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result of actual enumeration, and contained in Mr. Newnham's “ View of Ireland," published in 1809.
Catholics to Protestants, in the diocess of Ross, 72,265 to 2292
313 to 1 Ditto, in eight parishes of the diocess of Cork, houses
11 to 1 Ditto, in the city of Cork, numbers
7 to 2 Ditto, in the parish of Ardagh, houses
70 to 1 Ditto, in the town of Clonmell, houses
3 to 1 Ditto, in the parish of Killarney, houses
35 to 1 Ditto, in the parish of Blarney, houses
19 to 1 Ditto, in the parish of Cove, houses
20 to 1 Ditto, in eleven parishes of the diocese of Tuam, numbers
54 to 1 Ditto, in the town of Graignamana, houses
100 to 1 Catholics to Protestants in the parish of Arles, families
100 to 1 Ditto in the parish of Tullow, the most Protestant parish in the diocese of Leighlin
12 to 1 No Protestants in the following parishes. — Kilcummin, St. Mullins, Allen, Kilbegnet, Newport, Abbeyfeal.
Only eleven Protestant families in the following parishes. Castle Blakeney, Killyglass, Shankill, and Lusk. (See Newen
ham's View of Ireland, Appendix p. xxxviii.) Catholics to Protestants in the county of Kilkenney. (See Tighe's Survey.)
17 to 1 Ditto in the counties of Clare, Kerry, Limerick,
Waterford, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, ac-
50 to 1 Ditto in the counties of Kildare, Meath, Westmeath,
Galway, Sligo, according to general opinion 20 to 1 In the counties of Antrim and Down the two sects are supposed to be equal.
The Catholics are to the Protestants, according to general opinion, in the county of Londonderry, as two to one; in the counties Armagh and Fermanagh, as three to one; in the other counties of Ulster, as four and five to one.
These statements are inserted, not for the purpose of drawing an inference making the Catholics to bear a very high ratio to the Protestants, but to show that there can be nothing very extravagant, or very far from the truth in assuming as the data of the following calculation, that in the three provinces of Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, the Catholics are to the Protestants as twelve to one, and that in the province of Ulster, the Catholics are to the Protestants as three to two.
Taking, then, the Parliamentary returns as the basis of the calculation on these proportions, It appears from these, that the population of the
three provinces amounts to 4,803,333 (p. vii.),
4,433,844 It also appears that the population of Ulster amounts
to 1,998,494 (p. vii.), at three Catholics to two Protestants, } of this number are Catholics, viz. 1,199,094 Thus it appears that the total number of Ca.
tholics, out of a population of 6,801,821 is 5,632,938 According to the above numbers and proportions,
the Protestants in three provinces are is of
369,487 Ditto in Ulster, ß of 1,998,494, viz.
799,396 Thus it appears that the total number of Pro
testants, out of a population of 6,801,821, is 1,168,883 These gross relative numbers make the ratio of Catholics to Protestants very nearly indeed as five to one.
Supposing then the numbers of both Catholics and Protestants to have gone on increasing in this ratio since 1821, the number of Catholics to Protestants out of the present population of 7,700,000 will be as five to one, and in whole numbers as 6,416,667 to 1,283,333.
If the population actually is now at least 8,000,000, which abundant reasons exist to show to be the case, then the Catholics will be to the Protestants according to the ratio of five to one in number 6,666,666 to 1,333,333.
The general rule in respect of the rate at which the populalation of a country increases, a rule founded upon constant and uniform facts, is, that “ population when unchecked goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio." (Malthus's Essay, v. i. p. 8.) This has taken place for above a century and a half successively in North America. And as the means of subsistence in Ireland are more ample, the manners of the people more pure, and the checks to early marriages fewer than in any of the modern states of Europe, there exists no reason to doubt that the population of Ireland is now 'encreasing at the rate of doubling itself in twenty-five years. Although the numbers computed by Dr. Beaufort, and those returned by the census of 1821, may, so far as they are worth any thing, show a slower rate of increase: the difference may be explained, first, by the acknowledged fact, that the census of 1821 is exceedingly incorrect;
secondly, by mentioning another fact, that the circumstances of the last fifteen years have been much more favourable to a rapid increase of population, than those were of the preceding fifteen years.
If a comparison could be made of the births and burials of the whole kingdom at different periods, it would decide the ques. tion; for then
it would be necessary only to adopt the rule laid down by Dr. Price (vol. ii. p. 51.) to find out the actual rate of increase. He says, “ The rate of increase, supposing the “ procreative powers the same, depends upon two causes, The encouragement to marriage,' and the expectation of a child
When one of these is given, the increase will be always in proportion to the other; that is, as much greater or less as the ratio is of the numbers who reach maturity, and of those who marry, to the number born, so much quicker or slower will be the increase. Let ús suppose the operation of these causes such as to produce an annual excess of the births above the burials, equal to a 36th part of the whole number of inhabitants. It may seem to follow from hence, that the inhabitants would double their own number in 36 years; and thus some have calculated. But the truth is, that they would double their own number in much less time. Every addition to the number of inhabitants from the births, produces a proportionably greater number of births, and a greater excess of these above the burials ; and if we suppose the excess to increase annually at the same rate with the inhabitants, or so as to preserve the ratio of it to the number of inhabitants always the same, the period of doubling will be 25 years.*
* For the formula of making the calculation, see note, vol. ii. p. 52. of Dr. Price on Annuities.
The Principles of Roman Catholics, from the Prayer Buok which is in general use amongst the Catholics in Ireland, and which was published by Dr. Coppinger, Titular Bishop of Cloyne.
1. The fruition of God, and the remission of sin, are not attainable by man, otherwise than in and by the merits of Jesus Christ, who gratuitously purchased them for us.
2. These merits of Christ are not applied to us otherwise than by a right faith in him.
3. This faith is but one, entire and conformable to its object, which is divine revelation, and to which faith gives an undoubting assent.
4. This revelation contains many mysteries transcending the natural reach of human understanding. Wherefore,
5. It became the Divine Wisdom and Goodness to provide some way or means whereby man might arrive to the knowledge of these mysteries ; means visible and apparent to all; means proportioned to the capacities of all; means sure and certain
6. This way or means is not the reading of the Scripture, interpreted according to the private reason or judgment of each particular person or nation; but,
7. It is an attention and submission to the voice of the Catholic or universal Church established by Christ for the instruction of all; spread for that end through all nations, and visibly continued in the succession of pastors and people through all ages. From this Church, guided in truth, and secured from error in matters of faith, by the promised assistance of the Holy Ghost, every one may learn the right sense of the Scriptures, and such Christian mysteries and duties as are necessary to Salvation.
8. This Church, thus established, thus spread, thus continued, thus guided in one uniform faith, and subordination of govern
ment, is that which is termed the Roman Catholic Church ; the qualities just mentioned, unity, indeficiency, visibility, succession and universality, being evidently applicable to her.
9. From the testimony and authority of this Church, it is that we receive the Scriptures, and believe them to be the word of God: and as she can assuredly tell us what particular book is the word of God, so can she with the like assurance, tell us also the true sense and meaning of it in controverted points of faith; the same spirit that wrote the Scriptures, directs her to understand both them and all matters necessary to salvation. From these grounds it follows:
10. Only truths revealed by Almighty God, and proposed by the Church, to be believed as such, are, and ought to be, esteemed articles of Catholic faith.
11. As an obstinate separation from the unity of the Church, in known matters of faith, is heresy ; so a wilful separation from the visible unity of the same Church, in matters of subordination and government, is schism.
12. The Church proposes unto us matters of faith, first and chiefly by the Holy Scripture, in points plain and intelligible in it;
-secondly, by definitions of general councils, in points not sufficiently plain in Scripture; thirdly, by apostolical traditions derived from Christ and his Apostles to all succeeding ages.
SECTION. II. 1. The pastors of the Church, who are the body representative, either dispersed or convened in council, have received no commission from Christ to frame new articles of faith, these being solely divine revelation ; but only to explain and to ascertain to us what anciently was and is received and retained as of faith in the Church, when debates and controversies arise about them. These definitions in matters of faith only, and proposed as such, oblige all the Faithful to an interior assent. But,
2. It is no article of faith that the Church cannot err either in matters of fact, or in matters of speculation or civil policy, depending on mere human reason : these not being divine revelations deposited in the Catholic Church.-Hence is reduced,
3. If a General Council, much less a Papal Consistory, should presume to depose a King, and to absolve his subjects from their allegiance, no Catholic could be bound to submit to such a decree. Hence it follows, that,
4. The subjects of the King of England lawfully may, without the least breach of any Catholic principle, renounce, upon oath, the teaching or practising the doctrine of deposing Kings excommunicated for heresy, by any authority whatsoever, as