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plans, or for renewing their adventures. -292. Nesciat, speret. See on dignetur, 192. Rumpi ; the present, because the matter is already in prog

-293. Tentatūrum (esse); the construction passes over into the infinitive, depending on dicens or putans implied. Aditus, the approaches; the ways of addressing her so as to give the least offense. Supply sint after tempora, and sit after modus. -294. Rebus is in the dative after dexter; adupted to circumstances. Ocius ; supply dicto ; quicker than said. Comp. I, 142. Omnes. The Trojan chiefs.

296 - 449. Dido becomes aware of the secret preparation of the Trojans, and bitterly reproaching Aeneas, still begs him, with entreaties, and by repeated messages, conveyed by Anna, to change his purpose, or, at least, to postpone his departure.

297. Prima excepit, the first to detect. Omnia-timens, fearing all things (even while) secure. -298. Eadem, the same which had already roused Iarbas. Furenti is proleptic. The report rendered her furious. -300. Inops animi. Comp. 203, and II, 61. -301, Commotis sacris. When the vessels and symbols are brought forth froin the temple. -302. Audito Baccho, when Bucchus is heard ; that is, when the cry, lo! Bacche, is heard, announcing the Bacchanalian rites. -303. Orgia ; subject of stimulant.

-305. Sperasti, etc., did you hope even that you could conceal, etc. Not only has he resolved to leave her, which she regards as an outrage, but expected to conceal his departure. --307. Data dextera. The right hand given in mutual pledge of love. -308. Moritura, destined to die. He must know that neither her honor nor her disappointed love will suffer her to live if he departs. -309. Moliris

, for paras. Comp. III, 6. -310. Aquilonibus ; abl. of time; in the stormy winds ; in the wintry seuson. -314. Mene fugis ? is it I whom you flee? Per. For the separation of this preposition from its case in adjurations, see II. 569, II, 3; B. 332, 6; G. 415, R. ; 2. 791. Des. tram, Comp. 307.-316. Inceptos. The formal marriage had not yet taken place, but Diao understands that a private betrothal, or the beginning of the nuptials, has been made. -317. Quicquam meum, anything in me. 318. Domus labentis ; my house, or family, falling or ruined, if you now de

-320. Nomadum; for Numidarum. -321. Infensi Tyrii. Nothing was more natural than that her Carthaginian or Tyrian nobles should be jealous of Aeneas and the new-comers. -322. Sidera adibam, I approached the stars ; I was highly renowned. Comp. III, 462. -323. Moribundam. See on 308. -324. Hoc nomen, etc. ; since I am permitted now to call thee only stranger, instead of husband. -325. Quid moror? i. e., to die. An, is it then. M. 453. -326. Destruat. H. 519, 2; A. 328; B. 304, 3; G. 574; M. 360, b. -327. Suscepta fuisset. Among the Greeks and Romans it was the custom for the father of the new-born infant to lift it up (suscipere or tollere) in his arms, in token of his intention to protect and rear it; hence, suscipi in a secondary sense, to be born. -329. Tamen, but, if, only.330. Capta, captured, either by Iarbas, or some other enemy. Others translate, deceived. -332. Obnixus, struggling against his emotions. The perfect participle for the present. Comp. I, 155. -333. Plurima; translate in the antecedent clause, as I, 419; I will never deny that you have done very many favors to me (literally, deserved of me), which you can enumerate in speaking. -337. Pro re, for the affair, for (in defense of) my conduct. Ladewig quotes from Sall. Iug. 102, 12: Pauca pro delicto facit. -339. Praetendi, etc., I have never carried before thee (caused to be carried before thee in bridal procession) the torches of a husband; marriage torches. Aut. See on II, 602. Foedera. Marriage contracts. -340, 341. Meis auspiciis, under my own direction ; at my option. Componere curas, to end my toile, or troubles. -342, 343. Dulcis reliquias, the dear remnant. Comp. I, 30. Colerem, I should cherish ; shoull be now cherishing in my own native land.

sert me.

-344. Posuissem, etc., I should have built for the conquered with my own hand a new-created Troy. -346. Lyciae sortes, Lycian fates ; so called from the Lycian oracle of Apollo at Patara. See on 143. -347. Hic amor, this is my love ; this destined Italy is the land which I must love as my own. 349, 350. Quae invidia est (tibi)? etc., what envy have you at the Trojans settling, etc.? Et nos, etc., it is right for us also (as well as you). 353. Turbida imago. The countenance of his father, seen in his dreams, seems troubled, and to reproach him for dallying in Carthage. See on VI, 696.

-357. Testor utrumque caput; i. e., both thine and mine. But some think the two gods, Jupiter and Mercury, are intended. 363. Totum, his whole person, or form , from head to foot. -364, Luminibus tacitis ; speechless at first with amazement and anger. Join sic with accensa ; being thus enrayed. Profatur is the historical present, not the same usage of the present as in the two verbs preceding with iamdudum, which denoto what has been going on, and is still continuing. --366. Cautibus is construed with horrens, rough, with jagged rocks. -367. Admorunt ubera, gave thee suck. — 368. Nam quid etc. Why should she conceal her indignation? For what greater wrongs (ad quae maiora) can she reserve herself? -369. Fletu is in the dative after ingemuit, which takes either the acc. or dat. of the causė. See Cic. Tusc. 2, 9, 21 : quem vidit nemo ulli ingemiscentem malo. The third person of the verb indicates that, in her scorn and distraction, she does not address Aeneas directly -371. Quae quibus anteferam, what shall I say before what? To what (emotion) shall I first give utterance Comp. Ge. II, 256. -373. Nusquam tuta fides. If Aeneas has violated his faith, nowhere in the world can man be trusted. Litore ; ablative of situation. -374. Excepi ; not accepi, as if he had come of his own accord to Carthage.-376. Incensa feror. Comp: 110. Nunc, now; when it suits your convenience.—379. Scilicet ; in bitter irony: Is labor, ea cura. See on II, 171. The fortunes of Aeneas, forsooth, are the occasion of labor and anxiety to the gods in their tranquillity. -382. Pia. Comp. II, 536. Quid possunt, have any power ; quid acc. of specification. -383. Hausurum, that you will suffer; drain to the bottom, take in the whole, suffer all extremes ; te would be expressed in prose. Dido ; accusative after vocaturum. -384. Atris ignibus, uith smoky fires ; suggested by the idea of the Furies, who pursue the guilty with Haming and smoking torches. The meaning of the passage is this; As long as I live I shall, though absent, be present to your conscience, like a Fury; and when I am dead, my ghost shall haunt you everywhere. -387. Manis į for Hades.-388. Dictiss the ablative of manner, to be joined with abrumpit. Medium sermonem. See on 277. Auras, for lucem, the light of day.-390. Multa ; adverbial ; (delaying) much. See on 1, 465. Metu, through fear that it he says anything more in his own defense, he will but increase her anger. -392. Thalamo; dative for in thalamum.' Comp. V, 451. Stratis ; ablative.-397, 398. Litore deducunt, draw down (the ships) from the shore ; launch. Comp. III, 71.—-399. Frondentis. In their haste the Trojans bring branches from the woods with the leaves still on, and timber unhewn, for forming oars, yards, benches, etc. -401. Cernas. The second person singular of the imperfect subjunctive is the usual form in prosz for expressing the indefinite one might, could, etc. ; H. 485, note 1; Z. 528, n. 2; À. 311, a ; B. 308, a; G. 250; but the present here is more lively. -404, 405. It—convectantí both agree with agmen. See on II, 31.

-400. Obnixae. For the construction, see H. 438, 6; B. 267; A. 187, d ; G. 202, R. 1, II, exc. ; M. 215, a. Agmina cogunt, keep the ranks together.

-407. Moras ; for morantis. -409. Fervere, glow ; animated with the stir of the multitude hastening their departure. -412. Quid cogis. See on III, 56. 413. Ire in lacrimas, to descend to tears ; that is, to tearful entreaties. -414. Animos, her proud spirit.-—415. Frustra' moritura. She

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would die in vain, if it should after all be true that Aeneas may be won back. -418. Imposuere coronas ; in token of joy at their departure. -419, 420. Si---potero, if (since) I might have expected such grief, I shall also huve proved able to endure it. It is what I ought to be expected to sustain, inasmuch as it was easy to foresee that it would come. Tamen, yet, though I express this hope of bearing up under the trial. -422. Colere, credere ; historical inf. - 24. Hostem superbum. The haughty foe, once a friend, now, like a disdainful enemy, unmoved by prayers.

426. Aulide. See on II, 116. Ve. See on II, 602. -430. Ventos ferentis. Comp. II!, 473. 433. Tempus inane, a trivial delay; a brief period which can be of little importance to him. Spatium, respite ; opportunity for my griet to subside. 434. Dölere, to endure grief.

-436. Quam—remittam, which, when you shall have granted to me, I will repay (it) generously (cumulatam, heaped up) at my death. Morte; an ablative of time, as below, 502, and III, 333. So Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 97. No interpretation of this muchdisputed passage is satisfactory. -138. Fertque refertque, both bears, und bears again (to Aeneas). Comp. V, 709; XII, 866. -440. Placidas. He is disposed to give a kindly hearing, but duty forbids. Or, perhaps, placidas here means insensible. -113. It stridɔr, the rush (of winds) resounds. Altae; proleptic. -448. Tunditur, is plied, or assailed. -449. Mens. The resolution of Aeneas. Lacrimae. The tears of Dido and Anna. -450. Fatis exterrita, ren lered frantic by her fates, or destiny, now fully confronting her. -152, 453. Quo magis peragat—vidit, that she may, the more readily accomplish her design, she stw. The sequence of tenses is irregular. The subjunctive here with quo denotes the destination or purpose of some higher power; as if she were made to see these signs, that she might thus be led on to her fate. -155. Obscenum, ill bodini. Comp. III, 262.

-156. Visum; substantively; appearance. -457. In tectis, within her paluce. In the open court of the palace there was a memorial temple dedicated to the Manes of Sychaeus. -459. Velleribus niveis, with snowy woolen bands, or fillets. See on I, 417.-462. Bubo is feminine only in Vergil. It was a bird of ill omen, and whenever it appeared in Rome an expiatory sacrifice was made. Culminibus, on the (palace) roofs. 464. Vatum priorum; the priests, perhaps, who had been present at the former sacrifices, mentioned in 65. — 167, 468. Semper-terra; an impressive foreshadowing of death. Viam, H. 371, II; A. 238; B. 214; G. 331 ; M. 223, c, obs. 4. 469-473. Her mind is filled with diseased fancies; she is like Pentheus, who was driven mad by the Furies (Eumenides, Dirae) because he opposed the introduction of the Bacchanalian rites into his kingdom of Thebes, or like Orestes, also represented on the stage (scaenis) as pursued (agitatus) by the Furies. In the Bacchae of Euripides, 916, which Vergil seems to have in mind, Pentheus says: “I seem to see two suns, and Thebes, and the seven-gated city double." In the Eumenides of Aeschylus, Orestes, 1057, fleeing from the avenging shade of Clytemnestra, and from the Furies (comp. III, 331), seeks refuge in the temple of Apollo at Delphi. The Furies follo:v to the door of the sanctuary, which they are afraid to invade, and therefore sit, guarding the entrance (sedent in limine Dirae).

474 -552. Dido makes preparation for her suicide by causing a funeral pyre to be erected in the court of the palace, ostensibly for the purpose of burning an image of Aeneas, and the arms and clothing left by him; which ceremony, she assures Anna, will magically work the cure of her love for Aeneas, or else restore him to her affections. A sorceress from the Hesperides has given her instructions to perform the ceremony, with the promise of such a result; and Dido causes Anna to believe that she intends nothing more than to go through with these magic rites. In the night, when by herself, she gives utterance to her bitter anguish.

475. Secum, with herself (alone); without the knowledge of Anna, or any

confidant. Modum; the mode of accomplishing her death. 476. Exigit, plans , thinks out. The deceptive conversation with her sister, which immediately follows, is a part of the plan. -477. Spem—serenat, shows calm hope in her countenance. Comp. I, 209. -479. It was a common superstition that incantations had power to bind or release lovers. Sec E. VIII, 68, 90. 483. Massylae ; for Libyan. 484. Hesperidum templi. The temple, or sacred enclosure of the Hesperides, is the fabulous garden of the Hesperides, sometimes assigned to the Canaries, or islands of the blest,” but apparently by Vergil to the western shore of Mauretania. The dragon guarded the golden apples, and the priestess, who is now in Carthage, and known to Dido through the information of others (monstrata), had exercised such power over the monster as is related of Medea, who soothed the rage of the Colchian dragon by means of honey mingled with drugs. Epulasque. The connective -que here joins the attribute custos, and the attribute expressed by the relative clause, quae dabat, etc., the keeper and the one who. etc.

Servabat. The priestess preserved the fruit by keeping the dragon watchful.-- 486. Spargens, etc., sprinkling liquid honey ; i. e., on the food. Soporiferum has no reference here to the present action, but is used as the general appellative of papaver. 487. Carminibus, by her incantations ; magical rites accompanied by forms of words in verse.

-488. Curas, pangs of love. 490. Videbis is applied to mugire, because visible motion as well as sound is conceived of in the quaking of the earth. 493. Invitam. The apology is rendered necessary by Roman rather than by Carthaginian manners; for magic rites were not reputable at Rome. Accingier. Supply me ; that I am girt with ; that I have recourse to. For the old infinitive in ier, see H. 240, 6; A. 128, 2, 4; B. 95,9,4; G. 191, 2; M. 115. For the accusative artis, see on exuvias, II, 275. -494. Secreta, unobserved. Tecto interiore, in the interior, or court, of the palace. Sub auras, Heyne explains here as suh divo, in the open air. -498. Iuvat, etc., it pleases (me), and the priestess directs. -500. Tamen. Though the deadly paleness that suddenly overspreads the countenance of Dido might have excited suspicion, yet Anna does not believe that her sister is contriving her death under the pretext of sacred rites.-501, 502. Nec mente concipit, nor does she imagine. 502. Aut. See on II, 602. Morte; an ablative of time, as in 436. She apprehends nothing more serious than such funeral rites as were performed at the death of Sychaeus. -504. Penetrali in sede, in the secluded court ; namely, the tectum interius mentioned in 494. -505. Taedissecta ; join with ingenti Comp. I, 165, 190, 648 ; VI, 214. -506. Intendit-sertis ; for intendit loco serta. -507. Super; adverbial, above ; on the couch. 508. Effigiem ; an image of wax, which, as it melted in the fire, was supposed to betoken either the softening and yielding of the estranged lover, or else his wasting away and death. Comp. E. VIII, 76, and note. Futuri, of what is to come ; i. e., of her approaching death. -509. Sacerdos; the sorceress mentioned in 483. -510. Ter centum = trecentos ; for a large and indefinite number. Tonat ore, etc., she utters aloud the names of three hundred gods. Comp. VIII, 716. Chaos is sometimes applied to the infernal regions, as denoting immeasurable void space, and here personified as an infernal god. -511. Tergeminam Hecaten, triple-formed Hecate. Hecate, who is also meant by the following words, tria ora Dianae, was of triple form (triceps, triformis, see p. 121), because she was Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in Hades. -512. Simulatos, etc., counterfeit waters of the Avernian lake ; common water being used instead of the genuine water of the Avernus. -513. Messae quaeruntur, are sought and cut. Aënis. Bronze was more potent in magic than iron -514. Lacte, juice.-515, 516. Quaeritur,praereptus amor, and the charm, torn from the forehead of the colt just. foaled, and snatched beforehand from the mother, is sought for. Amor, lovas ვი



charm, is put here for the hippomanes or excrescence on the forehead of the neiv-foaled colt, which the dain was supposed instantly to seize and swallow, unless anticipated.—-517. Ipsa. Dido. Piis; pure. Before making a sacrifice the bands are washed in running water. --519. Testatar deos. She calls upon the gods to witness and avenge her wrongs. -519, 520. Conscia fati sidera. The stars look down upon the destinies of men. -520. Non aequo foedere, not on equal terms ; i. ., with unrequited love. -521, Curae; dative of the end ; (has) for a care ; has under his protection. -526. Quaeque, both those (the birds) which, etc. ; both water-fowl and land-birds.-527, Somno; abl. -529. At, etc., but not thus did Dido (soothe her woes). Animi. See on II, 61. -531. Ingeminant curae, her griefs redouble ; storm with twofold violence. -532. Aestu. Coup. VII, 19. -533. Sic adeo insistit, so therefore she persists ; that is, in recurring to her woes, and her desperate purpose.

-534. En, quid ago ? Lo! what shall I do? The present as in 11, 322. Rursus; join with experiar. Inrisa ; after being set at naught ; namely, by Aeneas. -536. Sim dedignata, etc.; H.515, III ; B. 303 ; though I have 80 often already scorned them as suitors.

-537. Igitur supposes that the answer no has been given to the foregoing question. Ultima iussa, the most debasing commands ; putting myself under their power as the humblest slave. -538, Quiane iuvat, etc. ; supply cos ; because (forsooth) it is a pleasure to them to have been formerly relieved by my aid. -539. Bene; join with memores. Stat, says Thiel, is integra manet. -540. Fac velle, suppose (me) to be willing. Quis sinet, who (of them) will sutjer me ?542. Laomedonteae; used reproachfully, as in III, 248, with reference to the falsehood of Laomedon towards Apollo and Neptune, and afterwards to Hercules; a character which his descendants are supposed to have derived from him. -543. Ovantis ; as taking away the Carthaginian queen in triumph, and also rejoicing to start on the voyage. -544. Stipata. See on comitatus, I, 312. -545. Inferar, shall I be carried (against them); pursue or attack Revelli ; followed by the ablative according to remark on recludit, I, 126.

-546. Pelago ; ablative; on or over the sea. -547. Quin morere, may, die; the imperative addressed to herself. -548. She accuses, in the excess of her grief, her absent sister ; recalling the first conversation between Anna and herself about Aeneas. See 9-55. -550. Non licuit (mihi)! may be rendered interrogatively: might I not have ? -551. More ferae; i. e., in solitude.

551 584. A youthful form, like that of Mercury, appears to Aeneas in sleep, and warns him instantly to depart; and the Trojans immediately make sail.

554. Certus eundi, resolved to set sail. Here the genitive, below, 564, the infinitive is used after certus. -556. Vultu redeuntis eodem. The vision appears with the same countenance as the god himself when delivering the message in 265, sqq. -558. Omnia, etc. ; the Greek acc. - que loses its final vowel here. -561, Quae-pericula, what dangers immediately await you? deinde, as in VI, 756, 891, of the time immediately coming. -566. Iam mare, etc., presently you will see the sea agitated with her ships.—569. Varium et mutabile. See H. 438, 4; A. 189, c; B. 275; G. 202, R. 1, exc.; M. 212, b, obs. -571. Subitis, with reference to the sudden appearance and vanishing of the divine form (umbris). -573. Praecipites, swift, for swiftly; join with vigilate and considite transtris. -574. Citi, quick; used as praecipites, in place of an adverb. –575. Tortos, twisted ; an appellative here; not coiled. -577. Quisquis es. It was only a vision resembling Mercury.

--578, 579. Sidera--feras, render the stars in the sky propitious.---581. Rapiuntque ruuntque, they lay hold and rush to and fro; seizing upon the ropes, arranging the sails and rigging, hastening to their places at the oars -582. Deseruere litora, they have (even now) left the shores.

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