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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

59. Romulus and Remus nursed by the wolf-from an ancient bronze statue in the Capitoline Conservatory,

60. Anubis-from Vollmer,

61. The Nile as a river god-from a Roman coin,

BOOK IX.

62. Head of Juno-from the bust in the Villa Ludovisi at Rome, 63. Calliope-from Vollmer,

64. Head of Medusa-from a cutting on agate in the Bourbon Museum,

BOOK X.

65. Jupiter and the Olympian gods-bas-relief on a Grecian altar,
66. Etruscan warriors-from Hope's Costumes, .
67. Nemesis,

BOOK XI.

68. Roman trophy-from a Pompeian bas-relief, 69. Amazon in battle-from a vase-painting.

BOOK XII.

70. Victorious warrior,

Miscellaneous objects,

ix

PAGE

559

560

560

561

565

568

569

571

576

577
584

593

595, 596, 597, 598

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OF THINGS ILLUSTRATED IN THE CUTS.

[The numbers refer to the pages in the notes.]

Aegis, 557.

Amphorae, cadi, or wine jars, 595. Ancile, or sacred shield, 596. Antennae, 406.

ALPHABETICAL LIST

Apex, and priest's cap, 598.
Aplustre, 406, 516.
Ara, 397.

Arcus, 482.

Aries, or battering ram, 390. Arma, 577.

Balteus, 442, 482.

Beak of ship, 598. Bigae, 593. Bipennis, 584.

Bulla, or stud, 593.

Caduceus, 447, 538.

Cadus, 595.

Caestus, 595, 598.

Carchesium, 595.

Chlamys, 442, 447.

Clipeus, 382, 397.
Conus, 385.

Corona, 314, 437, 561, 565, 593.

Cortina and tripod, 597.
Cothurnus, 336.

Crista, 385, 593.

Culter, ensis, or sacrificial knife, 596. Currus, 464, 523, 593.

Embroidery on garments, &c., 360, 584. Ensis, 397; ensis for sacrifice, 596.

Falx, 552.

Fasces and securis, 596.

Fibula, 442.

Focus, 597.

Fulmen, 523, 569.
Funeral-pile, 462.

Galea, 366, 382, 397. Gladius, 397, 571. Gubernaculum, 320, 516.

Hasta, 382, 385, 593.

Helmet, see Galea.

Incus, 557.

Infula, 596.

Lacunar, or laqucar, 462.

Limbus, 366, 584.

Lorica, or thorax, 445, 571, 593. Lyra, 540.

Mitra, 395, 445, 482.

Navis, 406.

Ocreae, 385.

Palla, 314, 437, 540.
Palladium, 374.

Patera, 314, 596.

Pelta (lunata), 347.
Peplum, 340.

Persona, or mask, 437.
Petasus, 538.

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LIFE AND WRITINGS OF VIRGIL.

PUBLIUS VIRGILIUS MARO was born at Andes, a village near Mantua, in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, B. c. 70. Virgil's father possessed a farm at Andes sufficiently valuable to place his family in easy circumstances, and to afford him the means of educating his son under the most eminent teachers then living in Italy. The education of Virgil appears to have been commenced at Cremona, from whence, on assuming the manly gown, in his sixteenth year, he was transferred to the charge of new teachers at Milan.

After pursuing his studies, probably for several years, at Milan, he placed himself under the instruction of the Greek poet and grammarian, Parthenius, who was then flourishing at Naples. At the age of twenty-three he left Naples for Rome, where he finished his education under Syro the Epicurean, an accomplished teacher of philosophy, mathematics, and physics.

Virgil's love of literary pursuits, as well as the delicacy of his physical constitution, led him to choose a life of retire. ment rather than that public career which was more generally deemed proper for a Roman citizen. Hence, at the age when aspiring young Romans usually entered upon the stirring scenes of political and military life, he withdrew from Rome to his native Andes, with the intention of devoting himself to

* The name, as given in the older manuscripts and inscriptions, is Vergilius.

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