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out at the top of the first year's shoots, (which very frequently is the case,) these supernumeraries should be cautiously pruned away with a knife; taking out all the strong upright growing branches, excepting one for a stem ; being always particularly careful to cut them away quite close to the stem from which they spring: For, if this caution were neglected, a greater number of shoots would spring out from the wound, and the malady be increased rather than dir minished.

If these circumstances are attended to, the hedge will need no other care ever afterwards, but to be defended from cattle, kept free of weeds, and clipped in the sides once a-year for some time ; being always careful, at each clipping, to go as close to the last a.s can be easily done. But, in a particular manner, be attentive, the first time you perform this operation, to clip it as near to the upright stemsas possible: For, as these side-branches must K alwaya, always extend a little farther at dvery cutting, if this caution is not observed, these lateral {hanks will, in time, become naked; and the interval between the ribs, (as the upright shoots may properly be called,) and the reticular tegument (or skin) that covers the surface, would be too great, and form a very disagreeable void.

If these rules are observed for a few years, the hedge, whileit advances in height, will become as close in the sides as could be wished for. And, although- the clipping of the sides should be discontinued after a few years, it will be in no danger of running into great disorder; for, as the vigour of the sideshoots will have been much diminished by having been so frequently divided, none of them will afterwards advance to such a distance as to deform or hurt the hedge; so that this operation may be discontinued, unless where very great neatness is required.

§ XVII, § XVII.

ffoiv to recover a Hedge after it has been Jlinted in its Growth.

But if, frond the poorness of the soil in which your hedge is planted, or from any other cause, it should so happen, that, after a few years, the hedge becomes sickly, and the plants turn poor and stinted in appearance, the easiest and only effectual remedy for that disease, is to cut the stems of the plants clean over, at the height of an inch or two above the ground; after which they will fend forth much stronger shoots than they ever would have done without this operation. And, if the hedge be kept free of weeds* and trained afterwards in the manner above describedi it will, in almost every casse, be recovered, and rendered fresh and vigorous.

This

This amputation ought to be performed in autumn, or the beginning of winter; and, in the spring, when the young buds begin to show themselves, the stumps ought to be examined with care, and all the buds be rubbed off, excepting one or two of the strongest and best placed, which should be left for a stem. For, if the numerous buds that spring forth round the stem are allowed to spring up undisturbed, they will become, in a few years, as weak and stinted as before; and the hedge will never afterwards be able to attain any considerable height, strength, or healthful ness.—I have seen many hedges that have been repeatedly cut over, totally ruined, by not having attended to this circumstance in proper time.

If the ground, for sixteen or twenty feet on each side of the hedge, be fallowed at the time that this operation is performed, and get a thorough dressing with rich manures, and be kept in high order for some years

afterafterwards, by good culture and meliorating cropsj the hedge will prosper much better than if this had been omitted, especially if it has been planted on the level ground, or ost the bank of a shallow ditclu

§. XVIII.

Of recovering old open Hedges by Plashing.

It sometimes happens, that a hedge may have been long neglected, and be, in general, in a healthy state, but full of gaps and openings, or so thin and straggling, as to form but a very imperfect fort of fence. On these occasions, it is in vain to hope to fill up the gaps by planting young quicks; for these would always be outgrown, choaked, and starved by the old plants: Nor could it be recovered by cutting clear over by the

roots;

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