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27 Saying to a stock, Thou art my father ; 32 Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a and to a stone, Thou hast **brought me forth: bride her attire? yet my people have forgotten for they have turned stheir back unto me, and me days without number. not their face : but in the time of their 20trouble 33 Why trimmest thou thy way to seek they will say, Arise, and save us.

love? therefore last thou also taught the 28 But where are thy gods that thou hast wicked ones thy ways. made thee? let them arise, if they can save 34 Also in thy skirts is found the blood thee in the time of thy zotrouble: for ?'ac- of the souls of the poor innocents: I have cording to the number of thy cities are thy not found it by 3*secret search, but upon all gods, 0 Judah.

these. 29 Wherefore will ye plead with me? ye 35 q Yet thou sayest, Because I am innoall have transgressed against me, saith the cent, surely his anger shall turn from me. Lord.

Behold, I will plead with thee, because thou 30 In vain have I posmitten your children; sayest, I have not sinned. they received no correction : your own sword 36 Why gaddest thou about so much to hath 'devoured your prophets, like a destroy change thy way? thou also shalt be ashamed ing lion.

of Egypt, as 31 0 generation, see ye the word of the 31 Yea, thou shalt go forth from him, and LORD. ** Have I been a wilderness unto thine hands upon thine head : for the LORD Israel ? a land of darkness ? wherefore say hath rejected thy confidences, and thou shalt my people, "We are lords; we will come no not prosper in them. more unto thee?

24 Or, begotten me. 29 Chap. 11. 13.

25 Heb. the hinder part of the neck.
30 Isa. 9. 13. Chap. 5. 3. 31 Matth. 23. 29, &c.

26 Isa. 26. 16.

27 Isa. 45, 20.
32 Verse 5. 33 Heb, we have dominion.

28 Heb. evil. 34 Heb. digging.

Verse 6. 'A land of drought and of the shadow of death.' here so as to convey the idea that the use of them implied - After we had passed the salt desert we came to the an extraordinary, and perhaps luxurious, attempt at puriMalak el Moatdereh, or the valley of the angel of death. fication; and thus shewing that the Hebrews did not at This extraordinary appellation, and the peculiar nature of this period commonly employ anything but water for the the whole of this tract of land, broken into deep ravines, purpose ? Burckhardt gives a translation of a Bedouin without water, of a dreariness without example, will per- poem, in which the liberal entertainments of a certain haps be found forcibly to illustrate that passage in the sheikh are warmly praised. In describing the afterprophet Jeremiah ii. 6. Morier, i. 168.

dinner washing, the original has, clean washed with 16. ' Noph.' --See the note on xlvi. 19.

soap,' in compliment to the sheikh, who did not grudge 22. - Nitre.' - This well-known word comes from the such a rare article as soap is in the Desert, that he might Hebrew on? neter ; being the same as the vítpov or dítpov do honour to his guests. of the Greeks. This nitre, or nitron, must not be confounded with the nitrate of potash, or saltpetre, to which the term is now most usually applied. The word occurs nowhere else in Hebrew, except in Prov. xxv. 20; and in his note on that text, Jerome identifies it with the famous natron of Egypt, observing that the word comes from Nitria, the name of the province in Egypt where that product was most abundantly afforded." Whether the province took its name from the product or the product from the province, is not very clear. The natron, or carbonate of soda, is derived from a chain of lakes to the south-west of the Delta. Their bed is a sort of natural trench three or four leagues long by a quarter of a league wide, the bottom of which is hard and stony. It is dry for nine months in the year ; but in winter there oozes from the earth a water of a reddish violet colour, which fills the lakes to the height of five or six feet; the return of the great heats causing this to evaporate, there remains a bed of this salt, two feet thick and very hard, which is broken with bars of iron (see Volney, i. 15). These lakes also furnish common salt. The natron obtained from this and other sources was applied to various uses by the nations of the Levant; and, among them, one of the most important was its employment as one of the substitutes for soap in washing; for the ancients had no soap like ours. It was

SWIFT CAMEL. used thus, not only for cleansing clothes, but in purifying the person, particularly in baths; and it continues to be employed for the same purpose in the East.

23. A swift dromedary:--This word 772 bikrah, is Sope.'-For an explanation of this see the note Mal. understood by the Rabbins to mean a young camel, or by iii. 3. Is not the employment of the articles mentioned others, a swift camel-that is, a dromedary; for a drome

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dary is properly a camel, distinguished from the common miles or five miles and a half in the hour.'--Notes on the one only by its breed and training, as a saddle-horse is Bedouins, p. 262. distinguished from a cart-horse. This breed is called 37. .Thine hands upon thine head.' –We have not observed swift with respect to other camels, not with respect to in Western Asia anything that might illustrate the custom other animals; for the camel is not eminently a swift here alluded to, perhaps on account of the elevated or animal, and those most renowned for their fleetness are bulky head-dresses which have come into general use, and not in any way comparable to the horse. The best trained which render the act difficult, if not impossible. But in riding camels cannot sustain a gallop above half an hour, India, where this preventive does not exist

, the practice in which at a forced speed they may make about eight or alluded to by the prophet may be constantly observed. nine miles. This is their highest exertion. A forced trot Mr. Roberts informs us that when people are in great is not so contrary to the camel's nature; and it will sup- distress they put their hands on their head, the fingers port it for several hours without evincing any symptoms being clasped on the top of the crown. Should a man of fatigue; but even here the utmost degree of celerity of who is plunged into wretchedness meet a friend, he immethe very best bred dromedary does not exceed about diately puts his hands on his head to illustrate his circumtwelve miles an hour ; and it is therefore in this pace also stances. When a person hears of the death of a relation less expeditious than a moderately good horse. It is not or friend, he forth with clasps his hands on his head. therefore,' says Burckhardt, to whom we owe this state- When boys have been punished at school, they run home ment, ' by extreme celerity that the hedjeins and delouls with their hands on their head. Parents are much disare distinguished, however surprising may be the stories pleased and alarmed when they see the children with related on this subject both in Europe and the East. But their hands in that position, because they look upon it not they are perhaps unequalled by any quadrupeds for the merely as a sign of grief, but as an emblem of bad forease with which they carry their rider through an unin- tune. Thus of those who had trusted in Egypt and Assyterrupted journey of several days and nights, when they ria it was said, " Thou shalt be ashamed” of them; and are allowed to persevere in their own favourite pace, they were to go forth with their hands on their head, in which is a kind of easy amble, at the rate of about five token of their degradation and misery.'

CHAPTER III.

7 And I said after she had done all these

things, Turn thou unto me. But she returned 1 God's great mercy in Judah's vile whoredom. 6 not. And her treacherous sister Judah saw it.

Judah" is worse than Israel. 12 The promises of 8 And I saw, when for all the causes the Gospel to the penitent. 20 Israel reproved, and called by God, maketh a solemn confession of their whereby backsliding Israel committed adulsins.

tery I had put her away, and given her a bill

of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah "They say, If a man put away his wife, and feared not, but went and played the harlot she go from him, and become another man's, also. *shall he return unto her again ? shall not 9 And it came to pass through the lightthat land be greatly polluted ? but thou hast ness of her whoredom, that she defiled the played the harlot with many lovers; yet re- land, and committed adultery with stones and turn again to me, saith the LORD.

with stocks. 2 Lift up thine eyes unto the high places, 10 And yet for all this her treacherous and see where thou hast not been lien with. sister Judah hath not turned unto me with In the ways hast thou sat for them, as the her whole heart, but "feignedly, saith the Arabian in the wilderness; and thou hast LORD. polluted the land with thy whoredoms and 11 And the LORD said unto me, The with thy wickedness.

backsliding Israel hath justified herself more 3 Therefore the showers have been with than treacherous Judah. holden, and there hath been no latter rain; 12 1 Go and proclaim these words toand thou hadst a whore's forehead, thou re- ward the north, and say, Return, thou backfusedst to be ashamed.

sliding Israel, saith the LORD; and I will not 4 Wilt thou not from this time

cry

unto cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am me, My father, thou art the guide of my ®merciful, saith the LORD, and I will not keep youth?

anger 5 Will he reserve his anger for ever? will 13 Only acknowledge thine iniquity, that he keep it to the end ? Behold, thou hast thou hast transgressed against the Lord thy spoken and done evil things as thou couldest. God, and hast scattered thy ways to the

6 | The LORD said also unto me in the strangers under every green tree, and have days of Josiah the king, Hast thou seen that not obeyed my voice, saith the LORD. which backsliding Israel hath done? she is 14 Turn, O backsliding children, saith the *gone up upon every high mountain and under Lord; for 'I am married unto you: and I every green tree, and there hath played the will take you one of a city, and two of a harlot.

family, and I will bring you to Zion : 1 Heb. Saying.

for ever.

ye

3 Deut. 28. 24. Chap. 9. 12. * Chap. 6. 15. 6 Chap. 2. 20. 6 Or, fame. 7 Heb. in falsehood.

8 Psal. 86. 15, and 103. 8, 9.

2 Deut. 24. 4.

ye

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15 And I will give you 'pastors according 20 | Surely as a wife treacherously deto mine heart, which shall feed you with parteth from her ''husband, so have dealt knowledge and understanding.

treacherously with me, 0 house of Israel, 16 And it shall come to pass,

when

ye
be

saith the LORD. multiplied and increased in the land, in those 21 A voice was heard upon the high days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more, places, weeping and supplications of the The ark of the covenant of the LORD: neither children of Israel: for they have perverted shall it ''come to mind : neither shall they their way, and they have forgotten the LORD remember it; neither shall they visit it ; their God. neither shall "that be done any more.

22 Return, ye backsliding children, and 17 At that time they shall call Jerusalem I will heal your backslidings. Behold, the throne of the Lord; and all the nations come unto thee; for thou art the LORD our shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the God. Lord, to Jerusalem : neither shall they walk 23 Truly in vain is salvation hoped for any more after the ''imagination of their evil from the hills, and from the multitude of heart.

mountains : truly in the LORD our God is 18 In those days the house of Judah shall the salvation of Israel. walk with the house of Israel, and they 24 For shame hath devoured the labour of shall come together out of the land of the our fathers from our youth; their flocks and north to the land that I have given for an their herds, their sons and their daughters. inheritance unto your fathers.

25 We lie down in our shame, and our 19 But I said, How shall I put thee among confusion covereth us: for we have sinned the children, and give thee a 'pleasant land, against the LORD our God, we and our ioa goodly heritage of the hosts of nations ? fathers, from our youth even unto this day, and I said, Thou shalt call me, My father; and have not obeyed the voice of the LORD and shalt not turn away from me.

our God. 9 Chap. 23. 4. 10 Heb, come upon the heart.

11 Or, it be magnified. 12 Or, stubbornness. 14 Or, caused your fathers to possess.

15 Heb. land of desire.

16 Heb. an heritage of glory, or, beauty. 17 Heb. from after me.

18 Heb. friend.

13 Or, to.

19 Hos. 14. 1.

Verse 2. As the Arabian in the wilderness.'_The the slightest and most distant indication of smoke or dust, strongest possible idea of vigilant and eager watching is and the faintest track on the ground, is instantly perconveyed by this figure, derived from the practice of ceived, and conveys to them the information they desire. the desert Arabians, when in wait for their prey on cara- With like eagerness and zeal did Israel watch in her corvans and travellers. Their avidity, acuteness, and perse- ruptions. verance, on such occasions, are equally surprising. They 24. Shame;' better definitely, the shame,' or the never relinquish their object from delay in its attainment, confusion.' The Hebrews, when repentant or abhorring por until they feel assured that ultimate success is hope- idolatry, avoided pronouncing even the name of Baal, but less. While out on this pursuit, they are continually substituted for it, when an allusion was necessary, nu's turning their regards to every quarter, raising themselves bosheth, shame,' or confusion.' Guided by this underoccasionally upon their horses to extend their view, and

standing, Blayney translates • That thing of shame; and scouring about in all directions—thus endeavouring to Boothroyd, “That shameful idol. The word occurs in discover some indication whether people have passed over

the same sense in ch. xi, 13, and Hos. ix. 16. the ground, or are within their reach. For this purpose

CHAPTER IV.

of Judah and Jerusalem, Break up your

fallow ground, and sow not among thorns. 1 God calleth Israel by his promise. 3 He exhorteth

eth 4 Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and Judah to repentance by fearful judgments. 19 A grievous lamentation for the miseries of Judah.

take away the foreskins of your heart, ye

men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem : If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith the LORD, lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn 'return unto me: and if thou wilt put away that none can quench it, because of the evil thine abominations out of my sight, then shalt of your doings. thou not remove.

5 Declare ye in Judah, and publish in 2 And thou shalt swear, The LORD liveth, Jerusalem ; and say, Blow ye the trumpet in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; in the land : cry, gather together, and say, and the nations shall bless themselves in him, Assemble yourselves, and let us go into the and in him shall they *glory.

defenced cities. 3 For thus saith the LORD to the men 6 Set up the standard toward Zion: retire, stay not: for I will bring evil from the a noise in me; I cannot hold my peace, ‘north, and a great 'destruction.

3 Or, strengthen.

i Joel 2. 12.

2 2 Cor. 10. 17.

because thou hast heard, O my soul, the 7 The lion is come up from his thicket, sound of the trumpet, the alarm of war. and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his 20 Destruction upon destruction is cried ; way; he is gone forth from his place to make for the whole land is spoiled : suddenly are thy land desolate ; and thy cities shall be laid my tents spoiled, and my curtains waste, without an inhabitant.

ment. 8 For this 'gird you with sackcloth, lament 21 How long shall I see the standard, and and howl: for the fierce anger of the Lord is hear the sound of the trumpet ? not turned back from us.

22 For my people is foolish, they have 9 And it shall come to pass at that day, not known me; they are sottish children, and saith the LORD, that the heart of the king they have none understanding : they are wise shall perish, and the heart of the princes; to do evil, but to do good they have no knowand the priests shall be astonished, and the ledge. prophets shall wonder.

23 I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was lo Then said I, Ah, Lord God! surely without form and void; and the heavens, thou hast greatly deceived this people and and they had no light. Jerusalem, saying, Ye shall have peace ; 24 I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they whereas the sword reacheth unto the soul. trembled, and all the hills moved lightly.

11 At that time shall it be said to this 25 I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, people and to Jerusalem, A dry wind of the and all the birds of the heavens were fled. high places in the wilderness toward the 26 I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was daughter of my people, not to fan, nor to a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were cleanse.

broken down at the presence of the Lord, 12 Even 'a full wind from those places and by his fierce anger. shall come unto me : now also will I give 27 For thus hath the Lord said, The sentence against them.

whole land shall be desolate; yet will I 13 Behold, he shall come up as clouds, not make a full end. and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind : his 28 For this shall the earth mourn, and the horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto heavens above be black: because I have us! for we are spoiled.

spoken it, I have purposed it, and will not 14 O Jerusalem, 'wash thine heart from repent, neither will I turn back from it. wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How 29 The whole city shall flee for the noise long shall thy vain thoughts lodge within of the horsemen and bowmen ; they shall go thee?

into thickets, and climb up upon the rocks : 15 For a voice declareth ''from Dan, and every city shall be forsaken, and not a man publisheth affliction from mount Ephraim. dwell therein.

16 Make ye mention to the nations; be- 30 And when thou art spoiled, what wilt hold, publish against Jerusalem, that watchers thou do? Though thou clothest thyself with come from a far country, and give out their crimson, though thou deckest thee with ornavoice against the cities of Judah.

ments of gold, though thou rentest thy ''face 17 As keepers of a field, are they against with painting, in vain shalt thou make thyself her round about; because she hath been fair ; thy lovers will despise thee, they will rebellious against me, saith the LORD. seek thy life.

18 “Thy way and thy doings have pro- 31 For I have heard a voice as of a woman cured these things unto thee; this is thy in travail, and the anguish as of her that wickedness, because it is bitter, because it bringeth forth her first child, the voice of the reacheth unto thine heart.

daughter of Zion, that bewaileth herself, that 19 My "bowels, my bowels ! I am spreadeth her hands, saying, Woe is me now! pained at ''my very heart; my heart maketh | for my soul is wearied because of murderers.

5 Heb, breaking.

8 Chap. 6. 26.

7 Or, a fuller wind than those. 8 Heb. utter judgments. 12 Clap. 8. 16.

12 Isa. 22. 4. Chap. 9. 1. 13 Heb. the walls of my heart.

4 Chap. 5. 18.

+ Chap. 1. 13, 14, 15, and 6. 22.

9 Isa. 1. 16.

11 Psal. 107. 17. Isa. 50, 1.

13 Heb, eyes.

Verse 11. 'A dry wind of the high places in the wilderness.'-Blayney's translation, . A wind that scorcheth the plains in the wilderness,' is doubtless preferable, both as regards the interpretation of the original, and the nature i

of the phenomenon to which it refers. This will appear from the account of the simoom which we have given in the note on Isa. xxxvii.

17 As keepers of a field,' etc.-We have on former occasions mentioned the single keeper and his lodge. 30. Rentest thy face with painting.'—For.face,' read When a field or plantation is extensive, several men are "eyes,' as in the margin. The word 27 kara, “to rend,' employed, as the season of fruition approaches, to prevent

or 'tear,' is probably here to be understood in the sense of the encroachment of cattle and other marauders. These

tearing open, or distending, and perhaps refers to the effect guards are most numerous near frequented roads, and

of the operation of painting the eyes. Large eyes are fewer in remote districts. They keep an easy watch on much affected in the East; and the black border, by its the borders of the ground, and sometimes tend a few sheep, contrast to the white of the eye, does certainly give a much or amuse the time with some other light employment. enlarged appearance to that organ. See the note and cuts They sleep together at night in some such frail lodge or under 2 Kings ix. 30. shed as we have formerly described.

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CHAPTER V.

the Lord: and shall not my soul be avenged

on such a nation as this? 1 The judgments of God upon the Jews, for their per

10 I Go ye up upon her walls, and deverseness, 7 for their adultery, 10 for their impiety, 19 for their contempt of God, 25 and for their great

stroy; but make not a full end : take away corruption in the civil state, 30 and ecclesiastical. her battlements; for they are not the Lord's.

11 For the house of Israel and the house Run ye to and fro through the streets of of Judah have dealt very treacherously against Jerusalem, and see now, and know, and seek me, saith the LORD. in the broad places thereof, if ye can find a 12 They have belied the LORD, and said, man, if there be any that executeth judgment, 'It is not he ; neither shall evil come upon that seeketh the truth; and I will pardon it. us; neither shall we see sword nor famine:

2 And though they say, The Lord liveth; 13 And the prophets shall become wind, surely they swear falsely.

and the word is not in them : thus shall it be 30 LORD, are not thine eyes upon the done unto them. truth? thou hast 'stricken them, but they 14 Wherefore thus saith the LORD God have not grieved ; thou hast consumed them, of hosts, Because ye speak this word, bebut they have refused to receive correction : hold, I will make my words in thy mouth fire, they have made their faces harder than a and this people wood, and it shall devour rock; they have refused to return.

them. 4 Therefore I said, Surely these are poor ; 15 I Lo, I will bring a 'nation upon you they are foolish: for they know not the way from far, O house of Israel, saith the LORD: of the LORD, nor the judgment of their it is a miglity nation, it is an ancient nation, God.

a nation whose language thou knowest not, 5 I will get me unto the great men, and neither understandest what they say. will speak unto them; for they have known 16 Their quiver is as an open sepulchre, the way of the Lord, and the judgment of they are all mighty men. their God: but these have altogether broken 17 And they shall eat up thine 'harvest, the yoke, and burst the bonds.

and thy bread, which thy sons and thy daugh6 Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall ters should eat: they shall eat up thy flocks slay them, and a wolf of the 'evenings shall and thine herds : they shall eat up thy vines spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their and thy fig-trees : they shall impoverish thy cities : every one that goeth out thence shall fenced cities, wherein thou trustedst, with the be torn in pieces : because their transgres

sword. sions are many, and their backslidings are 18 Nevertheless in those days, saith the increased.

LORD, I will not make a full end with 7 | How shall I pardon thee for this ? you. thy children have forsaken me, and sworn 19 And it shall come to pass, when ye by them that are no gods : when I had fed shall

say,

1°Wherefore doeth the Lord our them to the full, they then committed adul-God all these things unto us? then shalt tery, and assembled themselves by troops in thou answer them, Like as ye have forsaken the harlots' houses.

me, and served strange gods in your land, 8 'They were as fed horses in the morn- so shall ye serve strangers in a land that is

every one neighed after his neighbour's not your's. wife.

20 1 Declare this in the house of Jacob, and 9 Shall I not visit for these things ? saith publish it in Judah, saying, 1 Isa. 9. 13. Chap. 2. 30.

3 Heb. are strong. i Deut. 28. 49. Chap. 1. 15, and 6. 22. 8 Levit. 26. 16. Deut. 28. 31, 33.

10 Chap. 13. 22, and 16. 10.

353

2 Or, descrts.

5 Isa. 28. 15.

4 Ezek. 22. 11.

9 Chap 4, 27.

6 Chap. 1. 9.

VOL. III.

W

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