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noisy music they afford, the women of the party give vent at intervals to the shrill cries of joy which have been already mentioned. After a good time spent in the bath the procession returns in the same manner. The next day the bride is conducted with the same state, and with the same notes of joy, to the house of her husband. They proceed at a slow pace; and if the house be near, they take a circuitous route through the principal streets for the sake of display, so that the procession is usually three or more hours on the road. Then it is the bridegroom's turn. In the third or fourth hour of the night, after he has received the bride into his house, and has supped with his own friends, he sets out in their company to some celebrated mosque, there to say his prayers. He is at
tended by men with drums and hautboys, and by others FORMS OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CAKES.
bearing cylindrical iron cressets, filled with flaming wood,
to give light. The party usually proceeds at a quick It is not unusual in times of great mortality for the ordi
pace, and without much order, to the mosque—but the nary place of burial to be so full that (as the Orientals
return thence to the house is more slow and orderly-and never bury twice in the same grave) there is no more
with an added display of lamps and wax candles which room in the cemeteries, and new ground has to be opened,
illuminate the streets through which the procession passes. or the burial of the dead abandoned altogether. During
At frequent intervals the party stops for a few minutes, the great plague of Baghdad, in 1831, we were ourselves
the music ceases, and a man or boy sings some words of an grieved and horror-struck by observing a number of dead
epithalamium. Under a very different condition of Eastern bodies continually brought into a horse-yard next our
life, rejoicing noises are also considered essential to nuptial house for burial—and this continued for two days till
processions. When the bride is carried home to her husthere was no room left for another grave. Eventually
band, she is placed in a frame upon the back of a camel, the dead were left unburied altogether, as the prophet indicates here, and were left to be devoured by the fowls of heaven and the beasts of the earth-till at last, as mentioned on a former occasion, it was concluded daily to collect the exposed dead and cast them into the river. In Europe it has been more usual, under the like circumstances, to dig large pits and cast the dead into them till filled up. During the last great London plague, in 1665, one pit to receive the dead was dug in the Charter-House forty, feet long, sixteen feet wide, and twenty feet deep, and in the course of two weeks it received 1114 dead bodies. During that dire calamity there were instances of mothers carrying their own children to these public graves; and of people, delirious or in despair for the loss of friends, who threw themselves alive into these pits.
31. . Then will I cause to cease...from the streets of Jerusalem...the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride.' -From this and other passages it is clear that the noisy marriage processions which at this day perambulate the streets of Western Asia were not unknown in the cities of the Jews. This is now best seen in Egypt, the usages of which country do not however materially differ from those of Syria and Turkey, or even Persia. On the third day, before the final conclusion of the marriage, the midwife of the bride's family, her nurse, and the female of the bath, proceed on asses, with two or more men before them
ARABIAN MODE OF CARRYING HOME THE BRIDE. beating kettle-drums or tabors, to the houses of all the friends of the bride, to invite them to accompany her on and is housed over with carpets, shawls, and ostrich the next day to the bath, and to partake of the evening feathers. The camel is led by a relation of the bride, entertainment. Sometimes they go on foot, and without preceded by dancing people, music, mounted and disthe drums before them, but making up for the want of mounted Arabs, who shout and fire their guns, running these instruments by shrill quavering cries of joy, called backward and forward in the procession. zughareet. These cries of the women, which are heard on Such, or in some degree like to them, were doubtless various occasions of rejoicing in Egypt and other eastern the rejoicing sounds which the prophet indicates as the countries, are produced by a sharp utterance of the voice, voice of the bridegroom and of the bride,' which in prospeaccompanied by a quick tremulous motion of the tongue. rous times were wont to be heard in the cities of Israel, but This is the first of the bridal sounds by which the streets which in the time of desolation should no more be heard. of the East are enlivened. Next day follows the pro- This statement will doubtless suggest many analogies to cession to the bath, when the bride, wrapped up in a the wedding procession mentioned in Matt. xxv., and peculiar manner, and accompanied by her friends, pro- others will be indicated under that text. It is worthy of ceeds through the principal streets of the city (by a cir- notice that these nuptial celebrations are, in all Moslem cuitous route if the actual distance be inconsiderable) to countries, discouraged during times of public mourning the bath. She walks under a canopy (see Sol. Song, ii.) or humiliation-and do not occur during the Bairam or with two of her relations. The procession is opened and Moslem Lent, nor in Persia during the Moharrem, or closed by men with drums and hautboys, and besides the public mourning for the sons of Ali.
their graves :
herit them: for every one from the least even CHAPTER VIII.
unto the greatest is given to 'covetousness, 1 The calamity of the Jews, both dead and alive. 4 from the prophet even unto the priest every
He upbraideth their foolish and shameless impeni. one dealeth falsely.
11 For they have 'healed the hurt of the
daughter of my people slightly, saying, 'Peace, At that time, saith the LORD, they shall bring peace; when there is no peace. out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the 12 Were they 'ashamed when they had bones of his princes, and the bones of the committed abomination ? nay, they were not at priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the all ashamed, neither could they blush: therebones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of fore shall they fall among them that fall: in
the time of their visitation they shall be cast 2 And they shall spread them before the down, saith the Lord. sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, 13 T ''I will surely consume them, saith whom they have loved, and whom they have the Lord: there shall be no grapes "on the served, and after whom they have walked, and vine, nor figs on the "fig tree, and the leaf whom they have sought, and whom they have shall fade; and the things that I have given worshipped : they shall not be gathered, nor them shall pass away from them. be buried; they shall be for dung upon the 14 Why do we sit still ? assemble yourface of the earth.
selves, and let us enter into the defenced cities, 3 And death shall be chosen rather than and let us be silent there : for the Lord our life by all the residue of them that remain of God hath put us to silence, and given us this evil family, which remain in all the places 'water of "gall to drink, because we have whither I have driven them, saith the LORD sinned against the LORD. of hosts.
15 We looked for peace, but no good 4 | Moreover thou shalt say unto them, came ; and for a time of health, and behold Thus saith the LORD ; Shall they fall, and
trouble ! not arise ? shall he turn away, and not re- 16 The snorting of his horses was heard turn ?
from Dan: the whole land trembled at the 5 Why then is this people of Jerusalem sound of the neighing of his strong ones ; for slidden back by a perpetual backsliding ? they they are come, and have devoured the land, hold fast deceit, they refuse to return. and all that is in it; the city, and those that
6 I hearkened and heard, but they spake dwell therein. not aright: no man repented him
of his wicked- 17 For, behold, I will send serpents, cockaness, saying, What have I done? every one trices, among you, which will not be charmed, turned to his course, as the horse rusheth into and they shall bite you, saith the LORD. the battle.
18 4 When I would comfort myself against 7 Yea, 'the stork in the heaven knoweth sorrow, my heart is faint 'in me. her appointed times; and the turtle and the 19 Behold the voice of the cry of the daughcrane and the swallow observe the time of ter of my people because of them that dwell their coming ; but my people know not the in a far country: Is not the Lord in Zion ? judgment of the LORD.
is not her king in her ? Why have they pro8 How do ye say, We are wise, and the voked me to anger with their graven images, law of the LORD is with us? Lo, certainly ’in and with strange vanities? vain made he it; the pen of the scribes is in 20 The harvest is past, the summer is ended, vain.
and we are not saved. 9 3 "The wise men are ashamed, they are
21 For the hurt of the daughter of my dismayed and taken : lo, they have rejected people am I hurt ; I am black; astonishment the word of the LORD ; and 'what wisdom is hath taken hold on me. in them?
22 Is there no ?'balm in Gilead ; is there 10 Therefore will I give their wives unto no physician there? why then is not the health others, and their fields to them that shall in- of the daughter of my people recovered ?
i Isa. 1. 3.
4 Or, have they been ashamed, &c. 2 Or, the false pen of the scribes worketh for falsehood. 3 Chap. 6. 15. 5 Heb. the wisdom of what thing.
8 Ezek, 13. 10. 6 Isa. 56. 11. Chap. 6. 13.
7 Chap. 6. 14. 11 Isa. 5. 1, &c.
12 Matt. 21. 19. Luke 13. 6, &c. 9 Chap. 3. 3, and 6. 15. io Or, in gathering I will consume.
14 Or, poison. 13 Chap. 9. 15, and 23. 15.
15 Chap 14. 19. 16 Chap. 4. 15. 17 Heb. the fulness thereof. 18 Psal. 58. 4, 5.
19 Heb. upon.
20 Heb. because of the country of them that are far off. 91 Chap 46, 11.
22 Heb. gone up.
Verse 7. Stork.'-See the notes on Lev. xi. 19, Ps. civ. in considerable numbers in the swamp above that city, 17, and the figure under Job xxxix.
and, in Palestine, upon the borders of the lakes Huleh and " Turtle' (A tur).—The Columba turtur is found in Tiberias. In the autumn they return to Africa; but they all the warmer climates, from whence it follows the sun do not utter the clangor of the common crane, nor, like in his progress towards the tropic, and visits higher lati- it, fly in two columns, forming an acute angle, the better tudes, to adorn and usher in the spring. The turtle is to cleave the air. remarkable for the elegance and delicacy of its form, and • Swallow' (7924 agur ; Sept. Xelidáv åypoü).- Prois from ancient usage associated in our minds with every
bably the Hirundo rustica of Linnæus, which is too well thing that is tender, chaste, and attractive. It is a bird
known, in form and habits, to render a particular notice of passage, hence its appearance in certain places is among
necessary on this occasion. This bird, which remains the indications of spring—a circumstance interwoven in with us till October, is said to winter in Africa, so that that charming description of that season which occurs in
its object is evidently a warmer climate. It is remarkCanticles ii. 11-13. The turtle visits this country, and able that the birds of this tribe, when they revisit us in after having reared her young in the seclusion of our
spring, return to their old haunts. Dr. Jenner ascertained woods, retires, in September, to pass the winter under
this by cutting off two claws from the foot of a certain softer skies.
number, several of which were found in the following • Crane.' — The Hebrew word is D'D sis, respecting the year, and one was met with after the expiration of seven meaning of which there is some doubt. The Rabbinical
years. (See Kirby's Bridgewater Treatise.) This is commentators make it the crane, as do most of the ver- true also of the storks, as we observed the same pair resions, and we are disposed to accept this as the most turn, in successive years, to the nest they had constructed probable conclusion. Yet there are objections to the upon the wind-chimney of a house we inhabited at common crane, arising from the fact that, although occa- Baghdad. sionally seen in Palestine, it does not assemble in Syria The subject of the migration of birds, which is several in flocks for migration, and that its clamorous voice does times referred to in the Scripture, is one of great interest; not correspond to the chatter' or twitter which is in and has been employed by writers ou natural theology, as Isa, xxxviii. 14 ascribed to it. The stork might seem furnishing striking evidence of design and wisdom in the probable, had it not a distinct name of its own in Scripture creation and organization of living things. The devout
reader of the Bible needs no such evidence; yet even to him there is much in it that may be made valuable, and which he will feel to be beautiful. As Mr. Kirby, in his Bridgewater Treatise, has taken up the subject with this view, we have judged it proper to derive from him the substance of the few observations for which we can find room.
Although the instances of migration here mentioned by the prophet, are those most popularly known, the practice operates to a far greater extent than is usually supposed; and if Dr. Richardson's scale for North America be taken as a rule of more extended application, it may be estimated that the number of the birds which migrate, as compared with those which reside the whole year in a country, is about five-sixths; a very large proportion, but which is doubtless less in some latitudes than in others. As the summer residents are replaced by winter ones, the desertion is less apparent and annoying than it would be otherwise. It has usually been conceived that the cause of such extensive migration was to be sought no further than in the changes of temperature, gradually produced by the progress of the seasons, and the growing scarcity of food resulting from it. But this cannot be the sole or universal cause, since there are birds which leave us early in the year, when no cold can be felt, and even when the food of the particular species is most abundant. From such and other observations, Dr. Jenner arrived at the conclusion (stated in a posthumous paper, published in the Philosophical Transactions, 1824) that the periodical migrations of birds are the result, not of the approach of the cold or hot seasons, but of the absence or presence of a stimulus connected with the original law, "Increase and
multiply ;'—and that when they feel this stimulus, they different from this, and did we not find another bird seek their summer, and when it ceases its action, their which more completely answers the required conditions : winter quarters-in one case, the bird winging its way this is the Grus virgo, or Numidian crane, which is, pro- to a climate and country best suited to the great purpose perly speaking, neither a genuine crane, a stork, nor a impressed upon it by the Creator, of producing and rearheron, and which has a feeble voice, but striking and ing a progeny; and, in the other, returning to a home distinct manners, and is remarkable for its beauty, num- most congenial to its nature and best supplying its wants. bers, and its periodical arrival and departure. This bird Mr. Kirby thus concludes his general view of this inis not more than three feet in length; it is of a beautiful structive and interesting subject :bluish grey, with the cheeks, throat, breast, and tips of • If we give the subject of the migration of animals due the long hinder feathers and quills, black, and a tuft of consideration, and reflect what would be the consequence delicate white plumes behind each eye. It has a peculiar if no animals ever changed their quarters, we shall find dancing walk, which gave rise to its French denomination abundant reason for thankfulness to the Almighty Father of Demoiselle. It comes from Central Africa down the of the Universe, for the care he has taken of his whole Nile, and in spring arrives in Palestine, while troops of family, and of his creature man in particular, consulting them proceed to Asia Minor, and some go as far north as not only his sustentation and the gratification of his the Caspian. Hasselquist, who first saw them on the palate, by multiplying and varying his food, but also that Nile, afterwards shot one near Smyrna. They are found of his other senses, by the beauty, motions, and music of
the animals that are his summer or winter visitors : did should thus oscillate, as it were, between two points, that the nightingale forsake our groves; the swallow our the benefits they conferred might be the more widely dishouses and gardens; the cod-fish, mackerel, salmon, and tributed, and not become the sole property of the inhabitherring, our seas; and all the other animals that occa- ants of one climate : thus the swallow gladdens the sight sionally visit their several haunts, how vast would be the both of the Briton and African; and the herring visits the abstraction from the pleasure and comfort of our lives! coasts, and the salmon the rivers of every region of the
‘By means of these migrations the profits and enjoy. globe. What can more strongly mark design, and the inments derivable from the animal creation are also more tention of an all-powerful, all-wise, and beneficent Being, equally divided—at one season visiting the south and en- than that such a variety of animals should be so organized livening their winter; and at another adding to the vernal and circumstanced as to be directed annually, by some and summer delights of the inhabitants of the less genial pressing want, to seek distant climates ; and, after a cerregions of the north, and making up to them for the pri- tain period, to return again to their former quarters; and vations of winter. Had the Creator so willed, all these that this instinct should be productive of so much good to animals might have been organized so as not to require a mankind, and at the same time be necessary, under its warmer or a colder climate for the breeding or rearing of present circumstances, for the preservation or propagation their young: but his will was, that some of his best gifts of the species of these several animals.'
9 1 'Shall I not visit them for these things ?
saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged 1 Jeremiah lamenteth for the Jews' manifold sins, 9 and for their judgment. 12 Disobedience is the
on such a nation as this? cause of their bitter calamity. 17 He exhorteth to
10 For the mountains will I take up a weepmourn for their destruction, 23 and to trust not in ing and wailing, and for the "'habitations of the themselves, but in God. 25 He threateneth both
wilderness a lamentation, because they are Jews and Gentiles.
12 burned up, so that none can pass through 'On 'that my head were waters, and mine them ; neither can men hear the voice of the eyes a fountain of tears, that I inight weep cattle; both the fowl of the heavens and the day and night for the slain of the daughter beast are fled ; they are gone. of my people!
11 And I will make Jerusalem heaps, and 2 Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodg- 'a den of dragons ; and I will make the cities ing place of wayfaring men ; that I might of Judah "desolate, without an inhabitant. leave my people, and go from them ! for they 12 | Who is the wise man, that may be all adulterers, an assembly of treacherous understand this ? and who is he to whom the men.
mouth of the Lord hath spoken, that he may 3 And they bend their tongues like their declare it, for what the land perisheth and is bow for lies: but they are not valiant for the burned up like a wilderness, that none passeth truth upon the earth; for they proceed from through? evil to evil, and they know not me, saith the 13 And the LORD saith, Because they have LORD.
forsaken my law which I set before them, and 4 "Take ye heed every one of his 'neigh- have not obeyed my voice, neither walked bour, and trust ye not in any brother : for therein ; every brother will utterly supplant, and every 14 But have walked after the "imaginaneighbour will walk with slanders.
tion of their own heart, and after Baalim, 5 And they will 'deceive every one his which their fathers taught them : neighbour, and will not speak the truth : they 15 Therefore thus saith the Lord of hosts, have taught their tongue to speak lies, and the God of Israel ; Behold, I will feed them, weary themselves to commit iniquity. even this people, "'with wormwood, and give
6 Thine habitation is in the midst of deceit; them water of gall to drink. through deceit they refuse to know me, saith 16 I will ''scatter them also among the the LORD.
heathen, whom neither they nor their fathers 7 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, have known: and I will send a sword after Behold, I will melt them, and try them ; for them, till I have consumed them. how shall I do for the daughter of my people ? 17 | Thus saith the LORD of hosts, Con
8. Their tongue is as an arrow shot out; it sider ye, and call for the mourning women, speaketh 'deceit: one speaketh 'peaceably to that they may come; and send for cunning his neighbour with his mouth, but in heart he women, that they may come: layeth his wait.
18 And let them make haste, and take up 1 Heb. Wh will give my head, &c. 2 Isa. 22. 4. Chap. 4. 19. 3 Chap. 12. 6. Mic. 7. 5, 6. 4 Or, friend. 6 Psal. 12. 2, and 120, 3.
8 Heb. in the midst of him.
Or, wait for him. 10 Chap. 5. 9, 29. ni Or, pastures.
5 Or, mock.
7 Psal. 28. 3. 12 Or, desolate.
18 Hleb, from the foul even to, &c. 16 Or, stubbornness.
17 Chap. 8. 14, and 23. 15.
14 Chap 10, 92. 18 Levit. 26. 33.
15 Heb, desolation.
a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down 23 T Thus saith the LORD, Let not the with tears, and our eyelids gush out with wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the waters.
mighty man glory in his might, let not the 19 For a voice of wailing is heard out of rich man glory in his riches : Zion, How are we spoiled! we are greatly 24 But "let him that glorieth glory in this, confounded, because we have forsaken the that he understandeth and knoweth me, that land, because our dwellings have cast us out. I am the LORD which exercise lovingkindness,
20 Yet hear the word of the LORD, O ye judgment, and righteousness, in the earth : for women, and let your ear receive the word of in these things I delight, saith the LORD. his mouth, and teach your daughters wailing, 25 1 Behold, the days come, saith the and every one her neighbour lamentation. LORD, that I will ?opunish all them which are
21 For death is come up into our windows, circumcised with the uncircumcised; and is entered into our palaces, to cut off the 26 Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children from without, and the young men
children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that from the streets.
are in the utmost corners, that dwell in the 22 Speak, Thus saith the LORD, Even the wilderness : for all these nations are uncircumcarcases of men shall fall as dung upon the cised, and all the house of Israel are ?'unciropen field, and as the handful after the har-cumcised in the heart. vestman, and none shall gather them. 19 1 Cor. 1. 31. 2 Cor. 10.17.
21 Heb. cut off into corners, or, having the corners of their hair polled. 99 Chap, 25, 23.
20 Heb. visit upon.
23 Rom. 2, 28, 29.
Verse 17. ' Call for the mourning women.'—This, with several other passages of Scripture, evidently refers to the very ancient and still subsisting custom of hiring professed mourners to lament over the dead. The Jewish doctors acknowledge the custom, and inform us that it was so common, that the poorest man in Israel, when his wife died, never had less than two pipes and one mourning woman. The root of this rather singular though very prevalent custom seems to be, that the eastern nations require manifestations of strong feeling to be marked, palpable, and exaggerated. Hence their emotions, particularly those of grief, have a most violent and loud expression; and still unsatisfied and apprehensive that their own spontaneous manifestations of sorrow, when a death occurred, were inadequate to the occasion, and rendered insufficient honour to the dead, they thought of employing practised women to add their distinct and effective tributes of apparent grief. Thus mourning became an art, which devolved on women of shrill voices, copious of tears, and skilful in lamenting and praising the dead in mournful songs and eulogies. When a person in a family died, it was customary for the female relatives to seat themselves upon the ground in a separate apartment, in a circle, in the centre of which sat the wife, daughter, or other nearest relative, and thus, assisted by the mourning women, conducted their loud and piercing lamentations. At intervals the mourning women took the leading part on a signal from the chief mourner; and then the real mourners remained comparatively silent, but attested their grief by sobs, by beating their faces, tearing their hair, and sometimes wounding their persons with their nails, joining also aloud in the lamenting chorus of the hired mourners. Mr. Lane's account of the existing practice in Egypt is very illustrative. The family of the deceased generally send for two or more neddábehs (or public wailing women); but some persons disapprove of this custom; and many, to avoid unnecessary expense, do not conform with it. Each neddábeh brings with her a tár (or tambourine), which is without the tinkling plates of metal that are attached to the hoops of the common tár. The neddábehs, beating their társ, exclaim several times, “ Alas for him !” and praise his turban, his handsome person, etc.; and the female relations, domestics, and friends of the deceased
(with their tresses dishevelled, and sometimes with rent clothes), beating their own faces, cry in like manner, “ Alas for him!” This wailing is generally continued at least an hour.' It is of course resumed at intervals. The details vary in different parts of the East, and in some places the musicians form a separate body, as they did among the Hebrews.
The custom of employing hired mourners was also in use among the Greeks and Romans, who probably borrowed it from the East. Some of the Roman usages may contribute to illustrate those of Scripture. When a person expired whom his relatives or friends wished to honour by every external testimony of grief, some mourners were called, who were stationed at the door, and who, being instructed in the leading circumstances of the life of the deceased, composed and chanted eulogies having some reference to these circumstances, but in which flattery was by no means spared. Then, when the time arrived for the body to be carried to the funeral pile, a choir of hired mourners attended, who by their bare breasts, which they often smote, their dishevelled hair, their mournful chants, and profuse tears, moved, or sought to move, the minds of the spectators in favour of the deceased, and to compassion for his bereaved friends, whose respect for his memory their own presence indeed indicated.
These women were under the direction of one who bore the title of prafica, who regulated the time and tone of their lamentations. They were attired in the black robe of mourning and affliction called by the Romans pulla. It will be observed that, as intimated by the prophet in the next verse, a principal object of the displays of the hired mourners was to rouse the sorrow of the bereaved relatives, maintaining the excitement of affliction by enumerating the virtues and qualities of the deceased, as well as, by the same means, to excite the sympathising lamentations of those not immediately interested in the event. It needs actual observation of the levity or indifference which these hired mourners resume, when their service is ended, to be convinced that there was nothing sincere in the real tears which they shed, and in the lamentation, mourning, and woe' which they pour forth in the chamber of grief, or when following the dead one to the grave.