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tremely firm in the stem, and is hurt by no fort of exposure. At this present time, I have some plants of it growing upon a very indifferent soil, which, in eight years from the time of sowing the seeds, are about twelve feet in height, and eight or nine inches in girt at the root; so that, I think, there is but little doubt, but that these trees might be employed for a fence in the same manner as was described for the poplars, upon such poor and barren soils as would be improper for them. 1 his tree ought to be raised from seeds, in the same manner as the hawthorn;— transplanted from the seed-bed at one or two year's growth into a rich garden-mold, and, in four or five years, they would be fit for planting out upright.

§< XXV. § XXV.



Of the Use of the Alder in Fencing. ;:

The alder might be employed for the same purpose upon damp soils. If propagated from seeds, it rises upright, and grows very fast; and, being strong in its moots, would be well adapted for this use.

Hedges are undoubtedly the best fences; and would, on almost all occasions, be preferable to those of every other kind, were they not so long of coming to perfection aftef they are planted, and so difficult to be preserved from other accidents during that period; so that it has hitherto been a desideratum in agriculture, to find out something that should be an immediate fence as a wall, and lasting as a hedge. Whether the four

plants plants last mentioned will effectuate this purpose in the manner above proposed, I will not take upon me to say; but, as the matter is of considerable importance, and there seems to be a probability that they may at least be ofsome use, I hope I shall be excused for having hazarded a few conjectures upon this head.


Of Furze, or Whins, as a Fence.

Whins (furze) have been often employed as a fence when sowed upon the top of a bank. They are attended with the convenience of coming very quickly to their perfection, and of growing upon a soil in which few other plants could be made to thrive: But, in the way that they are commonly

eraemployed, they are neither a strong nor last-* jng fence, . .

The first of these defects may, in some measure, he removed, by making the bank upon which they are sowed (for they never should be transplanted) of a very considerable breadth; in order that the largeness of the aggregate body, considered as one mass, may, in some measure, make up for the want of strength in each individual plant.

With this view, a bank may be raised of five or six feet in breadth at the top, with a large ditch on each side of it ; raising the bank as. high as the earth taken from the ditches will permit ; the surface of which should be sowed pretty thick with whinseeds. These will come up very quickly; and, in two or three years, will form a barrier that few animals will attempt to break through, and will continue in that state of perfection for some years.

The - The greatest objection to this plant as a fence is, that, as it advances in size, the old prickles always die away; there being never more of these alive at any time upon the plant, than those that have been the produce of the year immediately preceding; and these thus gradually falling away, leave the stems naked below as they advance in height; so that it very soon becomes an exceeding poor and unsightly fence; the stems being entirely bare, and so slender withal, as not to be able to make a sufficient resistance to almost any animal whatever. To remedy this great defect, either of the two following methods may be adopted that shall best suit your situation and circumstances.

The first is, to take care to keep the banks always stored with young plants; never allowing them to grow to such a height as to become bare below. And, it was principally to admit of this, without losing at any time the use of the fence, that I have advises


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