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roots; as the gaps would still continue where they formerly were. The only me. thods that I know of rendering this a fence. are, either to mend up the gaps with dead wood, or to plash the hedge: Which last operation is always the most eligible, where the gaps are not too large to admit of being cured by this means.

The operation I here call plashing, may be defined, 'alvattlingmade ofliving uuood.' To form this, some stems are first selected* to be left as stakes, at proper distances, the tops of which are all cut over at the height of four feet from the root. The straggling side-branches of the other part of the hedge are also lopped away. Several of the remaining plants are then cut over, close by the ground, at convenient distances ; and the remaining plants are cut, perhaps half through, so as to permit them to be bent to one side. They are then 'bent down almost to a horizontal position, and interwoven with the upright stakes, so as to retain them in that position. Care ought to be taken, that these be laid very low, at those places where there were formerly gaps; which ought to be farther strengthened by some dead stakes, or truncheons of willows, which will frequently take root in this case, and continue to live. And sometimes a plant of Eglantine will be able to overcome the difficulties it there meets with, strike root, and grow iip so as to strengthen the hedge in a most effectual manner.

The operator begins at one end of the field, and proceeds regularly forward, bending all the stems in one direction, so as that the points rife above the roots of the others, till the whole wattling is compleated to the same height as the uprights; after which it assumes an appearance somewhat resembling that which is represented in Fig. 5.

An expert operator will perform this work with much greater expedition, than one who

has not seen it done could easily imagine. And, as all the diagonal wattlings continue to live, and send out shoots from many parts of their stems, and, as the upright shoots that rife from the stumps of those plants that have been cut over, quickly rush up through the whole hedge, these serve to unite the whole into one entire mass, that forms a strong, durable, and beautiful fence.

This is the best method of recovering an qld neglected hedge, that hath as yet con\$ $0 my knowledge.

§ XIX,

Directions for preventing the young Tmigt of a Hedge from being killed in Winter.

In some casses, it happens that the young shoots of a hedge are killed every winter; in which cafe, it soon becomes

dead, dead and unsightly, and can never rise to any considerable height. A remedy for this disease may therefore be wished for.

Young hedges are observed to be chiefly affected with this disorder; and it is almost always occasioned by an injudicious management of the hedge, by means of which it has been forced to fend out too great a number of shoots in summer, that are thus rendered so small and weakly, as to be unable to resist the severe weather in winter.

It often happens that the owner of a young hedge, with a view to render it very thick and close, cuts it over with the shears a few inches above the ground, the first winter after planting; in consequence of which many small shoots spring out from each of the stems that has been cut over :—Each of which being afterwards cut over in the same manner, sends forth a still greater number of shoots, which are smaller and smaller, in proportion to their number.

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If the soil in which the hedge has been planted is poor, in consequence of this management, the branches, after a few years, become so numerous, that the hedge is unable to send out any shoots at all, and the utmost exertion of the vegetative powers enables it only to put forth leaves. These leaves are renewed in a sickly state for some years, and, at last, cease to grow at all—the branches become covered with fog, and the hedge perishes entirely.

But, if the soil be very rich, notwithstanding this great multiplication of the stems, the roots will still have sufficient vigour to force out a great many small shoots, which advance to a great length, but never attain a proportional thickness. And, as the vigour of the hedge makes them continue to vegetate very late in autumn, the frosts come on before the tops of these dangling shoots have attained any degree of woody firmness; so that ttiey are killed almost

entirely

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