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2; B. 280, R. 1, 2; G. 521, R. 1, 6; M. 490, a. -28. Putator. The gardener, vine-dresser, or any one employed in cutting scions from the extremities of the branches (summum cacumen) for the kind of reproduction mentioned here.—29. Referens; terrae is understood ; “ returning it to the ground," in a figurative sense ; for its life is derived from the ground through the trunk and the branches. -30. Caudicibus sectis, the trunks being cut or divided into pieces. Caudex is distinguished from the " sets” mentioned in 24, 25, as it is the trunk or main stock of the tree, deprived of its roots and branches. Parts of this, whether cross-sections or longitudinal pieces, retaining some portion of the bark and of the heart-wood, it planted like sets, put forth roots and branches. The olive, which is remarkably tenacious of site, vivax oliva (see 181), and, according to Servius, the myrtle and mulberry, were thus reproduced. Hence, in the following line, radix oleagina is referred to as the illustration of it! Of this mode of reproducing the olive, Professor George Thurber says (Appletons' “ American Cyclopædia”):“ The trunks of old trees present numerous swellings or nodules containing undeveloped buds, which are removed and planted like bulbs.” The characteristic appearance of the trunk of an old olive-tree is shown in the cut on page 33. —-31. E sicco ligno; contrasted with the juicy suckers, branches, layers, and scions used in the four methods above described.32-34. Et saepe, etc. Grafting is the sixth and last of the artificial methods.

-32. Impune, without loss, because one fruit compensates for the other.

-33. Insita í supply sibi, referring to pirum, subject of ferre.-34. Prunis, the prune-tree ; ablat. of situation.

35–46. Give heed, 0 husbandman, to these teachings; a'd thou, Maecenas, favor (ades) my new theme, and sail with me on this not too adventurous voyage, keeping always near the shore.

35. Proprios-discite, learn the proper methods according to the sorts (of trees); the culture pertaining to each kind of tree. -37, 38. Ismara, Taburnum ; examples of places fitted naturally, some for the vine, others for the olive. Therefore, no part of the earth, mountain or valley, upland or lowland, need be unemployed (segnes). -39. See on G. I, 1-5.41. Volans. Comp. Ae. I, 156. 42. Cuncta. All things possibly connected with the subject. He takes back or qualifies his rather bold words, pelago da vela patenti : Yet I do not choose to embrace the whole of this wide-extending theme. 43. Non, etc.; an imitation of the Il. II, 488, and repeated in Ae. VI, 625. -44, 45. Ades—terrae. The poet here resumes the image of navigation from line 41 : “Sail (with me) along the shore; (in my song) the land is (always) in view (in manibus terrae, within reach)." Primi litoris oram appears to mean the border of the very shore, as opposed to deep water, or the sea beyond soundings; kindred to prima terra, Ae. I, 541, but, as it were, from the opposite point of view.- -45, Non hic, etc.

Here, on this plain didactic theme, shall not detain you with poetic fancies, digressions, and a long exordium, as if on the great sea of epic song.

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47-60. From wild trees (such as have been indicated in 9-21) the husbandman obtains valuable plantations by grafting and budding (inserat), or by transferring the wild sapling (mandet mutata) to a more favorable soil, or by transplanting suckers, and placing them in rows (digestal) in the open fields; but those that are started from planted seeds (seminibus iactis) come slowly to bearing, and their fruits (poma) are apt to be worthless.

47. Quae ; neuter, referring to trees and shrubs in general. Luminis oras, the regions of light, the air, as opposed to the darkness under ground out of which they have sprung. Comp. Ac. VI, 660. -48. Laeta, thrifty ; vig, orous in growth, though not bearing valuable fruit. — 49. Solo, etc., natural

excellence is inherent in the soil. -50. Inserat has for its object here ea, or the trees that receive the graft, as below in 69, not the scions that are inserted into the tree, as in 33; for the verb is used with the same freedom as “graft” in English ; thus, we find either inserere arborem surculo, or inserere surculum in arborem i graft with or graft into. Mandet mutata, shift and commit; i. e., taken together, transplant. -52. Quascumque voles artis, any artificial methods whatsoever. Voces is the more usual reading, instead of voles. -53. Sterilis; supply arbor, suggested by the context. The unfruitful tree formed from the sucker sprouting from the bottom of the trunks (stirpibus ab imis), or from the crown of the roots, will also repay the labor of transplanting and diligent culture. -54. Hoc refers to exuerint silvestrem animum, etc. –55. Comp. 19. Nuno; as it is situated before transplanting. —56. Fetus; either the fruit, which it would have produced in a more favorable situation, or, with Ladewig, its growth. Comp. VI, 207.

57. Iam, now ; marking the transition to another fact. -59. Oblita is used with the accusat. by Vergil only here.—-60. Praedam fert; for it is left ungathered, as worthless.

61-82. At any rate (scilicet), no kind will thrive without careful cultivation, while the same process is not snitable alike for all; the olive is best multiplied by sections of the trunk (corticibus sectis, truncis), the vine by layers ( propaginibus), the myrtle by sets (solido de robore, stirpibus, sudibus, vallis); the hazel, ash, and other forest-trees by suckers or scions (plantis, summo cacumine); many by grafting with scions or with buds (inserere, oculos imponere).

62. Multa mercede, at much outlay of labor. Domandae, to be improved or trained in form and" habit” of growth ; the same idea as exuerint silvestrem animum. -64. Solido de robore seems to refer to the method by sets (see 24); if so, the myrtle may bave been treated successfully in two ways. Šee on 30. Paphiae, The myrtle was sacred to Venus, the patron goddess of Paphos. -66. Herculeae coronae. Sec E. VII, 61. Hercules brought as a trophy from Hades the silver poplar, which thus became sacred to him.

-67. Chaonii patris ; Jupiter, to whom especially the oaks of Dodona in Chaonia were sacred. See G. I, 8. -68. Nascitur; supply plantis. Casus visura marinos z because the fir was so frequently used for ship-building. 69. Inseritur; as in 50, not as in 33. Horrida; of the rough bark of the arbutus, or strawberry-tree, -70. Platani; supply insiti ; so, also, with the following nominatives. For illustration of the plane-tree, see on Ge. IV, 146. -71. Castaneae ; genitive, to be joined with fore. The last syllable of fagus is lengthened by the ictus. -73. Inserere, imponere ; for the mood, see on G. I, 213.-74–77. These lines describe the process of inoculating or budding: -76. Nodo; the knot or swelling produced by the bud on the bark. In this a vertical slit is made, and one transversely at the top of it; so that the bark may be easily opened to receive the inserted bud cut from another tree. –76. Huc, into this or in this. Comp. Ae. II, 18.-—77. Udo, juicy ; filled with nourishing sap. -78-82. Description of grafting by scions. -78. Resecantur, are cut back or off ; leaving a stock or stump of the branch or of the sapling-tree to receive the scions or grafts (plantae). Alte, far down ; i. e., relatively to the length of the grafting-stock. -79. Cuneis. A cleft is made with wedges, and kept open until the scions are set in. -80-82. Ingens, etc. The trunk throws all its nourishment into the blender grafts, and, with their rapid growth, becomes a mighty tree, especially in contrast with the small scions, which have so soon produced its new and spreading top; and it is now loaded with fruit not natural to itself (non sua).

83–135. Diversity of trees: first, as regards kinds (genera) of the same family (83–108); second, as to their preference for different soils and situations (109-113);


third, as to their affinities for different climates, countries, and regions of the world (114_135).

83. Genus; not, of course, in any strictly scientific or technical sense.

-84. Loto , not the water-lotus, or lily of the Nile, nor the leguminous plant called lotus in G. III, 394 ; but a lotus-tree, of which there are several kinds, all bearing fruit; perhaps the “jujube," a low tree kindred to the buckthorn, and of about the same size. Idaeis; the specific term as a general epithet. -86. The last syllable of radii is retained in the scanning of this verse. See on Ge. I, 437. Amara ; because the pausia olive was gathered when green.

-87. Poma; here in its general sense for all edible treefruits. -que, for neque. Alcinoi silvae is added to poma as the summiny up of all tree-fruits; for the garden of Alcinous, described in Homer, Odyss. VII, 114-121, became proverbial as the most perfect of all that were ever known. Surculus, scion ; by metonymy for genus.

-89. Arboribus; here, the trees on which vines are trained. -93. Tenuis, thin; or, perhaps, subtle, quickly penetrating the veins. -94. Olim, hereafter, when its fruit shall have been converted into wine. -96. Neć ideo contende ; " and yet, do not presume on that account (namely, because I praise you) to rival," etc. -98. Tmolius, Phanaeus ; substantively for Tmolian and Phanaean wine; in imitation of such Greek forms as Xios, Aeoblos, etc., substantively, where oivos was originally expressed. Rex, king of wines. Comp. G. 1, 482. Adsurgit quibus. Each of them, though famous, yields the palm (rises up


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with reverence for) to the Italian Aminaean. Comp. E. VI, 66.99. Argitis minor ; a white grape of Argos, so called to distinguish it from another Argive grape called Argitis maior. Supply est. -100. Fluere, durare (certaverit), can vie in abundance of flowing juice, or in durability (of strength

and flavor); the infinitives being equivalent to ablatives modifying certave. rit, on which they depend. — 101. Dis, etc. At the second table or course, wine was brought on, and the drinking commenced with a libation or thank offering to the gods. Comp. Ae. I, 736, and n. -103, 104. Neque est numerus; nor does any number exist, or "no number can express,” how many, etc. -110. Fluminibus, paludibus ; ablative of situation ; better than the dative. Comp. E. VII, 66, where in is expressed with fluviis, and is used like English “on.” The European alder, unlike our American shrub, or low tree of that species, grows to the size of a forest-tree. -112. Myrtetis laetissima seems to mean at once most abundant in ” and “most charming with myrtle-groves.” The margin of the water stimulates the myrtles to the most vigorous growth, and is also the place where they best adorn the landscape. See on Ge. I, 306.—114. Orbem, part, or region of the world. 115. Pictos Gelonos ; like the Agathyrsi, a kindred tribe. See Dictionary, and Ae. IV, 146. -116. Divisao arboribus patriae, native countries, or their own countries are distributed to trees ; every tree has its own native land. Sola. Either the language is inexact, as the ebony grows also in Africa, or India is used here as in G. IV, 292, where Indi are put for Aethiopians.117. Solis Sabaeis. Comp. Ge.'1, 57. Turea virga. Branch of the frankin

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dense-tree. -118. Odorato. Strictly, it is the gum, and not the wood, that is fragrant. -119. Balsama; a fragrant gumobtained from a shrub or small tree peculiar to Palestine, Arabia, and Abyssinia. -que-et; so que-atque, G I, 182. Bacas acanthi. Probably the pods of the Egyptian acanthus, or evergreen acacia, are here intended by “berries”; by some it is referred to the drops of gum, or gum-Arabic, exuding from the bark. For the herbaceous or mollis acanthus and the acanthus spinosus, see illustration on Ge. IV, 123. — 120. Nemora-lana ; of the cotton plant or shrub. — 121. Vellera at depectant Seres, how the Seres comb oti the fleecy webs. As the silkworm had not yet been introduced into Europe (it was first brought to the West

in the time of Justinian), Vergil supposes that the silk material was a vegetable fiber gathered or combed from the leaves of trees. Tennia in this verse


Balsam or myrrh-tree. is a dissyllable. -122. Oceano propior ; nearer to the ocean than the Seres, who are conceived of, not as we think of the Seres or Chinese, but as an


Citron (Citrus medica.)

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