightnings ''with 19 He lamenteth the spoil of the tabernacle by foolish pastors. 23 He maketh an humble supplication.

rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his

treasures. HEAR ye the word which the LORD speaketh 14 Every man is "brutish in his knowunto you, O house of Israel :

ledge: every founder is confounded by the 2 Thus saith the LORD, Learn not the way graven image: for his molten image is falseof the heathen, and be not dismayed at the hood, and there is no breath in them. signs of heaven ; for the heathen are dismayed 15 They are vanity, and the work of errors : at them.

in the time of their visitation they shall perish. 3 For the customs of the people are vain : 16 "The portion of Jacob is not like them : for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the for he is the former of all things; and Israel work of the hands of the workman, with the ax. is the rod of his inheritance: The LORD of

4 They deck it with silver and with gold ; hosts is his name. they fasten it with nails and with hammers, 17 | Gather up thy wares out of the land, that it move not.

O inhabitant of the fortress. 5 They are upright as the palm tree, but 18 For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will speak not: they must needs be borne, be sling out the inhabitants of the land at this cause they cannot go. Be not afraid of them; once, and will distress them, that they may for 'they cannot do evil, neither also is it in

find it so. them to do good.

19 | Woe is me for my hurt ! my wound 6 Forasmuch as there is none like unto is grievous : but I said, Truly this is a grief, thee, O Lord; thou art great, and thy name and I must bear it. is great in might.

20 My tabernacle is spoiled, and all my ? 'Who would not fear thee, O King of cords are broken : my children are gone forth nations ? for 'to thee doth it appertain : for- of me, and they are not: there is none to asmuch as among all the wise men of the na- stretch forth my tent any more, and to set up tions, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee.

21 For the pastors are become brutish, and 8 But they are 'altogether 'brutish and have not sought the LORD; therefore they foolish : the stock is a doctrine of vanities. shall not prosper, and all their flocks shall be

9 Silver spread into plates is brought from scattered. Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of 22 Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, the workman, and of the hands of the founder: and a great commotion out of the north blue and purple is their clothing: they are all country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, the work of cunning men.

and a den of dragons. 10 But the Lord is the ''true God, he is 23 1 O Lord, I know that the ?'way of the living God, and an "everlasting king: at man is not in himself: it is not in man that his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the na- walketh to direct his steps. tions shall not be able to abide his indigna- 24 O LORD, "correct me, but with judgtion.

ment; not in thine anger, lest thou bring me 11 Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods to nothing. that have not made the heavens and the earth, 25 *Pour out thy fury upon the heathen even they shall perish from the earth, and from that know thee not, and upon the families under these heavens.

that call not on thy name : for they have 12 He hath made the earth by his power,

Jacob, and devoured him, and conhe hath established the world by his wisdom, sumed him, and have made his habitation and hath stretched out the heavens by his dis- desolate. cretion.

my curtains.

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2 Psal, 115.5. 1 Heb. statutes, or, ordinances are vanity.

3 Isa. 46, 1. 7.
4 Isa. 41. 23.

5 Psal. 86. 8. 10. 6 Rev. 15.4. 7 Or, it liketh thee. 8 Heb. in one, or, at once.

9 Isa. 41. 29. Hab. 2. 18. Zech. 10. 2. 19 Heb. God of truth. 11 Heb. king of eternity.

12 Gen, 1. 1, 6. Chap. 51. 15.

13 Or, noise. 14 Or, for rain. 15 Or, is more brutish than to know.

18 Heb. inhabitress.

16 Chap. 61. 17, 18. 17 Chap. 51. 19. 19 Chap. 1. 15, and 5. 15, and 6. 22. 20 Chap. 9. 11.

21 Prov. 61, 1, and 20.24. 22 Psal. 6. 1, and 38. 1. Chap. 30. 11. 23 Heb. diminish me.

24 Psal. 79. 6.

Verse 2. 'Be not dismayed at the signs of heaven.'- of a human head or bust. This form of representing the This is generally applied to astrology ; but we should gods was preserved, with improvements suggested by adrather think it to refer to those unusual natural phenomena, vanced taste, in the terminal statues of Hermes and of such as eclipses, which in the ancient superstitions certainly Pan, long after the art of sculpture had progressed far did . dismay the heathen, being regarded by them as the beyond the circumstances in which such forms originated. harbingers and tokens of great public calamities. Many A step beyond this original contrivance is exhibited in the instances of the dismay which eclipses inspired might be Egyptian statues which meet our eyes in every exhibitiou cited. We may quote two of them. Nicias, the Athenian general, had determined to quit Sicily with his army; but an eclipse of the moon happening at that juncture, filled him with such alarm that he lost the favourable moment. This was the occasion of his own death and the ruin of his army; and this was so unhappy a loss to the Athenians, that the decline of their state may perhaps be dated from that event. Even the army of Alexander, before the battle of Arbela, was so frightened at an eclipse of the moon, that the soldiers, deeming it a sign that the gods were displeased at the enterprise of their leader, refused to proceed on their march from the Tigris, till assured by the Egyptian soothsayers that an eclipse of the moon was an omen of peculiar evil to their enemies the Persians. R. Jarchi expressly refers the present text to the terror which eclipses occasioned,

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EGYPTIAN ERECT IDOLS.-British Museum,

of Egyptian antiquities, or in books containing representa-
tions of them, in which the statues stand bolt upright,
resting equally on both legs, which are close to each other,
with the arms straight down by the sides. It is the same
even in seated figures, which sit perfectly erect, and all
the forms are rectangular, the back parts being indeed
never rounded, but attached to a perpendicular mass of
stone. This form of representation, as the most ancient,
seems in Egypt to have been retained for all gods (as it
was elsewhere for some gods) long after the Egyptians
had acquired the art of representing the human form iu
sculpture under various circumstances of spirited action.
To all such figures, which doubtless typify the forms of
idols which prevailed in the time of the prophet, the com-
parison upright as the palm-tree' is singularly appro-
priate, and is no doubt intended to characterise the stiff-
ness, lifelessness, and want of natural action which belonged
to such representations.
9. Uphaz.'—This is probably the same as Ophir.
Blue and purple is their clothing.'—This of course

TERMINAL STATUES.-British Museum.

5. 'They are upright as the palm-tree, etc. We are disposed to agree with those who think that there is here an allusion to the form which the ancient idols bore before the art of statuary was carried to perfection, when images were little better than an erect block of equal thickness throughout, but being surmounted by some resemblance

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land flowing with milk and honey, as it is this neither lift up a cry or prayer for them: for day. Then answered I, and said, “So be it, I will not hear them in the time that they cry O LORD.

unto me for their "trouble. 6 Then the LORD said unto me, Proclaim 15 18 What hath my beloved to do in all these words in the cities of Judah, and in mine house, seeing she hath wrought lewdness the streets of Jerusalem, saying, Hear ye the with many, and the holy flesh is passed from words of this covenant, and do them.

thee? "Swhen thou doest evil, then thou re7 For I earnestly protested unto your joicest. fathers in the day that I brought them up out

16 The LORD called thy name, A green of the land of Egypt, even unto this day, olive tree, fair, and of goodly fruit: with the rising early and protesting, saying, Obey my noise of a great tumult he hath kindled fire voice.

upon it, and the branches of it are broken. 8 Yet they obeyed not, nor inclined their 17 For the LORD of hosts, that planted thee, ear, but walked every one in the 'imagination bath pronounced evil against thee, for the evil of their evil heart: therefore I will bring of the house of Israel and of the use of upon them all the words of this covenant, Judah, which they have done against themwhich I commanded them to do; but they did selves to provoke me to anger in offering inthem not.

cense unto Baal. 9 And the Lord said unto me, A con- 18 | And the Lord hath given me knowspiracy is found among the men of Judah, and ledge of it, and I know it: then thou shewedst among the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

me their doings. 10 They are turned back to the iniquities 19 But I was like a lamb or an ox that is of their forefathers, which refused to hear my brought to the slaughter; and I knew not that words; and they went after other gods to they had devised devices against me, saying, serve them : the house of Israel and the house Let us destroy the tree with the fruit thereof, of Judah have broken my covenant which I and let us cut him off from the land of the made with their fathers.

living, that his name may be no more remem11 Therefore thus saith the LORD, Be- bered. hold, I will bring evil upon them, which they 20 But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest shall not be able to escape ; and 'though they righteously, that "triest the reins and the shall cry unto me, I will not hearken unto heart, let me see thy vengeance on them : for them.

unto thee have I revealed my cause. 12 Then shall the cities of Judah and inha- 21 Therefore thus saith the LORD of the bitants of Jerusalem go, and cry unto the gods men of Anathoth, that seek thy life, saying, unto whom they offer incense : but they shall | Prophesy not in the name of the Lord, that not save them at all in the time of their thou die not by our hand : Strouble.

22 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, 13 For according to the number of thy Behold, I will punish them: the young men 'cities were thy gods, O Judah; and according shall die by the sword; their sons and their to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have daughters shall die by famine: ye set up altars to that ''shameful thing, even 23 And there shall be no remnant of them : altars to burn incense unto Baal.

for I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, 14 Therefore "pray not thou for this people,

year

of their visitation. 6 Heb. to go forth of. 7 Prov. 1. 28. Isa. 1. 15. Chap. 14. 12. Ezek. 8. 18. Micah 3. 4.

even the

4 Heb. Amen. 5 Or, stubbornness. 8 Heb. evil. 9 Chap. 2. 28. 10 Heb. shame. 11 Chap. 7. 16, and 14. 11. 12 Heb, evil. 13 Isa. 1. 11, &c. 14 Heb. What is to my beloved in my house! 15 Or, when thy evil is.

16 Heb. the stalk with his bread,

18 Heb. visit upon. 17 i Sam. 16.7. 1 Chron. 28. 9. Psal. 7. 9. Chap. 17. 10, and 20. 12. Rev. 2. 25.

Verse 13. ' According to the number of thy cities were thy from some cause or other, were supposed to regard the gods.'-This seems to indicate about the lowest depth of place with peculiar favour; and many were believed to idolatry. This deplorable manifestation of the corruption have been born in the towns they protected. This of the Hebrews was evidently borrowed from their heathen practice certainly existed among all the nations borderneighbours, among whom there were not only certain ing on Palestine; but it is best known to us as existing great gods worshipped everywhere in common, but others among the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. There are who were honoured as the tutelary divinities of particular instances in Scripture of the disposition of the heathen to towns; and there was scarcely any town without one. regard JEHOVAH as such a god as this, without allowing Some of these idols were little known beyond the town or that he alone was entitled to the general and exclusive district in which they were specially honoured. The gods worship of mankind. See 2 Kings xvii., and the note particularly selected as tutelary divinities were such as,

there.

367

CHAPTER XII.

9 Mine heritage is unto me as a 'speckled 1 Jeremiah, complaining of the wicked's prosperity, by bird, the birds round about are against her; faith seeth their ruin. 5 God admonisheth him of

"come ye, assemble all the beasts of the field his brethren's treachery against him, lamenteth

come to devour. his heritage. 14 He promiseth to the penitent a re- 10 Many pastors have destroyed my vineturn from captivity.

yard, they have trodden my portion under foot, Righteous art thou, O Lord, when I plead they have made my pleasant portion a desowith thee: yet 'let me talk with thee of thy late wilderness. judgments : Wherefore doth the way of the 11 They have made it desolate, and being wicked prosper ? wherefore are all they happy desolate it mourneth unto me; the whole land that deal very treacherously?

is made desolate, because no man layeth it to 2 Thou hast planted them, yea, they have heart. taken root: 'they grow, yea, they bring forth 12 The spoilers are come upon all high fruit : thou art near in their mouth, and far places through the wilderness : for the sword from their reins.

of the LORD shall devour from the one end of 3 But thou, O LORD, “knowest me : thou the land even to the other end of the land: no hast seen me, and tried mine heart toward flesh shall have peace. thee: pull them out like sheep for the slaugh- 13 "They have sown wheat, but shall

reap ter, and prepare them for the day of slaughter. thorns: they have put themselves to pain, bruit

4 How long shall the land mourn, and the shall not profit: and they shall be ashamed of herbs of every field wither, for the wicked

your revenues because of the fierce anger of ness of them that dwell therein ? the beasts the LORD. are consumed, and the birds ; because they 14 | Thus saith the Lord against all mine said, He shall not see our last end.

evil neighbours, that touch the inheritance 5 T If thou hast run with the footmen, and which I have caused my people Israel to inhethey have wearied thee, then how canst thou rit; Behold, I will "pluck them out of their contend with horses? and if in the land of land, and pluck out the house of Judah from peace, wherein thou trustedst, they wearied among them. thee, then how wilt thou do in the swelling of 15 And it shall come to pass, after that I Jordan ?

have plucked them out I will return, and have 6 For even 'thy brethren, and the house of compassion on them, and will bring them thy father, even they have dealt treacherously again, every man to his heritage, and every with thee; yea, they have called a multitude man to his land. after thee: believe them not, though they 16 And it shall come to pass, if they will speak "fair words unto thee.

diligently learn the ways of my people, to 7 1 I have forsaken mine house, I have left swear by my name, The Lord liveth ; as they mine heritage; I have given the dearly be- taught my people to swear by Baal; then shall loved of my soul into the hand of her enemies. they be built in the midst of

my people. 8 Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the 17 But if they will not ''obey, I will utterly forest; it " *crieth out against me: therefore pluck up and destroy that nation, saith the have I hated it.

LORD.

1 Or, let me reason the case with thec. 2 Job 21. 7. Psal. 37. 1, and 73. 3. Hab. 1. 4. 3 Heb. they go on.

4 Psal. 17.3. 5 Heb. with thee. 6 Psal. 107. 34. 7 Clap. 9. 4. 8 Or, they cried after thee fully. * Heb. good things. 10 Heb. the lore. 11 Or, yelleth. 12 Heb. giveth out his voice. 13 Or, having talons. 14 Or, cause their to come. 15 Feb. portion of desire. 16 Levit. 26. 16. Deut. 28. 38. Micah 6. 15. Hag. 1. 6. 17 Deut. 30. 3. Chap. 32. 37. 19 Isa. 60. 12.

Verse 5. · Run with the footmen,' etc.—There is perhaps an allusion here to the running footmen, concerning whom an explanation has been given under 1 Sam. viii. 8, 11. Here they seem to be supposed to run with mounted horsemen, but there with chariots. A statement regarding both is given in the note upon the text referred to.

Boothroyd, and many others. In the language of the Talmud it means a she leopard or panther. But then some difficulty arises from the fact that b'y usually deuotes birds of prey, and the above explanations reuder it necessary that it should be a beast in the present in.

This consideration operated so strongly with Dr. Blayney, that he translates the bird tzaboa, not professing to understand what bird the tzabod was. Jerome supposes it was the peucock, and various doubtful alternatives of speckled or spotted birds have been snggested by others.

9. 'A speckled bird? — The words (YAZY Diyo ha-ait tzaboa) have occasioned considerable perplexity to the interpreters of Scripture. The Seventy render it hyena' (vain), which is sanctioned by the use of the word tzaboa in the Arabic, and is followed by Bochart, Gesenius,

stance.

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