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534. Voluit,auspiciis, has made known his will by such tokens. -534. Ex sortem, apart from the lot; not provided for among the premiums first proposed. –537. In magno munere, as a noble gift. -538. Ferre. See on 1, 66. Bui monumentum, as a memento of himself: -541. Praelato-honori, the honor put before his own. He is not displeased that an extraordinary gift, eclipsing the first prize, should be presented to Acestes. -543. Proximus ingreditur donis, he advances as the next in prizes. The words seem to be equivalent to proximus donatus est.

545–603. The cavalry exercise (cursus equorum) of Ascanius and his young companions is introduced in addition to the regular contests, and as a pleasing surprise to the spectators. Three leaders (ductores, magistri), Priamus, Atys, and Ascanius, command each a troop of twelve boys. They engage in complicated evolutions, compared by the poet to the Labyrinth of Daedalus, and are nearly through with the exercise, when they are suddenly interrupted by the news that the ships are on fire.

The martial game of the boys, here described, was called Troia, and was practiced by the Romans, especially in the time of Vergil, under the patronage of Augustus.

545. Nondum-misso. The contest (of the archers) not being, yet ended. Epytides had been called while the game of archery was still going on, that the troop. of boys might be prepared to appear without delay. This is Henry's interpretation. Certamine, however, has usually been explained here as equivalent to ludis. -546. Custodem. Noble youths, both in the heroic age and in Vergil's time, were attended by guardians. Comp. 257, and Il. XVII, 323. -550. Ducat, ostendat; subjunctive after dic as a verb of commandiny. Avo, to, or in honor of, his grandfather.

-551. Ipse. Aeneas. Longo circo, from the long extended arena or oblong circus. 552. Infusum. The inultitude “had poured” over the level ground during the trial in archery. -553. Pariter, equally, or similarly equipped and adorned. -554. Lucent. They shine in polished armor, and with their glittering weapons, and golden ornaments. Euntis, as they advance.

–554, 555. Quos mirata (not quos fremit), admiring whom. Coinp. I, 499. Fremit may take the accusative of a thing, as in VII, 460, but not of a per

-556. In morem, for de or er more ; according to the custom of boys in this game.

The hair of all was bound with a well-trimmed crown, probably of olive-leaves. We infer from VII, 751, and from their wearing helmets (see 673), that it was fastened round the helmet; Forbiger suggests, round the bottom or rim of the helmet, so as also to touch the hair. 558. Pectore ; an ablat. of situation. It is “ at the top of the breast” that the ends of the torques, or stiff twisted collar, come together. -560. Numero; join with tres. Turmae, squadrons, companies, battalions, troops ; synony, mous with acies, 563, and agmini, 580. Terni; for tres. -561. Bis sen There are twelve boys in each division, besides the leader. Secuti; as a present, like mirata, 555. -562. Agmine partito, the (whole) band being ilivided ; i. e., not being one organized company under a common leader, but consisting of three independent battalions (agmina), each with its own captain, though now, when they first enter, moving in one column. Paribus magistris; their cuptrins being equal ; well matched in age, rank, and appearance. -563. Una acies. Supply est. One, or the first squadron of the youth, is that which, etc. --564. It was customary to name the grandson after the grandfather. -565. Auctura Italos, destined to multiply the Italians ; for Cato says that the people of Politorium or Polidorium, an Italian city, were the descendants of 'Polites; but he makes Polites himself, instead of his son Priamus, the founder of the city. Quem, ctc., whom a Thracian horse bears, duppled with white spots, showing white fore feet, and a white forehead high upraised. Vestigia pedis, footsteps ; here for pes.

-567. Arduus has reference to the head alone. -568. Atys. The second leader is 90 called as a compliment to Augustus, whose mother belonged to the Atian


gens. -569. Paero. Dative. Comp. IV, 31. The order of the words as in I, 684; III, 329.—572. Esse. Greek construction for ut, or qui esset. Comp. 538. Or for in i monumentum). See M. 419. -575. Plausu, Join with excipiunt. Pavidos, trembling; I. e., with boyish timidity and modesty. Heyne. — 578. Lustravere, passed in review. Paratis, ready, the review being now ended. -579. Longe, from afar. -580. Pares, equal in numbers or strength; in equal battalions. -580, 581. Agmina solvere, they separated their battalions ; i. e., they withdrew their three companies from each other, thus breaking up the column which they had formed in the review. Terni (three by three, three abreast) is related equally to diductis and to solvere; as if he had said atque diduxere choros. -581, Choris; used here to signify the three troops individually as distinguished from the agmina, or troops in column; though Ladewig and Henry take it to mean subdivisions or sections, each comprising one half, or six of the boys in the company, Vocati, being called, i. e., by another signal from Epytides, they wheel and charge. The boys in three divisions, led by their three captains, have galloped at the first siynal of Epytides to their stations on the field, and now, at the second signal, commence the cavalry action, or sham fight, two of the squadrons maneuvring as allies against the third. -584. Adversi spatiis, opposite in position, in opposite directions, is better authorized by the manuscripts than the common reading adversis spatiis. -585. Impediunt, intersect or interweave. Sub armis; for armati. "Comp. 440. The passage (580585) may thus be rendered: they galloped apart in equal numbers, and thrée abreast broke up the column and drew of their squadrons ; and again, when called, they wheeled (convertere vius) and charged with hostile weapons. Then they enter upon successive advances and retreats in opposite directions, and intersect circles with circles, one after another, and as armed men call up the image of battle. -587. Facta--feruntur, having made peace, they ride side by side ; in a united column, just as in the opening review. -589. Parietibus is scanned as four syllables, par-yet-i-bus. See on II, 16. It is the ablative of manner with textum. -Caecis, blind, blinding, as affording no certain pathway. -589, 590. Ancipitem dolum, etc.; a treacherous wind ing (rendered) uncertain by a thousand pathways, where the untraced and inextricable maze rendered all guiding marks deceptive ; or, literally, cheated the marks of guidance ; made them of no avail. -592. In like (swift and devious) course do the sons of the Trojans intersect (each others') footsteps, and interweave retreats and charges in mock battle (ludo). -594. Delphinum. H. 391, II, 4; A. 218, d ; B. 245, R. 2; G. 356, R. 1; M. 247, b, obs. 2. 699. Ipse, pubes. Supply celebravit. -800. Suos; their children or posterity. Hinc ; i. e., from Alba. -502. Troia, etc. ; and now (the game) is called Troy, the boys the Trojan band. Dicitur agrees with the predicaté nominative. See M. 216; H. 462, n. 2 ; A. 204, b; B. 287, a ; G. 202, exc. 3. The sham fight called 'Troia was one of the games of the circus at Rome. See Smith's Dict. Antiq.,, Circus. -603. Hac-tenus, separated by tmesis. Sancto patri; to the deified father ; Anchises.

604-699. The conflagration of the ships. While the games are in progress, Juno sends Tris down to excite discontent among the Trojan women, who are assembled near the shore, and not witnessing the games, but gazing mournfully on the sea, while they bemoan the death of Anchises. While they are grieving that so much of the sea is still to be crossed, and that they can not put an end to their hardships by settling in Sicily, Iris presents herself in the form of Beroë, a Trojan matron, and gives utterance to the feelings which fill them all. They are roused to fury, and, seizing firebrands from the altars of Neptune, on which sacrifices are burning near the water, they burl them into the ships. Presently the alarm is conveyed by Eumelus to the Trojan assembly at the tomb of Anchises Ascanins, having scarcely completed the cavalry exercise, hastens on his horse followed by Aeneas and the rest, to extinguish the fire. But it has already penetrated into the holds of the shi's, and all human

efforts are unavailing. Aeneas then calls upon Jupiter, who answers his prayer by sending down a flood of rain, and preserving all the ships save four.

604. Hic primum, now first ; for up to this moment (hactenus) the games had been going forward without any untoward accident. Fidem mutata novavit; a poctic expression for fidem mutavit ; changing fortune broke her faith. Her favor thus far had been a pledge, as it were, of continued favor throughout the day. -605. Ludis; abl. of manner. Tumulo; the dat. as in avo, 550. -608. Antiquum-dolorem. Comp. I, 25. For the acc., see on I, 228. -609. Illa ; Iris. Coloribus; ablat. describing arcum.-610. Nulli. See on I, 326. Virgo, (a celestial) virgin; in apposition with illa.—-612 Relictam, left by the men. -613. Secretae, apart ; separated from the assembly (concursum;. Sola acta. The strand was lonely compared with the concourse at the tomb. -615, 616. Heu-maris, alas, that so many waters, that so much of the sea remains for us weary voyagers! For the infinitive, sce on I, 37. Vox; predicate nom. after est, of which the foregoing clause is the subject. —-618. Medias; as medios, 1, 440. -621, Cui, as one to whom. See on I, 388. Cui is better reterred to Bercë than to Dory clus. Her rank made her a fit person for Iris to counterfeit. -622, Sicí thus transformed. Dardanidum ; genit. as I, 565. -623, 624. Traxerit. For the mood, see on 621. -626. Septima. The seventh summer

commenced with the departure of the Trojans from Sicily, and their speedy arrival in Carthage. This same summer (as Vergil employs gestas) is not yet over; that is, winter has not yet fully set in. Vertitur, is closing ; finishing its revolution. Comp. III, 284. -627. Cum, etc., since traversing (emensae) the waters, since travérsing all lands, (encounterirg) so many perilous rocks and vicissitudes of weather, we have been wandering, while we pursue over the great deep the ever-receding Italy. Cum is sometimes joined with the present indicative, to denote that an action has been going on, and is still continuing. -630. Fraterni; as in 24, on account of the relationship between Aeneas and Eryx. -631. Iacere ; instead of quominus iaciamus. H. 535, IV ; A. 331,9 ; B. 315, f, 3; G. 551; M. 375, a, obs. 2. Civibus, to (our) countrymen. -632. Nequiquam; for we have failed to secure for them a new abode. -633. Nullane iam, shull no walls now, etc.; are we now at length to give up all hope ? -634, Hectoreos. Hector is dear to them, and his heroic deeds are associated with these two rivers. Comp. 190. They had hoped to find a new fatherland where old names should be revived just as they were by Helenus in Epirus. See III, 497. -638. Iam-res, even now is it the time to act ; for things to be done. The regular form is tempus est agere, or agendi. See Z. 598, 659; M. 419; and on II, 10. -639. Mora. Supply sit. Tantis, so great ; namely, as this dream. Quattuor arae; four altars on the shore, erected to Neptune, perhaps, by the captains of the four ships, before engaging in the race. 641. Prima. Comp. I, 24.

-642. Procul ; commonly joined with iacit; afar, far away; by some, and better, with sublata, aloft. Comp. 775. -646. Vobis, the dativus ethicus ; you have not Berüe here. -648. Qui spiritus illi, what a (godlike) air she has! -651. Quod, etc., because she alone (of all) was deprived of such a

festival. -655. Spectare; historical inf. Ancipites, ambiguae, uncertain, hesitating. -656. Fatis, by the fates. -657 Paribus alis. Comp. IV, 252.

-659. Tum vero. When it was manifest that a goddess had been advising them, they were the more stimulated to execute their purpose.660. Focis penetralibus, from the sacred hearths ; i. c., of their temporary dwellings by the sea-shore. -661. Spoliant; of the burning, boughs (frondem), etc. --662. miss habenis; i. e., with unbridled fury:

-663. Abiete ; for ex abiete ; maile of fir ; painted sterns of fir being equivalent to sterns of painted tir. -664, 665. Nuntius perfert, reports as a messenger ; bears tidings. -665. Incensas navis, thut the ships are on fire; the setting on

fire of the ships. See on II, 413. -667, 668. Ut-sic, even thus as he was ; not laying aside his arms, and still mounted. Equo; manner of petivit, and closely related to acer. -669. Castra. See on IV, 604. Magistri. Epytides and the other custodes. See on 546. -670. Iste, that (tury of yours),

–672. En. See on I, 461. — 673. Galeam, etc. He takes off his helmet to verify his words. Inanem, empty; a natural appellative of the helmet when reinoved from the head. Some understand, however, light, or mimic, helmet. –674. Ludo ciebat. Comp. 585 and 593. -676. 'Diversa per litora, along diiferent parts of the shore ; or, perhaps, on the shores far away. 677. Sicubi saxa, if anywhere (there are) hollow rocks. -579. Mutatae, transformed;" coming to themselves.” Excussa. Juno, through Iris, had stimulated them to execute a mad purpose Her influence is now shaken off, driven from their breasts. -681, Udo Water has been cast on the outside, but does not penetrate into the closely-packed calking of tow, or cakum, through which the fire is stealiny its way. -683. Est. See on IV, 66. -684. Heroum. Aeneas and his captains. -685. Abscindere ; historia cal infin. -687. Exosus. Supply es. — -688. Quid, etc.; if (thy) pity, which is of old, has any regard for mortal sutjerings. Quid is an adverbial acc.

-689. Da-classi," Thé infinitive is the direct, and classi the remote, object; “grant that the fleet may escape the flames.” -691. Tu gives emphasis to the petition. Quod superest, that which (alone) remains ; the only thing which remains for thee to do, and for me to desire or pray for, if my ships are now destroyed, is that thou at once destroy me with thy thunderbolt. 693. Effusis imbribus ; abl. abs. ; or join with atra, as abl. of cause. -694. Sine more, without precedent; with great fury. -895. Ardua terrarum, the hills. See on Ý, 422 ; and comp. VIII, 221; XI, 513. Campi, the plains ; the level lands. 696. Turbidus imber, etc., a whirling shower, very black with water and with driving winds. The winds that drive without intermission may be called densi, like densis ictibus, 459. They also increase the blackness of the clouds and rain by

Jupiter pluvius. packing them, as it were, together. Aqua is usually joined with turbidus ; but it seems preferable to make turbidus absolute, as in XII, 685. Comp. Ge. I, 333. -697. Super ; for desuper.

700-778. Aeneas in his perplexity is advised by the aged Nautes to leave a portion of his followers in Sicily to form a new colony under the rule of Acestes. In a noc turnal vision Anchises appears to him, and approves of the counsel of Nautes, recommending that only the hardy and warlike youth should be conveyed to Italy. He then consults his captains and Acestes. The new colonists are set apart, the ships are repairea, the new settlement is planted, a temple is consecrated to Venus on Mount Eryx, and all preparations being made for the voyage, the last farewells are exchanged, and Aeneas, with his diminished number of followers, sets sail once more for Italy.

701, 702. Ingentis-versans ; literally,“ was shifting (while) turning to and fro his mighty cares in his mind.” We may translate : was revolving might: cares in his mind, now this way now that, considering whether, etc. -704. Unum; more than all others. -706, 707. Haec--ordo; parenthetical : he was wont to give such (haec) responses (or reveal by responses such things), as (quae) either the great anger (wrathful tokens) of the gods, etc. It seems hardly natural to make haec the subject nom. referring to Pallas, according to the view of Ruhkopf and Henry; and hac, adopted by Ribbeck and Ladewig, lacks authority. -708. Solatus ; as a present participle. Comp. 1, 312. Isque, and (therefore) he. Isque resumes the sentence interrupted by


the parenthesis, while, at the same time, this sentence is connected with the parenthesis by que. See Z. 333. -710. Quidquid erit, whatever shall happen ; i. e., whatever fortune shall bring. -711. Divinae stirpis. See 38.

-713. Superant; for supersunt; those who are too many (for our remaining ships), some ships haviny been lost. -716. Quidquid. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives in the neuter gender are often used of persons. 717. Habeant sine. See on memoret, II, 75. -718. Permisso nomine. The name of Aresta being allowed by you, though you yourself are the true founder of the city. Cicero, in Verr. 4, 33, 72, says that Segesta (the name then given by the Romans to Acesta or Egesta) was founded by Aeneas, and that the people from that circumstance held themselves bound to the Romans, not only as allies and friends, but also as kinsmen. -721. Bigis subvecta, etc., having been carried up by her steeds. See on III, 512. Polum tenebat, was in mid-heaven, or the zenith. -722. Facies ; not the shade of Anchises dwelling in llades, but a form or phantom sent from heaven in his image. See on VI, 696. -728. Pulcherrima. See on plurimus, I, 419.

-729. Corda. Comp. II, 349. -730. Dura—culta, hardy and savage in habits of life. -731. Ante, first ; i. e., before you proceed to Latium. 732. Averna alta. A cavern on the side of Lake Avernus was supposed to be one of the entrances to Hades. -734. Tartara tristesque umbrae; hendiadys for the gloomy shades of Tartarus. -736. Nigrarum. Black victims were sacrificed to the infernal gods. See VI, 243, sqq. Sanguine ; an ablative of instrument or means. By_slaying many black victims she will secure an entrance for you. - -73 Torquet cursus. She has passed the zeni and is turning her course down towards the horizon. -739. Saevus, pitiless ; for it breaks off my interview with you. Ghosts and dreams must fiee befors the dawn. -741. Jahn and Thiel follow Servius in joining deinde with inquit ; Wagner puts it with ruis, in the sense of now, or so soon. seems to do less violence to the order of the words. -743. Sopitos ignis. He renews the fires on the domestic hearth, that he may offer a sacrifice of wheat and incense to Vesta and the Penates. Comp. III, 177, 178. 744. Larem. Perhaps the deified Anchises, but more probably the Pergameun Penates are meant. Penetralia, the shrine ; put for the goddess herself. -745. Farre pio, with the sacred or sacrificial wheat. -748. Consiliis, to his plan or present purposes.

-750. Transcribunt urbi matres. They transfer matrons, or elderly women, to the new city or colony by enrolling their names on the list of citizens. But only part, or at least not all, of the women were thus left to dwell in Sicily. See XI, 35. Populumque volentem ; those of the men who wished to remain. -752. Ipsi. Those who are to proceed on the voyage. –753. Navigiis; dative after reponunt, replace or restore. Ruaeus, however, makes it in the ablative. –754. Bello; the dative after vivida. -755. Designat aratro. This was a sacred ceremony in marking out the boundary of a new city. “The builders of a city,” says Servius, “yoked an ox and cow together, the ox on the right and the cow on the left; and in the Gabine cincture, that is, with the toga partly drawn over the head, and partly fastened round the waist, held the plow-bandle so turned that all the sods fell inward. And by the furrow thus drawn they designated the places for the walls, while they lifted the plow over the places where gates were to be built.”. -756. Domos. He allots the places for dwellings. Ilium, the city, Troiam, the region or district, including the city:-—758. Forum seems here to be put for iudicia, the courts, the proceedings of' which constituted the characteristic business of the forum. 760. A priest or flamen is appointed for the tomb of Anchises, and the wood far around it is set apart, or consecrated. Join late with sacer. -761. Anchiseo ; a possessive form for the genitive. See on Scyllaeam, I, 200. 762. Novem. See on nona, 64. Aris ; ablat. of situation. Placidi—venti.

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