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rates above mentioned; which is a difference so very great, as no variation of the rates of labour, from what is supposed above, could in any case nearly compensate.
It will possibly be objected by some, that I here lay the whole expence of the six ploughings and harrowings to the accompt of levelling; whereas, they ought rather, in a great measure, to be considered as a summer-fallow, and charged of consequence to that head; which would reduce die expence of levelling considerably. But, if they consider the matter with due attention, they will find that this plea cannot be admitted. It mult be remembered, that each successive ploughing, when performed in this manner, buries a part of the good earth that was meliorated by the former ploughings, and turns up some of the inert earth in the middle of the ridge; which, by the next ploughing, is made to cover another parcel of good earth, and have its place supplied by other E e earth earth still more inert than it was; so that, when the whole six ploughings are finished, instead of having the field meliorated as by a fallow, a great part of its surface is covered with that inert earth, which is much worse than the native mold would have been without any fallow at all: And it is thus made so unequal in quality, as to be productive of the very worst consequences, as has been already remarked: So that, instead of having done any service to the field, the whole of these ploughings and harrowings have really rendered it worse than before, and ought therefore to be entirely charged to the account of the levelling, and to no other account whatever; as well as the damage that the ground sustains by this operation, which has not been charged to the account. On the other hand, were we to calculate accurately, the ploughing that accompanies the levelling by the spade ought not, by any means, to be charged to the account of leTelling; veiling; as it answers every purpose of a fallow in the highest degree: To which purpose the operations with the spade likewise contribute in some measure. On all which accounts, I think it is palpably obvious, that this is not only the most effectual method of levelling ridges, but also the least expensive, and, beyond any degree of comparison, the most profitable to the farmer.
After what has been said, I presume the reader will excuse me, if I take no farther notice of the various machines that have been invented for carrying the earth from the heights into the hollows; as I flatter myself, that he will be satisfied, that, although they were much more perfect than any of them are, and should diminish the expence of the operation of the plough very considerably; yet the inconveniencies that result from the use of them, are so many and great, as could never admit of a comparison with that by the spade.
The above is what I deem the very best method that can be practised for levelling ridges; and, as I have frequently performed it with the greatest success, I can recommend it as such from experience. But, on some occasions, the situation of the field may be such as to render ploughing it across incommodious; and, in' that case, the following method, although less perfect, may be substituted in its stead.
In this method, it is necessary, first to cleave out every ridge, so as to leave an open thurrough in the middle of it;.But, in performing this operation, it will be proper to leave about a yard or so on each fide of the old furrow untouched; which will form a pretty deep ditch between each ridge when the whole field is ploughed.—Let labourers be then sent into the field with spades, who shall dig a trench in the open in the middle of each ridge, more or less deep according to the height of the ridge ; the earth that is
taken taken out of it, being thrown into the furrow on each side: And, after the whole is cleared out from end to end, let the plough be again set into the field, to turn back a thurrough of the upper mold from each side into the new made trench; after which, the diggers begin a-fresh to work in the bottom of this new made thurrough; throwing the earth still into the hollow between the old ridges. And, if all this is not sufficient to raise them high enough, let another thurrough be turned back into the trench, and another new one dug after it; repeating this alternate ploughing and digging as often as mall be found necessary. And, after the whole is thus brought to a proper level, let it be harrowed across, if it cannot be ploughed, to mix the whole as perfectly as may be.