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On*the proper Method of Levelling High Ridges.
The difficulty and danger attending the levelling high ridges by the plough, or other levelling machines.—A nenv method of levelling by the plough and spade described, as it has been, with success, praclifed by the author.—A calculation of the expencs . of levelling by this method—not one fourth of that oj doing it by the plough—and, in other respects, infinitely more advantageous. —Another less perse c~l method of performing this operation described.—A caution to young improvers in agriculture not to adopt too many neiv implements of husbandry.
TT was the practice very universally, in old times, to make the ridges in all ploughed lands crooked like an inverted g, and of
very very great breadth and height, which, in a great degree, prevents the farmer from reaping the full benefit of many of those improvements that have been adopted in modern times. In some parts of England, it is so long since they began to make improvements in agriculture, that this obstruction to them has been intirely removed; and the very remembrance of this improper practice has been lost: But in some places there, and through the greatest part of Scotland, it still continues to prevail, to the very great detriment of the industrious improver, as it either mars his operations in a high degree, or subjects him to a considerable expence in reducing them to a proper level; which is greatly enhanced by the very considerable deficiency in his crops, that he must feel for many years, in consequence of this operation, unless it is performed with an uncommon degree of care and attention.
The difficulty of performing this operation properly with the common implements of husbandry, and the obvious benefit that accrues to the farmer from having his fields level, have produced many new inventions of plows, harrows, drags, &c. calculated for speedily reducing the fields to that state; none of which have as yet been found fully to answer the purpose for which they were intended, as they all indiscriminately carry the earth that was on the high places into those that were lower; which, although it may, in some cases, render the surface of the ground tolerably smooth and level, is usually attended with inconveniencies far greater, for a considerable length of time, than that which it was intended to remove.
For experience sufficiently shows, that even the best vegetable mold, if buried for any length of time so far beneath the surface, as to be deprived of the benign influences of the atmosphere, loses its vis vitœ, if
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