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was the common formula addressed to the assembly by the priest, lest some word of ill omen might be accidentally spoken. The words here, and the whole verse, refer to the ceremonies now immediately to be performed at the tomb of Anchises.—-72. Materna. The myrtle was sacred to Venus.

-73. Aovi. See H. 399, III, 1.-77. Mero Baccho. This and the following ablatives limit carchesia as abls. of description.--78. Humi. See on I, 193. -80. Iterum salvete, again all hail! This punctuation of Jahn is also adopted by Peerlkamp. Others join iterum with salve. — 80, 81. Recepti nequiquam; in vain rescued from Troy and from the sea, because he did not, after all, survive to reach Italy. Animae, umbrae, soul, shade ; plural here for the singular. So umbrae, IV, 571; but animae nowhere else. –83. Quicumque est; for they have only heard the name. Quaerere. Supply me or mihi. -84. Adytis. The inmost part of the shrine is in this case the interior of the tomb. The snake was looked upon as a token of good, and his form was supposed to be assumed by the genius loci. In the present instance it is uncertain whether it is the genius of the place or the attendant spirit (famulus) of Anchises. –87, 88. Whose back azure marks, and whose scales a brightness spotted with gold illuminated. The plural terga has reference to the multiplied coils of the snake. -89. Millecolores. Comp. IV, 701. Adverso sole ; here, ablat. abs.—-91. Serpens, gliding. -94. Hoc magis, so much the more ; because he regards it as a good omen. Instaurat honores, commences anew the sacrifices; because they have been disturbed. -96. Bidentis, etc.; the suovetáuralia, or sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bullock. –97. Nigrantis. Black victims were offered to the Manes and deities of the lower world. -99. Remissos, sent up. The Manes were supposed, when invoked (here, animam vocare), to come back from the lower world, and partake of the sacrifice. -100. Quae-copia, according to the ability of each. -102. Aëna locant, etc. Comp. I, 213, sqq. The feast accompanies the sacrifice.

104–285. The appointed day having arrived, the games are opened with a race of ships. Four galleys enter the lists. Gyas in the Chimaera takes the lead, followed by Cloanthus in the Scylla; the Pristis and Centaur, under Mnestheus and Sergestus, side by side, pursue the others. As they approach the goal, Menoetes, the old pilot of the Chimaera, fears the rocks, and keeps too far away. The Scylla takes advantage of the error, and shoots between the Chimaera and the goal, and, having passed round it, turns back towards the shore, leaving Gyas behind. He in his fury casts the pilot overboard, and takes the helm himself. Meanwhile Mnesthens and Sergestus are vieing with each other to pass the Chimaera, Sergestus at first has the advantage, but only by a part of the ship's length, and in his eagerness to round the goal at the nearest point, runs his ship on the rocks. The Pristis rushes by, and now strives to overtake the Scylla. But Cloanthus prays to the gods of the sea, with whose aid his ship speeds to the land, and receives the first prize, while that of Mnestheus takes the second, and the Chimaera the third. Sergestus, with difficulty, brings his ship to land.

105. Phaëthontis ; here for the sun. -108. Pars et parati, a part also (besides coming to see the Trojan strangers) being prepared, etc. For the plural after pars, see on obnicae, IV, 406. -109. Circo; probably not the circus in 289, but here either for the space encircled, as it were, by the spectators, or the encircling throng itself. -110. Sacri. Tripods are sacred because so frequently consecrated to the gods, or used for sacred purposes.

-112. Argenti aŭrique talentum, a talent of gold and (one) of silver.113. Tuba. The trumpet was an invention of the Etruscans, and unknown to the Trojans. Commissos ludos, the beginning of the games. - 114. The race of ships, substituted for the chariot-race in the Iliad, is an idea original with Vergil, and has produced one of the most stirring and entertaining passages of the Aeneid. Pares, well-matched ; i. e., in general ; known as the four best and most nearly equal, and, therefore, chosen (de

lectae) by Aeneas from the whole fleet. Gravibus remis is usually joined with pares ; but perhaps it would be more natural to make it an ablat. of manner after ineunt certamina ; four well-matched ships-open the first contests with heavy oars. Comp. 66, where the genitive of specification takes the place of the abiative here. -116. Remige; join with agit. Pristim. The name is indicated by the image used as the figure-head. -117. Mox Italus, etc. He is destined soon to become an Italian, and to give ori


gin to a family which shall be called the race of Memmius (gens Memmi). The relation of names is analogous to that of neuñolai to meminisse. As Mnestheus is descended from Assaracus, Vergil pays a high compliment to the Memmii by assigning to the family such an ancestor. -118. Ingenti mole; ablat. of descript. -119. Urbis opus; for urbis instar, as great as a city. So Stat. Theb. VI, 86: montis opus. Triplici versu, in triple row. There are three banks of oars on each side of the ship. Such vessels, however, were unknown before the time of the Peloponnesian war. 120. Temo ordine, in three ranks ; a poetic repetition of the idea. –127. Tranh quillo; ablat. absol. with caelo or mari understood; when the weather is calm ; or, taken substantively, in calm weather, as an abl. of time. -128. Campus and statio are in apposition with illa ; a plain and a resort. -130, 131. Unde, abi, scirent; relative clauses denoting purpose; that they might know from thence to come back, and there to fetch round their long courses, If the adverbs were interrogative, we should require ut before scirent, and the subjunctive instead of the infinitive. -132. Auro, ostro; join with decori. -134. Populea. The poplar was sacred to Hercules, the god of toil, and so was worn as a wreath by those who were about to engage in severe labor, such as that of rowing. Thus Horace, 0. 1, 7, 23, makes Teucer put on a poplar wreath, when on the point of resuming his voyage. Others understand the poplar wreath to have reference to the funeral character of

-137. Intenti, eager.- -137, 138. Exsultantia-cupido, throbbing fear (the trembling hope of success) and the ardent desire of glory thrill their panting breasts. -140. Prosiluere, etc. The ships seem as animated as the horses in the chariot-race. 141. Versa is taken by Forbiger from verro, to sweep; but the usual rendering, upturned, from vertere, is stronger. Adductis lacertis ; the means of versa ; thrown up by their straining arms. --142. Pariter, side by side ; but only at the start. -145. Corripuere campum, take the course. The perfect here, and in 147, are examples of this tense, used to denote what is customary. Effusi carcere, darting

the games,

forth from the barrier. The carceres are the stalls in which the chariots are confined until the signal is given for starting, and corresponding here to the fines, stations, or starting-places of the ships, 199. -146. Immissis, swiftly running ; literally, “ being let go." -147. Iugis , for equis; dative. In verbera, unto blows ; e., to ply the lash ; join with pendent. Charioteers stood up and leaned over towards the horses. -149, 150. Inclusa litora. Wooded hills inclose_the shore, and thus the shouting is the more loudly re-echoed. -152. Turbam--fremitumque, amidst the din ana tumult. -155. Locum priorem. They are running side by side, each striving to gain the lead, or the place ahead. Iunctis frontibus, with even prows.

-156. Habet, yets the priorem locum. Metam tenebant, were nearing the goal ; epexegetical. -160. Princeps, foremost ; i. e., in the race thus far. Gurgite, in the boiling deep. -182. Quo abis? whither are you bearing, away? Mihi is the dativus ethicus. -163. Ama, etc., hug the shore and let the oar-blade graze the rocks on the left. For the omission of ut after sine, see on memoret, II, 75. They turn the goal to the left, and strive to gain time by making the turn as near to it as possible. -166. Diversus, away from the track ; a usage similar to that of dexter, above.—167. Clamore revocabat clamabat revocans ; and we may translate : shouted Gyas, calling (him) back (to the course). -168. Respicit, he looks back and secs. Tergo í dat. Propiora, the inside course; nearer the goal. -170. Interior; between Gyas and the rocks. Comp. XI, 695. Priorem; i. e., Gyas.

-172. Ossibus ; ablat. of place; or, with Forbiger, dat. -179. Tam senior ; one reason for gravis ; another is fluens, dripping. -184. Mnesthei ; here a dissyllable. -184. Superare. See on II, 10.–185. Capit ante locum, takes the place ahead ; " the fead”; the priorem locum, for which the two were contending, as mentioned in line 155. The Centaur is now ahead, but by only a part of the ship's length, as we learn in the next line ; in which prior must contain the same idea as ante locum. Thiel thus takes ante as an adverb before locum. Comp. II, 348. Scopulo; as in 159, the signal rock or goal. -187. Rostro, with her beak. Her beak is close opposite to the side of the Centaur.190. Hectorei socii; i. c., my comrades, once the comrades of Hector. Sorte suprema, in the final destiny or overthrow (of Troy). 192. Usi (estis). -194. Prima ; 'used substantively ;_tà tpwreia; the first prize. -195. Quamquam. See on I, 135. -196. Hoc vincite, win this , thus far conquer ; referring to the preceding words, pudeat extremos rediisse.

-199. Subtrahitur solum, the sea is drawn beneath them. Their speed is so furious that the water itself seems to rush beneath the vessel. - 199, 200. Tum-rivis. From the Il., XVI, 109, 110. --202. Furens animi, II, 61.-203. Iniquo. There was not room enough between the Pristis on his right and the rocks on his left. -204. Procurrentibus, jutting out, but covered by the water, and hence caeca, as they are called in 164. 205. Murice, etc., the oars striking (having struggled) on the jagged rock were broken with a crash (crepuere). -206. The prow was held fast upon the rock; the rest of the ship was afloat. -211. Agmine remorum, with the steady movement of the oars. Ventisque vocatis ; abl. abs. -212. Prona maria, favorable or smooth waters ; that is, the waters now unobstructed by any rock or ship in the way; a clear and open sea. Pronus and apertus seem to have been often combined thus. See Tacit. Agr. 1 and 33. 215, 216, Exterrita tecto, frightened from her home. -218, 219. Ultima aequora, the last waters of the race; those from the turning of the goal to the shore. -220. Alto, high relatively ; high for a ship to rest upon. 224, Cedit, she falls behind ; allows the other ship to pass her. -227. Cuncti; all the spectators. Sequentem. Supply Mnesthea or illum. -229. Proprium. The crew of the Sevila regard the victory as already their own. Partum, (already) won. -231. Hos—alit, success incites these; i. e., the crew of

See on

Mnestheus. Comp. 210. Possunt-videntur, they can, because they think (videntur) they can. -233. Ponto, to (or towards) the sea ; for ad pontum. Comp. 1, 6. Utrasque. The plural is properly used only when each of the two objects referred to is plural; but exception is made, as here, when they are things naturally associated.-234. In vota, to his vous ; to bear witness to his vows. A vow, or conditional promise, was attached to a prayer; some offering was to be made on condition that the gods should fulfill the wishes of the suppliant. If the prayer is answered, he will be bound to fulfill his promise ; defendant of his vow, bound his vow, reus, or damnatus voti. -235. Aequora. See on I, 67. 237. Voti. H. 410, III, note 2; A. 220, a; B. 236; G. 204, R. ; M. 290, d. -238. Porriciam ; a term used especially in religious formulas. -241. Manu magna, with his great hand; as below, 487. Gods and heroes were larger than men. Euntem ; join with navem understood. -243. Fugit, condidit. This combination of the historical present with the perfect, without any important difference of meaning, is not unfrequent poetry. Alto, i. e., deep inland, or in the deep bosom of the bay; receding. 244. Cunctis; all, that is, who

had been engaged in the contest. - 247, 248. Optare, ferre. See on I, 66. There are several bullocks ready for presents and prizes (see 366), three of which he allows each of the commanders to choose for his crew; beginning, of course, with Cloanthus.--248. There is also a present of wine and of silver for each of the ships. Magnum; not the so-called great talent; but merely an appellative : heavy. - 250, 251. Quam-cucurrit ; freely translated, “ around which ran a wide border of Meliboean purple in two waving stripes.” Plurima refers to the width of the border. Maeandro duplici, in a double maze ; in two meandering and parallel lines. Melicertes, or Portunus. See the chlamys of the Amazon, page 186.

-252. Two scenes are represented ; one the chase, in which Ganymede is hunting the stag on Mount Ida; in the other the eagle of Jupiter is bearing Ganymede up to the sky. -254. Anhelanti similis, like one panting in the chase. The picture is life-like. -255. Iovis armiger. The eagle was often represented as bearing in his claws the thunderbolts of Jupiter. - 256. Longaevi

. The old men, guardians of the youth, are stretching their hands in despair towards the eagle as he ascends, while the dogs, resting on their haunches, bark furiously at the supposed bird of prey. 257. In auras ; because they are looking upwards. -258. Qui deinde ; Mnestheus. -259. Hamis consertam, etc. See on the same words, III, 467.

-260. Ipse ; Aeneas. -261. The o in Ilio is retained, and made short. See on III, 211. -262. Habere ; for habendam. Viro; in apposition with huic.—264. Multiplicem, with its heavy folds ; emphatic and explaining vix.

-265. Cursu, in swift pursuit ; join with agebat. -267, Argento ; the material, abl.

after perfecta, well made. Aspera signis ; embossed with figures. -269. Taeniis ; scanned here as a dissyllable. -271, Ordine debilis uno ; literally, disabled in respect to one row. But nearly all the best commentators take ordine here for latere ; in respect to one side of the ship; By a natural figure, quite frequent in nautical phrase, the captain, instead of the ship, is said to be crippled (debilis). Thus seamen say, "he has lost his topsail, "" he is taking in sail," and the like.--273. Qualis. Comp. I, 430.

and note. Saepe ; as in I, 148. Viae in aggere ; on the raised pavement of the road. The entire surface of the road is an agger. -274. Obliquam, lying across the track. Ictu į join with gravis. -275. Saxo; join with both adjectives, seminecem and lacerum. -276-279. Nequiquam- plicantem, in vain throws forth long wreaths with his body, while attempting to flee in one part fierce and glowing with his eyes, and stretching high his hissing

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Ganymede and the eagle. (From a statue by Leochares.) neck ; (the other) part crippled by the wound, holds him back (though) struy gling, (to force himself forward) on his coils (nodis), and winding himself into his own folds.279. Nixantem refers to the action of the unwounded portion of his body first described ; with this he vainly struggles to pull himself along by throwing it into contortions, while he twists the joints (membra) of the wounded part, or part below the wound, into themselves; i. e., into coil within coil. Necantem, adopted in many editions for nixantem, has inferior MS. authority. Nicantem is used by Lucretius, 6, 836, 3, 1000, with

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