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The service is a tree but little known in Scotland, although it is one of those that ought perhaps to be often cultivated there in preference to any other tree whatever, as it is more hardy, and, in an exposed situation, affords more shelter to other plants than almost any other tree I know: For it sends out a great many strong branches from the under part of the stem, which, in time, assume an upright direction, and continue to advance with vigour, and carry many leaves to the very bottom, almost as long as the tree exists; so that, if it is not pruned, 'it rises a large close bush, till it attains the height of a forest-tree.

It is of the same genus with the rawntree—and has a great resemblance to it both in flower and fruit; its branches are more waving and pliant—its leaves undivided— broad and rounds somewhat resembling the elm, but white and mealy on the under side. It deserves to be better known than it is at present.

§ XIV, § XIV.

Of the Use of the Eglantine in Fencing.

Although the hawthorn makes a very fine fence when planted alone; yet, it is rather improved, by having some plants of sweetbriar (Eglantine) intermixed with it. For, although this plant is so weak and straggling as never to make a fence strong enough by itself; yet, as it advances with such prodigious rapidity, and is so entirely covered with prickles, it serves admirably well for intermixing with other stronger plants, for the purpose of thickening a hedge: And, as the plants can be reared at a very trifling expence, I think they may, on many occasions, be employed with great propriety.

If you employ nothing else than hawthorns, they should be planted about seven

or or eight inches a-part. But, your hedge will be more quickly reared, and at a more moderate expence, if they are planted at twelve inches a-part, with a plant of eglantine between every two thorns. But the e-glantine should be planted out when very young; for, if the plants were large and strongly rooted, the shoots would be so luxuriant as to be in some danger of overtopping the thorns and choaking them. Plants of one year's growth, if vigorous, are of the proper size for this purpose; and these will require no lopping before they are planted.


§ xv.

Of the necessary Attention to the Hedge the first Tear after Planting.

It will be necessary to examine the hedge with care, the first winter after planting; and, if there are any plants, either stinted or dead, they should be taken out, and their places be immediately supplied by others, more vigorous, if possible, than those that were planted the year before. For this purpose, every good husbandman should take care to reserve a few of the finest plants that he can pick out, and of the freest shooting kinds of thorn,(for there is a very great difference in this respect) which should be kept in the richest part of the nursery, and have the earth dug about them during the summerseason, with the greatest care, that their roots may be numerous and well formed. If he has taken this precaution, and is at pains to open the bank with a spade, so as to allow the roots to be properly placed, and lifts them from the nursery with due care, covering them immediately after planting with the richest earth that can be got, which ought to be further meliorated by a little well rotted dung, and cuts off the whole

of of the top at the time of planting; they wilf,in all probability, make such shoots next year as to be at once out of all danger of being choaked by the others. But, if this small degree of care had been neglected, or even deferred till another season, it would then have been too late, and the hedge must have remained for ever afterwards full of incurable gaps, that might have been effectually prevented by this well-timed attention,


§ xvi.

Directions for Clipping and Pruning Hedges.

Nothing can be more prejudicial to a young hedge than an injudicious application of the fciffars; and, although it be extremely common to clip the top of a hedge for a few years at first, even where it is to be discontinued ever afterwards; yet, it


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