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a line ply close over them, from the top to the bottom, and multiply the length of this line by the length of a step, for the whole area.-By the length of a step is meant the length of the front and the returns at the two ends; and by the breadth is to be understood the girts of its two outer surfaces, or the tread and riser.
For the Balustrade, take the whole length of the upper part of the hand-rail, and girt over its end till it meet the top of the newel-post, for the one dimension ; and twice the length of the baluster on the landing, with the girt of the handrail, for the other dimension.
For Wainscoting, take the compass of the room for the one dimension; and the height from the floor to the ceiling, making the string ply close into all the mouldings, for the other.
For Doors, take the height and the breadth, to multiply them together for the area.-If the door be panneled on both sides, take double its measure for the workmanship; but if one side only be panneled, take the area and its half for the workmanship. For the Surrounding Architrave, girt it about the uttermost part for its length; and measure over it, as far as it can be seen when the door is open, for the breadth.
Window-shutters, Bases, &c, are measured in like manner.
In measuring of Joiners' work, the string is made to ply close into all mouldings, and to every part of the work over which it passes.
Exam. 1. Required the content of a floor, 48 feet 6 inches long, and 24 feet 3 inches broad? Ans. Il sq. 765 feet.
Exam. 2. A floor being 36. feet 3 inches long, and 16 feet 6 inches broad, how many squares are in it ?
Ans. 5 sq. 98 feet. ExAM. 3. How many squares are there in 173 feet 10 inches in length, and 10 feet 7 inches height, of partition
Ans. 18.3973 squares. . ExAM. 4. What cost the roofing of a house at 10s. 6d. a square; the length within the walls being 32 feet 8 inches, and the breadth 30 feet 6 inches; reckoning the roof of the flat?
Ans. 121. 125. llid.
Exam. 5. To how much, at 6s. per square yard, amounts the wainscoting of a room; the height, taking in the cornice and moullings, being 12 feet 6 inches, and the whole compass 83 feet 8 inches ; also the three window-shutters are each 7 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 6 inches, and the door 7 feet by 3 feet 6 inches; the doors and shutters, being worked on both sides, are reckoned work and half work?
Ans. 361. 125.214.
VI. SLATERS' AND TILERS' WORK. In these articles, the content of a roof is found by multiplying the length of the ridge by the girt over from eaves to eaves ; making allowance in this girt for the double row of slates at the bottom, or for how much one row of slates or tiles is laid over another.
When the roof is of a true pitch, that is, forming a right angle at top; then the breadth of the building, with its half added, is the girt over both sides nearly,
In angles formed in a roof, running from the ridge to the eaves, when the angle bends inwards, it is called a valley; but when outwards, it is called a hip.
Deductions are made for chimney shafts or window holes,
Ex AM. 1. Required the content of a slated roof, the length being 45 feet 9 inches, and the whole girt 34 feet 3 inches?
Ans. 1747 yards. EXAM. 2. To how much amounts the tiling of a house, at 255. 6d. per square; the length being 43 feet 10 inches, and the breadth on the flat 27 feet 5 inches; also the eaves projecting 16 inches on each side, and the roof of a true
Ans. 241. 9s. 5 d.
VII. PLASTERERS' WORK. PLASTERERS' work is of two kinds; namely, ceiling, which is plastering on laths; and rendering, which is plastering on walls: which are measured separately.
The contents are estimated either by the foot or the yard, or the square, of 100 feet. Inriched mouldings, &c, are rated by running or lineal measure.
Deductions are made for chimneys, doors, windows, &c.
EXAMPLES. Exam. 1. How many yards contains the ceiling which is 43 feet 3 inches long, and 25 feet 6 inches broad?
Ans. 1221. EXAM. 2. To how much amounts the ceiling of a room, at 10d. per yard; the length being 21 feet 8 inches, and the breadth 14 feet 10 inches?
Ans. 11. Os. 8d. Exam. 3. The length of a room is 18 feet 6 inches, the breadth 12 feet 3 inches, and height 10 feet 6 inches; to how much amounts the ceiling and rendering, the former at 8d. and the latter at 3.1. per yard ; allowing for the door of 7 feet by 3 feet 8, and a fire-place of 5 feet square ?
Ans. 1l. 135. 310, Exam. 4. Required the quantity of plastering in a room, the length being 14 feet 5 inches, breadth 13 feet 2 inches, and height 9 feet 3 inches to the under side of the cornice, which girts 84 inches, and projects 5 inches from the wall on
he upper part next the ceiling; deducting only for a door 7 feet by 4 ?
Ans. 53 yards 5 feet 34 inches of rendering
VIII. PAINTERS' WORK.
PAINTERS' work is computed in square yards. Every part is measured where the colour lies; and the measuring line is forced into all the mouldings and corners.
Windows are done at so much a piece. And it is usual tọ allow double measure for carved mouldings, &c.
Exam. 1. How many yards of painting contains the room which is 65 feet 6 inches in compass, and 12 feet 4 inches high?
Ans. 8944 yards. EXAM. 2. The length of a room being 20 feet, its breadth
14 feet 6 inches, and height 10 feet 4 inches; how many yards of painting are in it, deducting a fire-place of 4 feet by 4 feet 4 inches, and two windows each 6 feet by 3 feet 2 inches?
Ans. 73 yards. Exam. 3. What cost the painting of a room, at 6d. per yard; its length being 24 feet 6 inches, its breadth 16 feet 3 inches, and height 12 feet 9 inches; also the door is 7 feet by 3 feet 6, and the window-shutters to two windows each 7 feet 9 by 3 feet 6; but the breaks of the windows themselves are 8 feet 6 inches high, and 1 foot 3 inches deep; including also the window cills or seats, and the soffits above, the dimensions of which are known from the other dimensions : but deducting the fire-place of 5 feet by 5 feet 6 ?
Ans. 31. 3s. 10 d.
IX. GLAZIERS' WORK. GLAZIERS take their dimensions, either in feet, inches, and parts, or feet, tenths, and hundredths. And they compute their work in
feet. In taking the length and breadth of a window, the cross bars between the squares are included. Also windows of round or oval forms are measured as square, measuring them to their greatest length and breadth, on account of the waste in cutting the glass.
ExAM. 1. How many square feet contains the window which is 4.25 feet long, and 2:75 feet broad?
EXAM. 2. What will the glazing a triangular sky-light come to, at 10d. per foot; the base being 12 feet 6 inches, and the perpendicular height 6 feet 9 inches ?
Ans. 11. 15$. 1 d. Exam. 3. There is a house with three tiers of windows, three windows in each tier, their common breadth 3 feet 11 inches : now the height of the first tier is 7 feet 10 inches
of the second 6 8
of the third 5 4 Required the expence of glazing at 14d. per foot ?
Ans. 131. 115. 10, d.
Exam. 4. Required the expense of glazing the windows of a house at 13d. a foot; there being three stories, and three windows in each story: the height of the lower tier is 7 feet 9 inches
of the middle 6 6 of the
upper 5 31 and of an oyal window over the door 1 the common breadth of all the windows being 3 feet 9 inches?
Ans. 121. 55. 6d.
X. PAVERS' WORK.
Pavers' work is done by the square yard. And the content is found by multiplying the length by the breadth.
Exam. 1. What cost the paving a foot path, at 3s. 4d. a yard; the length being 35 feet 4 inches, and breadth 8 feet 3 inches ?
Ans. 51. 75. 11 d. Exam. 2. What cost the paving a court, at 3s. 2d. per yard; the length being 27 feet 10 inches, and the breadth 14 feet 9 inches ?
Ans. 71. 4s. 5 d. Exam. 3. What will be the expense of paving a rectangular court-yard, whose length is 63 feet, and breadth 45 feet; in which there is laid a foot-path of 5 feet 3 inches broad, running the whole length, with broad stones, at 3s. a yard; the rest being paved with pebbles at 25. 6d. a yard?
Ans. 401. 5s. 10d.
XI. PLUMBERS' WORK.
PLUMBERS' work is rated at so much a pound, or else by the hundred weight of 112 pounds.
Sheet lead, used in roofing, guttering, &c, is from 6 to 10lb. to the
foot. And a pipe of an inch bore is commonly 13 or 14 lb. to the yard in length.
ExAM. 1. How much weighs the lead which is 39 feet