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able to absorb so much nourishment as would be necessary to make it push out shoots with an equal degree of vigour as if it had not been removed; it, therefore, becomes necessary to lop off some part of the top of every tree when transplanted, that the remaining roots may be able to absorb abundant nourishment for these branches that we leave behind. If the plant is old, the proportion of roots that it loses by being transplanted is always greater than when it is young; but, in all casses, it is necessary to lop off some part of the top of the plant, otherwise there is great danger that it will then receive a check in its growth and become stinted; which is a disease that hardly admits of a cure but by amputation. To prevent this dangerous disease in a hedge, it is always proper to cut off the top of the quick entirely; which never fails to make it send out shoots the first year of a more than ordinary degree of vigour. This amputation ought always to be
performed by a sliarp tool, that the wound may be as clean as possible; and, when the hedge is to be planted on the face of a bank, it ought to be made about twelve inches above the root. Although this operation is not so indispensibly necessary on young plants as on those that are older; yet it is always of use, and oug^ht never to be omitted.
Gardeners top often neglect this most ner cessary operation, and almost as universally prune the roots too much. If the plants have not been brought from a distance, or long kept out of the ground, it is only necessary to cut off the points of such roots as have been lacerated in taking up the plants; leaving as many small roots as possible, if they are found. If, indeed, they have been too long exposed to the weather, so as to have some part of the smallest fibres killed, it will not be improper to cut away these dead fibres; but, it is in general the 9 safest. safest plan, to prune the roots but very little beiore planting.
Directions for the Manner of Planting.
The proper method of planting this kind of hedge is, first to turn up a little of the earth from the place where the ditch is to be made, and lay it Upon the bank reversed ; so as to form a bed for the plant about two. inches thick above the solid ground. Upon this the thorns should be laid nearly in a horizontal direction, but enclining a little upward in the point, aad haying the ends of the stems just equal with the face of the bank, or projecting beyond it a very little, not more than half an inch; by which means, every plant will send out only one or two shoots, which will be the more vigorous as there are so few of them. But, if any of these plants
should stioul J send out a greater riiimber of shoots* it will be proper to prune away all these supernumeraries the first winter after planting; cutting them with a knife close by the stem froifi which they spring: For, it is the largeness Of these original stamina of the hedge that will afterwards constitute its strength, and dot the number of small ramifications, as is too generally imagined* But, if the shoot9 are numerous, they never do acquire such a degree of strength as when there are fewef of them*
The plants being thus regularly laid* should have their roots immediately covered with the best mold taken from the surface of the ditch;' and the workmen shoukf take care to keep that good mold well back upon the bank, and rather behind the roots, leaving thtf breast of the bank to be made up by the less fertile earth taken from the bottom of the ditch. By this means the roots will have all the good earth about them;
in which they will spread with freedom, and draw from it abundant nourishment; and the bad earth which forms the breast of the bank will produce much fewer weeds there, than the good earth would have done, if it had been kept near the surface. You will now likewise perceive the reason for cutting the plants at such a distance above the roots, (§ XI.) viz. that you may be thus allowed to put the roots among the good mold, and still leave room for a breast-work of bad earth of a sufficient thickness ; whereas, if they had been cut shorter than is there mentioned, you would not only have been deprived of this conveniency, but would also have been obliged to plant the roots so near to the breast of the ditch, as to expose them very much to the droughts of summer, which would greatly retard their growth; for no plant delights more in a moderate degree of moisture than the white thorn; which is probably one reason why it