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ground. And, as these haughs * are gene* rally very rich and fertile, and sometimes of Very great extent, the damage that is done by not getting them properly cultivated, is very considerable* As this is an object of Very great consequence to the public, and of importance to many individuals, it appears to me not a little extraordinary, that no attempt to remedy this evil has hitherto been
* Haugh is a name peculiarly apprbpriated, in the northern parts of Britain, to denote those low flat lying fields that are frequently met with upon the sides of rivers, and is applied to no species of ground in any other situation whatever. As the Vord is exprefiive, and conveys a distinct idea that Can be expressed by no other single word that I knOw, 'I have chosen to retain it here; although I am sensible, that, perhaps, one half of the inhabitants of this island can hardly pronounce this combination of letters. If the reader knows any word that could b8 substituted in its stead-, it will be easy for him to reject the term entirely.
published ; at least as far as I know. And, as it is greatly to be wished that some method could be contrived to preserve these fields from this inconvenience at an easy expence, it is hoped, that the following attempt to accomplish this, will be received by the public with some degree of indulgence, even if it should be found to be more defective than the writer hereof may at present apprehend.
These haughs are seldom of great extent, excepting in level tracts where the water runs with no impetuous current; and therefore, they may, in general, be preserved, by means of a sloping bank raised all along the side of the river as far as the haugh extendsj which, if formed after the same plan as those described in the last article, will easily confine the water within their boundaries, till it rises so higl^s to flow over the top of the bank; so that, if these are raised to a sufficient height towards the back part, in such a
manner manner as to be capable of containing the whole of the water that at any time flows down the river, the fields on each side will be effectually secured.
If the surface of the ground in the haugh is at any considerable height above the water in the river, as at A B, (Fig. 13th,) the bank may perhaps be raised to the necessary height, by throwing the earth that is taken from the brink of the river at A, (Fig. 14th,) to the other side of the bank, at B, so as to form the new surface of the bank in the direction CD, instead of the old surface AB. But, if the surface of the ground is lower, as at EF, (Fig. 13th,) on the opposite side of the river, the earth that is taken from the triangle FGH, (Fig. 14th,) will not, in that casse, be sufficient to fill up the whole triangle GIK, and raise the bank to a proper^eight; To make up which deficiency, it will be necessary to dig a ditch KLE, at the back of the bank, throwing the earth into the higher
part part of the bank GlK, and faeing up the' tine IKL with stones or turf, so as to make it' become a fence to one fide of the field that it preserves from inundations.
But, if the' surface of the ground is extremely low, so as to be but little above thtf level of the water, as at LM, (Fig. 15th and 16th,) then, instead of raising the banks on each side'to the height of AS, (Fig. 16th,) it will be more adviseable to raise them only to the height of the line EF ; as in that case it would be very difficult to find so much earth as would form the banks at AK.D and CGB, although there will be no difficulty in forming the smaller ones KEL, and GFM i And, as the area EFGCDK, is equal to the area ABCK, these lower banks will contain an equal quantity of water within them, as the higher ones would have done; the greater width between them making up for their want of height
In this way* it will be in the power of any man so to proportion his banks to the circumstances in which he finds himself placed, as in the easiest manner to accomplish hifc design; for, if he has plenty of materials at hand, he may rear his banks to a greater height, and confine the river to a narrower course; and, if he finds a deficiency in that respect, he may make them of a smaller height, and allow the river to spread to a greater breadth,
Method of securing the Fields thus defended from the River, from the Danger of being overflowed by extraneous Water coming from the high Ground behind them.
It is necessary to defend these haughs, not. only from the inundations of the river,