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58+4665. Dido, at dawn, perceiving from the watch-tower of her palace that the Trojans are already on the sea, uttering a terrible and prophetic curse on them, rushes frantic down to the court, ascends the funerai pyre, seizes the sword of Aeneas, and, saying a few words, partly in grief for her misfortunes, and partly in pride at her success in establishing a kingdom, plunges the weapon into her body.

586. Speculis, from the watch-tower ; the same as arce ex summa, 410. 587. Aequatis, with steady suils , with the wind blowing steadily from behind, so that the yarıls lie across, perpendicular, or nearly so, to the sides of the vessel.—-588. Sine remige, without a sailor; this defines vacuos, forsaken ; not an oarsman being left. 589. Pectus percussa. Comp. 1, 481. -591, Inluserit. The future perfect has peculiar force here: “Shall he successfully insult?” both insult and escape. See also on II, 581. Advena ; with emphasis.

-592. Tota; from the whole city; will not all Carthage join in the pursuit? Supply alii, some, before expedient. -593. Ite has the more force from its position at the end of the verse, where it is unusual to place a word of two syllables after a long pause. -594. Citi; as in 574. -595. Mentem mutat, unseats my reason. -596. Facta impia refers to the violation of duty, or the impiety, as Dido regards it, of which she has been guilty towards Sychacus, in yielding to the love of Aeneas (see 552); now thy impious conduct affects thee! now thy unfaithfulness is meeting its just punishment.

-597. Tam decuit. Thou hast no power now to destroy the Trojans ; they are already safe; thou shouldst have given command to destroy them when they first landed helpless on thy shores, instead of sharing thy throne with Aeneas. Then it would have been fitting ; but now thy commands are madness. So Ruaeus; but most commentators supply with decuit, " te tangere”: “thou shouldst have been thus touched with remorse at the first.” Comp. X, 94. Soeptra dabas. Comp. 214. -598. Quem. The antecedent is eius, understood with dextra and fides. Behold the right hand and faith of him who, etc. -599. Umeris. See on II, 708.

-606. Non potuidivellere ? Comp. I, 69. -602. Patriis—mensis. She might have murdered Ascanius, as Atreus did the sons of Thyestes, or as Procne the son of Tereus, and have caused the body to be placed on the table as food for his father. -603. Fuerat; for fuisset. See H. 476, 2; A. 308, C; B. 306, C, R.; G. 246, R. 3; M. 348, d. But the result of the contest would have been uncertain. Fuisset, (suppose) it had been ; or it might have been ; concessive subjunctive. -801. Quem metui? whom did I fear, or had I to fear? being already resolved on death. Castra, the camp ; the place where their ships were drawn up on land. Permanent naval camps were defended by a wall on the land side. -605, 606. Implessem, exstinxem. See on I, 201. -606. Cum genere ; Thiel understands : “ With the whole race; all the surviviny Trojans.' Super, moreover. Comp. I, 29. -607, Sol, the witness of all things on the earth, is invoked, as the stars, 520. -608. Interpres. Juno, as Iuno Pronuba, is the agent and witness of her woes.

-609. Hecate. See on 511. Ululata, whose name is shrieked. -610. Di; those deities who pity and revenge such unhappy lovers as Dido (comp. 520, 521); or, perhaps, her own tutelar divinities. -611. Haec, these prayers. Meritum-numen ; literally, turn your deserved power to my woes ;

give heed to my griets, for I deserve your pity.”—612. Si, with the indicative here, is an expression of her conviction that so it must be; almost equivalent to quoniam. Perhaps Vergil has in mind the idea, not uncommon with the ancients, that on the verge of death the future becomes more clear, and thus Dido sees with certainty that which awaits Aeneas. Ladewig, quotes Cic. de div. I, 30, animus appropinquante morte, multo est divinior, and refers to Hector's prophecy of the death of Achilles, N. XXI, 338, sq. The prophetic curse of Dido was fulfilled in the dangers and losses which Aeneas met with in the war with Turnus, who, with his brave Rutu.

lians, came near destroying the Trojans. Aencas was on this occasion obliged to leave Ascanius and his followers in the camp near the Tiber, and to seek help from Evander. He perished in the fourth year after finishing the war and making a treaty with the Latins, and was finally deprived or burial (the heaviest curse of all) because his body could not be found. 613. Caput; for the person; the (impious) one. -614. Hic terminus haeret, (and it, this end (destiny) is fixed. -618. Funera. On his return from Evander, he witnessed the havoc which had been made in his army. Sub leges pacis iniquae, under the terms of an unequal perce. The chief disadvantage of the Trojans in the perce made with the Latins was the loss of their separate nationality, and their language. See Juno's petition, XII, 822–828.

-620. Que connects ante diem (taken as an adjective=immaturus) and inhumatus. Comp. 484, and n. -624. Populis ; i. e., to the Carthaginians and Romans. There were actually several treaties made between the two nations, the first B. c. 509; but after the Romans had extended their power over Italy, and had come into collision with Carthage in Sicily, treaties were observed between the two nations only so long as they were too much exhausted to renew hostilities. -625. Exoriare, etc., arise, some avenger; she seems to see and address the future avenger. The allusion is to Hannibal. Ex ossibus; not descended from her, but rising up to represent her, and to re-embody on the earth again all her hatred to the Trojan race, as it he had risen from her very ashes.—626. Qui sequare, to pursue. See on I, 20.—-627. Nunc, olim, now (or) hereafter. -629. Ípsique nepotesque, both themselves (those of the two races now living) and their descendants. 633. Patria ; i. e., in Tyre. -634. Mihi; join with siste. -635. Properet. See on memoret, II, 75. -636. Piacula, offerings of atonement ; meaning here the sacrifices which were to aid in setting her mind free from Aeneas, or in restoring him to her. So Anna understands the object. See 478, sqq. Monstrata, directed by the sorceress. -637. Sic, thus ; i. c., after observiny these directions. -638. Iovi Stygio; Pluto; Zeùs katayoóvios.

-639. Perficere. She will now execute the rites commenced, 509, sqq.; including the burning of the funeral pyre. -643. Maculis. Peerlkamp says that the faces of those who were about to suffer death by the guillotine in the French revolution were observed to be marked with red and livid spots. -644, Genas. See on I, 228. –645. Interiora domus limina, the inner court of the palace. -647. In usus, etc., a present not asked for these uses , implying that in some happy moment she had begged of Aeneas the sword which he had used in the Trojan war, and which, in 507, is mentioned as being left by him. -649. Mente, in thought ; in recalling the past.

-651. Dum relates to dulcis; dear while the fates, etc. -652. Accipite. It will be upon these mementos of Aeneas that she will fall. -653. Vixi, I have lived ; my life is closed. Comp. fuimus, II, 325.—654. Magna, illustrious. So Heyne. Her shade will retain the glory which attaches to her character as a successful founder of a state. -656. Poenas recepi, I have taken vengeance. 659. Os; as oculos, I, 228.----660. Sic, thuis; even by this violent death, and even though unrevenged. -661. Hauriat oculis ; for percipiat oculis. Let him expect the fulfillment of my curses upon him, as the author of my ruin. Comp. 385, sqq. The poet" here removes us from the immediate scene of the suicide, and describes it indirectly through the spectators, oi attendants of Dido, who witness the act. -663. Media inter talia; i. e., when she had scárcely ended her words. See on 277.-—664. Comites; hei attendants; perhaps, first Barce, the nurse, and then others, summoned by her cries; or, perhaps, already standing at some distance in the court.

665–692. The news flies through the city, and Anna rushes wild with gries to the wide of her dying sister.

666. Bacchatur, etc., the rumor flies wildly through the horror-stricken city. -675. Hoc illud fuit," was this, then, thy aim in thy commands given to me?Me; even me, your sister ? -676. Ište. See 494, 495. -678. VOcasses, etc. ; subjunctive of desire ; comp. X, 854; 0, that thou hadst called me to the same end. -681. Sic posita, when thou wast lying thus. Comp. II, 644.

-682. Exstinxti. See on I, 201. -683. Date— lymphis, give, that I may wash her wounds with water ; i. e., bring water that I may wash her wounds with it. Others omit the comma after date, and understand the words as an hypallage like that in III, 61. Lymphis in the ablat. 685. Ore legam, etc. This was the office of the nearest relative present at the bedside of the dying. -686. Semianimem; four syllables ; semyanimem. Stridit, gurgles. ---692. Ingemuit reperta, (the light) being perceived, she groaned'; mourning at the last moment to leave the world.

Did's death. (From a manuscript.)

693–705. Iris is sent down from heaven by Juno to release the struggling soul from the body.

The dead are regarded as an offering to Pluto and Proserpine; and thus a lock of hair is cut from the forehead of the dying as a sign of dedication to the gods below, just as hair is cut from the forehead of the victims slain in sacrifice, and cast upon the altar-fire. Comp. VI, 245. But as Dido is not taken away in the course of nature (fato), nor by a death justly incurred (merita morte), but dies through the pressure of overwhelming misfortune and despair, life lingers, reluctant to leave her; Proserpine delays; and thus Iris takes the office of Proserpine in obedience to the command of Juno, whom she serves as messenger.

695. Animam-artus. Iris was sent down to set free the spirit, and tho. members (or body).joined (with the spirit); or that she might release ong from the other. The rainbow is supposed to be caused by the descent of Iris from heaven to earth. -701, sole; for ex sole.

100

Helios.

BOOK FIFTH.

Aeneas in Sicily. Funeral games in honor of Anchises, and departure for Italy.

1-41. Aeneas sees far off at sea the light of Dido's funeral pile, and with sad feelings divines the cause. His fleet is soon overtaken by a storm, and forced to steer for the coast of Sicily, where he is again kindly received by Acestes.

1, 2. Medium tenebat iter, was fully on his way. Any part of the way on the

open sea, after the harbor is left, is medium, according to the explanation given of the word in 1, 505. The phrase, says Ladewig, is equivalent to μέσον τον πλούν, not τον μέσον πλούν. -2. Certus, determined or resolved. He was sure that he was obeying the behest of Jupiter, and hence unwavering in his resolution to pursue the voyage. Aquilone ; for wind in general. The north wind would have been adverse to them, and would not have suffered the ships now to be “ cutting the waves” well out at sea ; besides, it would have driven them from their course still more than the west wind which, 19, sqq., compelled them to turn aside and land in Sicily. Ruaeus and Thiel more naturally join aquilone with secabat ; as vento petiisse, II, 25; but some prefer atros aquilone. -3. Respiciens. Comp. IV, 661. 4. Accenderit. For the mood, see on videat, I, 181.—-5. Amore polluto; abl. abs.

-6. Notum agrees with the following interrogative clause. The passage may be freely translated : But the knowledge of the bitter pangs occasioned by violated love, and of what a broken-hearted woman in her frerizy can do, leads the thoughts of the Trojans through sad foreboding. The participles notum and noti (understood) are used as ereptae in II, 413; the knowing, the knowledge. -—7. Augurium, here, is their conjecture or foreboding as to the fate of Dido. Pectora, for animos. -14. Deinde ; join with iubet; having said this, he then orders. Comp. II, 391.-15. Colligere arma, to reef the sails, not here to furl.” -16. Obliquat sinus, turns the canvas obliquely to the wind; he turns it to such a position that it takes the wind

on the side of the ship; not as in 587. -17. Iuppiter auctor, Jupiter as adviser.—18. Spondeat--sperem. See on sinat, I, 18. -19. Transversa ; the neuter pl. acc. used adverbially; athwart our course. -21. Tantum, so inuch as the strength of the winds requires, if we would overcome them : We have neither power to struggle against them, nor even to hold our course.

-24. Fraterna. Eryx was also the son of Venus. -25. Si-Astra, if only remembering well I retrace (measure again) the stars observed ; that is, as observed on our former voyage from Sicily to Africa. Rite = recte, is joined with servata, according to Ladewig; Forbiger puts it with remetior.

-28. Flecte viam velis, turn your course by (means of') the sails. Sit. See on I, 565.—28-30. Ulla tellus. " A substantive common to two connected propositions is sometimes not introduced until the second clause, or an adjective and a substantive are put each in a separate clause.” M. 474, g. Comp. IV, 154. Quove, or (any land) whither. -30. Acesten. See on 1, 195. -37. Horridus can be properly said both of the spears pointed and, as it were, bristling, two of which were usually carried by a huntsman, and of the shaggy hide of the

bear. -38. Criniso--Aumine, conceived of the river (god) Crinisus.

-39. Veterum parentum, of his early ( Trojan) progenitors. -40. Reduces. Supply eos esse; he congratulates them (iis) on their return; welcomes them.

42-103. Arrived in Sicily, and entertained by Acestes, Aeneas assembles the Tro. jans and proclaims a sacred festival and games in honor of his father, the anniversary of whose death has now coine round. He then conducts them to the tomb of Anchises, and there performs a solemn sacrifice.

42. Oriente. See on III, 588. 43. Litore ab omni, from the whole shore; from all along the shore, where they were near, or on board their ships.44. Tumuli ex aggere, from the summit of a mound ; a tribunal made by throwing up the soil, as was customary in preparing the tribunal from which the Roman general addressed his soldiers in camp. -45. A sanguine divom ; because Dardanus was the son of Jupiter. A is elliptical, as in 1, 730.46. Exactis mensibus; abl. abs. 47. Ex quo (tempore), since. -49. Iam adest. The actual day has returned. Nisi fallor. The poet ascribes this uncertainty to Aeneas, perhaps, on account of the known imperfection of the ancient time-reckoning. -50. Honoratum ; a day on which honores, or sacrifices, are rendered to the gods.-51. Hunc (diem), etc., even if I were spending this day. -54, Struerem-donis, I would cover with their appro

priate sacrifices. To make sacrifices to a hero after his death, as a god, was in accordance with the ancient customs. See on III, 328. -55. Nunc ultro, now moreover. Besides the motive I should have to keep the day anywhere, and under the most unfavorable circumstances, 1 am actually on the very ground. But Thiel renders ultro, “ without our agency."'. -59, Poscamus ventos, let us pray (ask him) for winds. The winds, it is true, are sometimes invoked directly with prayers and offerings (see below, 772–777; III, 253); but Lactantius understood, in quoting this passage (Instit. I, 15), that it was of Anchises that the favorable winds were asked. -59, 60. And that he (Anchises) may suffer me, when my city shall have been built, to offer yearly these sacrifices in temples (a temple) consecrated to him. (Ut) velit depends on poscamus. -61, 62. Bina-navis, two heads of cattle for each of the ships. Numero qualifies bina.- -64. Si is here for cum. Comp. VI, 828. Nona; in allusion to the Roman custom of making sacrifices for the deceased on the ninth day after his death; the period called novemdiale. -66. Prima certamina, I will fix as the first contests (of the day); I will appoint contests, the first of which, etc. -67. Viribus; abl. of cause with audax. -68. In eedit. Comp. I, 46, and note. –69. Seu, etc., or if (any one) dares.—71. Ore favete, evonucite, favor ye with the mouth' ; keep solemn silence. This

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