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BAR, or the BARROIS, a late duchy of the rein when beconie diseased or raroneFrance, which now forms the department of In order to bar a vein, the farrier opeus the skin the Meuse.

above it, and after disengaging it, and tying it Bars, or BINDERS, in the manage, those above and below, he divides the ressel between portions of the crust or hoof of a horse that are the two ligalures, reflected inwards, and form the arches which BAR LE DUC, the capital of the former are situated between the heels and the frog. territory of Bar, now of a'district in the de“ They are formed,” says Mr. St. Bell, “by partment of Meuse, in France, having a strong the continuatio the fibres of the heels, castle. It is 136 miles E. of Paris. Lat. 47. which turn towards each other; and, advanc- 4+ N. Lon. 5. 20 E. ing to the extremity of the frog, where they BAR-SUR-AUBE, a town of France, in uneet, form an acute angle; and aeting by nu- the departinent of Aube, and late province of qual resistance from within, outwardly oppose Champagne. Lat. 48.15 N. Lon. 4. 55 E. the contraction of the heels." See Foot. BAR-SUR-SEINE, a town of France, in

Bars also denote the fleshy rows that run the department of Aube. Lat. 48.5 X. Lon. across the upper part of the mouth of a horse, 4.32 E. and reach almost quite to the palate, very distin- BARA, one of the Hebrides, to the south guishable in young horses. On the bars the bit of St. Cist. Lat. 56. 53 N. Lon. 7.30 W, should rest and have its appui; for though a BARA, the name of a very extraordinary single cannon bears upon the tongue, the bars festival celebrated at Messina, in honour of the are so sensible and tender that they feel the assuinption of the Virgin. At this feast a great effects of it through the thicknessof the tongue. number of children, who represent the Virgin,

The bars should be sharp ridged and lean; the apostles, cherubim, and seraphim, are for since all the subjection a horse bears pro- placed upon a large whirling machine, which ceeds from these parts, if they have not those is turned round by a number of monks. When qualities they will be very little or not at all the whole is in motion, it is said to represent sensible; so that the horse can never have a the situation of the apostles, &c. when gazing good mouth. If the bars be flat, round, and at the ascending Virgin. The people are so insensible, the bit will not have its effect, and delighted with this festival, that parents very consequently such a horse can be no more go- ardently solicit for the felicity of having their verned by his bridle than if we took hold of children among the apostles or cherubiin at his tail.

the Bara. Bars, in music, denote strokes drawn per- BARABINIANS, a nation of the Russian pendicularly across the lines of a piece of music, empire, also called BARABINZIANS. See including between each iwo a certain quantity below. or measure of time, which is various as the BARABINZIANS, a tribe of Tartars, lis. tine is triple or common.

ing on both sides of the river Iris. They seen In common time between each two bars, is to derive their name from the Barabaian desart, included the measure of four crotchets; in whose lakes supply them abundantly with fisb, triple time, three crotchets. Their principal on which and their cattle they chiefly subsist. use is, to regulate the beating, or measure of They have plenty of gaine and wild-foul of the musical time in a concert. See Traje. every kind, particularly ducks and puthins.

Besides the bar or single bar above described, Most of them are heathens, but Mahometanit will be proper to regard the following: isan daily gains ground among them.

BARACH, (from boruk, plendid, Arab.) The Double Bar introduced to mark the Nitre.

BARACKS. See BARRACKS. end of a strain, or a change in the measure, or BARZE, in ancient geography, a people of time.

India, placed by Ptolemy near the Ganges.

BARALIPTON, among logicians, à term The Dotted Bar used to signify that denoting the first indirect mode of the first

figure of syllogism. A syllogism in baralipthe preceding and following strains are to be ton, is when the two first propositions are gerepeated.

neral, and the third particular, the middle The Half-dotted Bar shewing that the and the predicate in the second. The follow

ing is of this kind: strain on the same side of the bar with the dots BA. Every evil ought to be feared 1 to be repeated.

R A. Every violent passion is an eril; T. BAR. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To

Therefore something that ought to fisten or shut with a bolt or bar (S:cift). 2.

be feared is a violent passion. To hinder; 10 obstruct (Shukspeure). 3. To BARANGI, officers among the Greeks of preient; to exclude (Sidney). 4. To shut the lower enpire, whose business it was to out (Dryden). 5. To prohibit (Addison). 6. keep the keys of the city-gates where the emTo except (Shak spare).

peror resided. Codinus says, barangi were To Bar a l'EIN, an operation performed by those who stood guard at the door of the enfarriers

upon the veins of a horse's legs and peror's bed-chamber and dining room. Coother parts of his body, with intent to obliterate dinus and Curopalata observe, that the name is

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English, formed from bar, to shut; and that from Barbary, much esteemed for its beauty, the barangi were Englishmen, by country; vigour, and swiftness. (See Horse.) These Anglo-Danes, who, being, driven out of horses are usually very elegant, of a slender England, were received into the service of the make, and have very fine limbs and fine turnomperor of Constantinople, and made guards ed bodies. The Spanish and English horses or protectors of his pesson. Whence they are have much fuller bodies, and larger legs. The called in Latin, by Cujaccius, protectores; by barb is little inferior to the Arabian or Turkothers, securigeri, as being armied with a battle- ish horse; but he is esteemed by our dealers ax, securis. Codinus adds, that they still spoke too tender and delicate to breed' from. The the English tongue. Anna Comnena says, Turkish and the Spanish horses are therefore the barangi came from the island Thule; by usualy kept for this purpose by the nices which is, doubtless, meant our island. judges.

BARA-PICKLET, bread made of fine flour BARB. (Phwxis, glochis.) In botany, a kneaded with barm, which makes it very light straight process, armed with sereral teeth and spongy: bara being the Welch for bread. pointing backwards, like the sting of a bee. In the north of England it is formed into fat This is one sort of pubescence in plants; and is cakes, which are called picklets.

distinguished from the hook Chamus) by the BARATHRUM, in antiquity, a deep dark point not being bent. pit at Athens, into which condemned persons BARB. In botany. See BEARD. were cast headlong. It had sharp spikes at the T. BARB. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To top, that no man might escape out; and others shave; to dress out the beard (Shakspeare). at the bottom, to pierce and torment such as 2. To furnish horses with armour (Dryden). were cast in.

3. To jag arrows with hooks (Philips). BARATIER (John Philip), an extraordi- BARBACAN. s. (barbacane, French.) 1. nary youth, born at Schwobach, near Nurem- A fortification before the walls of a town burg, in 1721. At five years old he is said to (Spenser). 2. A fortress at the end of a bridge. have understood Greek, Latin, German, and 3. An opening in the wall through which the French. His father, who was minister of the guns are levelled. French church at Schwobach, then taught him BARBACENIA. In botany, a genus of the Hebrew, and at 9 years of age he was able to class hexandria, order monogynia. Calyx su. translate any part of the Scriptute into Latin, perior, six-toothed; corol six-petalled; filaIn 1731, he was entered in the university of inents petal-shaped, toothed; capsule glandular, Altdorf, and the same year wrote a letter to M. three valved, many-seeded. One species only, le Maitre on a new edition of the Bible, He- a native of Brasil. brew, Chaldaic, and Rabbinical, which is in- BARBA CAPRIÆ. See ULMARIÆ. serted in the Bibliotheque Germanique. The BARBA HIRCI. See TR AGOPOGON. year following, he published the travels of BARBA Jov 18. See SEDUM MAJUS. Benjamin of Tudela, translated from the He- BARBADOES, the most easterly of the brew into French. In 1734, the margrave of Caribbee islands, in the West Indies. It is in Anspach settled upon him a pension of 50 general a level country, though a little diversiforins a year, and gave him the free use of his fied with hills. When the English first landed library. In 1735, he sent a scheme for finding here it had not the least appearance of having the longitude to the Royal Society, but it was ever been peopled, even by savages, there not found to have been an old invention, and in- being any kind of beast of pasture or prey, no sufficient. He was the same year admitted a fruit, herb, nor root, fit for the support of humember of the academy at Berlin. Soon after man life. The number of white inhabitants is wards he published a work against the Socini- about 20,000, and the negro slaves amount to ans, called, Anti-Artemonius, 8v0., 1735. The about 100,000. This island is subject to hursame year he was created M.A. by the uni, ricanes, particularly in July and Angust. It versity of Halle. This wonderful youth died was nearly ruined by the dreadful hurricane of a decline in 1740, aged little inore than 19. which happened in October 1780. It is about Besides the works abovementioned, he wrote 25 miles loug, and 15 broad. The capital of some critical dissertations upon points of ecclc- Barbadoes is Bridge-town, which is situated in siastical history in the Bibliotheque Germa- lat. 13. 10 N. lon. 59. 10 W. The other nique (Watkins).

towns are Ostins or Charles-town, St. James's, BARATRY, in law, the moving suits, tak- and Spaight's-town. ing and detaining houses and lands, &c., tipon BARBADOES CHERRY. The fruit of the false inventions. In a marine sense, baratry malphigia glabea of Linnéus. These cherries denotes the cheating either the owners or in- are of a red colour, of the size of small cherries, surers of ships, by sinking the vessel, deserting and are gathered and eaten by the inhabitants her, embezzling the cargo, &c., whether by of the West-India islands, particularly Barbamaster or mariners.

does. In moderate quantity they are considered BARB. s. (larla, a beard, Latin.) 1. Any as wholesome, though very inferior to cherries, thing that grows in the place of a beard (IVal- BARBADOES NUT. Sće RICINUS MAJOR. ton). 2. The point that stands backward in BARBADOES TAR. Sce PETROLEUM an arrow, or fishing-hook (Pope). 3. The BARBADENSE, and BITUMEN. armour for horses (Hayward).

BARBARA, among logicians, the first BARB, or BARBE, a kind of horse brought mode of the first figure of syllogisms. A syllo

had no

gim in barbara is one whereof all the propo- 2. Ignorant; unacquainted with aris (Dir.): sitions are universal and atlirmative; the mid- 3. Cruel ; inhuman (Clarendon). dle term being the subject of the first proposi- BARBAROUSLY. ad. (fruin tarkarous ) tion, and attribute in the second.

1. Ignorantly; without knowledge or arts. 2. E.zamp. Bar. Every wicked man is miser- In a manner contrary to the rules of speech. 3. able;

Cruelly; inhumanly (Spectator).
BA. All tyrants arc wicked men; BARBAROUSNESS. s. (from lartaroes.)
Ra. Therefore all tyrants are mi- 1. Incivility of manners (Temple). 9. Im-

purity of language (Brerewood). 3. Cruelty BARBARAA. The leaves of this plant, (Hale): erysinuu barbaræa ; foliis lyratis, extimo sub- BARBARCS, in ichthyology, a species of roiundo of Linnéus, may be ranked amongst syngnethus, found in European seas, having the anti-corbutics: they are seldom used. neither caudal nor anal fin; body six-sided.

BARBARIAN, a name given by the an- BARBARY, a country of Africa, included cient Greeks and Romans to all who were not between the Atlantic ocean, the Mediterranean of their own country, or were not initiated in sea, and Egypt, and containing the kingdoms their language, manners, and customs. In of Barca, I'ripoli, Tunis, Algiers, Fez, and this sense, the word signified with them no Morocco. It is near 2000 miles in length, more than foreigner; not signifying, as among and, in some places, 750 in breadth. It was us, a wild, rude, or uncivilized person. Strabo known to the ancients by the names of Mauderives the word freçouzos from Baron;i&tv, lal- ritania, Nunidia, Proper Africa, and Libya. butire, because foreigners coming to Athens It is the best country in all Africa, except used to stamner, or speak coarsely. Others Egypt; and fertile in cor, maize, wine, ciderive it from Srepona, a word that foreigners trons, oranges, figs, almonds, olives, dates, and frequently stumbled


melons. Their chief trade consists in their meaning.

fruits, in the horses called barbs, Morocco leaBARBARIAN, likewise, denotes an inhuman ther, ostrich-feathers, indigo, wax, tip, and person, a man void of pity or feeling.

coral. The established religion is the MahoBARBARICARII, in antiquity, artists metan, and there are some Jews; but no who decorated shields with gold and silver. Christians, except

the slaves. Sometimes the word is used for those who Concerning the origin of the name Bare wore shields or masks thus decorated.

bary there are many conjectures. According BARBARICK. a. (larluricus, Latin.) Fo- to some, the Romans, after they had conquered reign; far-fetched (Milton).

this larye country, gave it that name out of BARBARISM, in grammar, denotes an contempt and dislike to the barbarous manners oflence against the purity of style or language. of the natives, according to the custom of callA barbarism differs, according to Isidore, froin ing all other people but themselves barbarians. a barbarous term, as the former, for instance, Marmol, on the contrary, derives the word is Latin, though corrupt or misused; whereas Barbary from Berber, a name which the Arabs the latter, which this writer called barbaro- gave to its ancient inhabitants, and which they logia, is a word merely foreign, intruded into retain to this day in many parts of the country, Latin speech

especially along ihe great ridge of the mounIn general, under the term barbarisms are tains of Avas; and which naine was given comprehended things written, spoken, declin- them on account of the barrenness of their couned, or conjugated wrong; or used in a wrong trv. According to Leo Africanus, the name quantity, or in an unusual sense; as when a of Barbary was given by the Arabs on account word is used which is foreigu to the language, of the strange language of the natives, which and not received by the better and purer sort appeared to them more like a murmur os of writers. Such are liper for liler, syllāla for grumbling of soine brute animals than articusyllălu, patri for patris, lori for legi, l'annus late sounds. Others, however, derive it from for proscriptio, &c. Barbarism is often charg- the Arabic word lar, signifying a desert, twice ed, with great justice, on modern writers in repeated; which was gisen by one Ifrie, or the learned languages. The Latin books of Africus, a king of Arabia, from whom the iate ages are full of Anglicisms, Gallicisms, whole continent of Africa is preteniled to have Germanicisms, &c., according to the country taken its name. According to them, this king of the author. But what shall we say to Casp. being driven out of his own dominions, and Scioppius, who accuses Cicero himself of bar- closely pursued by his cnemies, some of his barisms in his own language ?

retinue called out to him liar, lar; that is, To BARBARISM, BARBARIES, is also used for the desert, To the desert; from which die that rudeness of inind, wherein the understand- country was afterwards called Barbary. ing is neither furnished with useful principles, Among the Romans this country was divul nor the will with good inclinations.

ed into the provinces of Mauritania, Africa BARBARITY. s. (from larlarnus.) 1. Propria, &c. ond they continuerl absolute Savageness; incivilitv. 2. Cruelty ; inhuna- masters of it from the tiine of Julius Cesar till nits (Clarendon). 3. Impurity of speech (S.). the rear of Christ 428.

BARBAROUS. a. (larlarc, French.) 1. BARBATE. In botany. See BEARDED. Stranger tu civility; savage; wcivilized (Da.). BARBATELLI (Bernardino), an eminent


kalian painter. He was the disciple of Ghir- To BA'R BER. v. a. (from the noun.) To landaio, at Florence. He afterwards went to dress out; to powder (Shakspeare). Rome, where he studied with so much assidui- BARBER CHIRURGEON. S. A man ty, as frequently to forget the refreshments of who joins the practice of surgery to the food and sleep. He excelled in painting history, Barber's trade; a low practiser of surgery fruit, animals, and flowers. He died in 1612, (Wiseman). aged 70.

BARBERINO, a town of Tuscany, in BARBE, or BARB. See BARB.

Italy, at the foot of the Appennines. "Lat. BARBE, in the military art. To fire in 43. 59 N. Lon. 11. 15 E. barbe, means to fire the cannon over the para- BARBER-MONGER. s. A fop; a man pet, instead of firing through the embrasures ; decked out by his barber (Shakspeare). in which case, the parapet must not be above BARBERRY. s. (berberis, Lat.) Pipperidge three feet and a half high.

bush. See BERBERIS. · BARBE, or Barde, is an old word, denot- BARBET, in mastiology. See Canis. ing the armour of the horses of the ancient BARBET, in ornithology. See Bucco. knights and soldiers, who were accoutred at all BARBETS, in geography, the name of the points. It is said to have been an armour of inhabitants of several valleys in Piedmont. iron and leather, wherewith the neck, breast, BARBEYRAC (John), was born in Be. and shoulders of the horse were covered. siers, in Lower Languedoc, in 1674. He was

BARBE, (St.) a town of New Biscay, in made professor of law and history at LauMexico, North America. In its neighbour- sanne, in 1710; wbich he enjoyed for seven hood are several silver mines. Lat. 20. 0 N. years, and during that time was three times Lon. 107.5 W.

rector : in 1717, he was professor of public BARBECINO, a territory of Africa, over and private law at Groningen. He translated against the Cape de Verd Islands.

into French the two celebrated works of PufT. BA’RBECUE. v. a. To dress a hog fendorf, his Law of Nature and Nations, and whole, by bruiling (Pope).

his Duties of a Man and a Citizen ; to both BA'R BECUE. s. A hog drest whole.

which he wrote excellent notes, and to the BAʼRBED. particip. a. (from to barb.) 1. former an introductory preface. He translated Furnished with armour (Shakspeare). 2. also Grotius's treatise De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Bearded ; jagged with hooks (Milton). with large and excellent noles ; and several of

BARBED AND CRESTED, in heraldry, an Tillotson's sermons. He wrote a work enappellation given to the combs and gills of a titled Traite de Jeu, two vols. 8vo. cock, when particularized for being of a differ- BARBICAN. See BARBACAN. ent tincture from the body.

BARBIERI (John Francis), an cminent A barbed cross, is a cross the extremities historical painter, born near Bologna, in 1590, whereof are like the barbed irons used for strik- and who studied under the Caracci. He foling great fish.

lowed the manner of Caravaggio. His taste BARBEL, in ichthyology. See CYPRINUS. of design was natural, easy, and often grand,

BARBELICOTÆ, an ancient sect of gnos- but without any extraordinary share of eletics, spoken of by Theodoret. Their ceremonies vation, correctness, or elegance. The airs of were abominable, and their doctrines too ri- his heads often want dignity, and his local diculons to deserve a particular description. colours want truth. However, there is great

BARBER, (from barba, a beard,) one who union and harmony in his colours, although makes a trade of shaving the beards and heads his carnations are not very fresh; and in all of men, and of making wigs, &c. Formerly his works there is a powerful and expressive the business of a surgeon was united to that of imitation of life, which will for ever render a barber, and he was denominated a barber. them estimable. Towards the decline of his surgeon. This union of profession was dis- life, he observed that the clearer and brighter solved by a statute of Henry VIII., by which style of Guido and Albano had attracted the the surgeons were formed into a distinct cor- admiration of all Europe ; and therefore he poration, that existed till the late establishment altered his manner, even against his own of the Royal College of Surgeons of Lon- judgment. But he apologized for that condon. In England a musical instrument was duct, by declaring, that in his former time he part of the furniture of a barber-surgeon's shop, painted for fame, and to please the judicious ; which was used by persons above the ordinary and he now painted to please the ignorant, and level of life, who resorted thither for the curé enrich himself. He died in 1666. The most of wounds, for bleeding, or trimming, a word capital performance of Guercino, is the histhat signified shaving, and cutting, or curling tory of S. Petronilla, which is considered as the hair. Bleeding and tooth-drawing are now one of the ornaments of St. Peter's at Rome, very commonly practised in country places by and is much admired by travellers. barbers, and ihe pole stuck out as the sign of BARBILLONS, in the natural history of their profession, is supposed to indicate the insects, are certain bodies, usually two in staff which is held in the patient's hand during number, placed under the creature's head, and the act of bleeding, and the fillet with which moveable at pleasure, somewhat resembling it is wound, represents that which binds the hands or fingers placed on a short or broken arm after the operation is coinpleted. arm. The word is a diminutive of the French

BARBERS (Company of). See COMPANY. larle, beard.

BARBING is sometimes used in ancient pronounce it laccaliau, and give the same to statutes for sheering Cloth is not to be ex- the cod-fish. ported till it be barbed, rowed, and slorn. BARCAROLLA, in music, a song in the 3 Hen. VII. c. 11.

Venetian language, sung at Venice bs be BARBITOS, or BARBITON, an ancieni gondoliers : the airs are often composed by the instrument of music, mounted with three, gondoliers themselves, and are celebrated by others say seven, strings, much used by Sappho Rousseau and the earl of Leicester, for the and Alceus; whence it is also denominated sweetness and naiveté of their melodie. Lesboum.

BARCELONA, a large and simog city of BARITONO, a male voice, the compass of Catalonia, in Spain. It is the see of a bishop. which partakes of those of the common bass and has a good harbour. It contains abois and the tenos.

15,000 houses. It is divided into the New BARBS, or BARBLES, small excrescences and Old Towns, which are separated from under the tongue of a horse, which may be each other by a wall and a ditch. The inha. discovered by drawing it aside. They are cur- bitants carry on an extensire irade. ed by cutting thein close off, and touching the city was united to the crown of Aragon in fonts with lunar caustic.

1131, by the marriage of don Paymond T. BARBUDA, one of the Caribbee islands count of Barcelona, with the daughter of 'ca in the West Indies, about tiventy iniles long, Ramiro the monk, king of Afragon. It was and twelve wide. The land is low, fruitful, taken by the French after a siege of fifto-tro and populous. It is the property of the Co- days, in 1697: Lord Peterborough got pose drington fainily. Lat. 18. 30 N. Lon. 61. session of it in 1705 ; and in 1714 it was 50 W.

taken by the French and Spaniards, afizz a BARBUS, in ichthyology. See CYPRI- Jong siege, when it was deprived of its prie NUS,

vileges, and the citadel built to keep it in awe. BARCA, a country of Africa, between Tri. It is 250 miles E. of Madrid. Lat. 41.96 X. poli and Egypt. It is a barren desert, chiefly Lun. 2. 13 E. inhabited by some tribes of wandering Arabs. The port of Barcelona exports its silks, In this country stood the famous temple of milling cloths, and cotonades, wires, bracJupiter Ammon; and notwithstanding the dies, and other productions; and if we wish pleasantness of the spot where it was erectert, to judge of the part the Catalonians take in this part of the country is said to be the most this commerce, it must be observed, that is dangerous of any, being surrounded with rast 1762, out of six hundred and twenty-eight tracks of quick and burning sands, which are vessels which entered Bareelona, three hunvery detrimental to travellers ; not only as they dred and seventeen belonged to Spain. It is sink under their feet, but being light, and true that silks from Lyons, stockings from heated by the rays of the sun, are easily raised Nimes, several kinds of stuffs and cottons, by every trilling brecze of wind; which, if it notwithstanding the prohibition, and partibe in their faces, alınost burns their eyes out, cularly dried cod, an article for which Spain and stitles them, or, if vehement, overwhelms pays annually to the English three millions of them. Cambyses, the king of Persia, dis- piastres, pass into Catalonia by the same port. patched a formidable army, wbich consisted of Barcelona was erected into a counts by Char. 60,000 men, against this temple; they set out lemagne, and became an independent save. from Thebes, in Upper Egypi, and under the reignty in the year 873 or 884. The king oi conduct of proper guides reached the city of Spain is called the count of Barcelona. The Oasis, seven days journey froin that place; but diocese contains 213 parishes, besides eight in what was their fate afterwards is uncertain, as the city. none of them ever returned to their own coun- BARCELORE, a town on the Malabar try again. The Ammonians informed Hero- coast, in the East Indies. Lat. 13.25 dótus, that, after the army had entered the Lon. 74. 15 E. sandy desert which lies beyond Oasis, a violent BARCELOS, a town of Portogal, in the wind began to blow from the south, at the province of Entre Minho e Douru. Lat. 41. time of their dinner, which raised the sand to 30 N. Lon. 8. 20 W. such a degree, that the whole army was over

BARCHOCHEBAS. See BARCOCHE. whelmed and buried alive.

BARCALAO, a Spanish word : the French


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