Page images

303. Fuerat melius; supply the protasis, si factum esset. -309. Ponite; for deponite.- -310. Cetera; all the warlike resources of the state.311. Ante oculos, inter manus; before your eyes, between your hands; i. e. they are both visible and tangible.- -316. Tusco amni; the Tiber. Comp. viii. 473.- -317. Sicanos; from viii. 328, we learn that the Sicani once dwelt in Latium.- -319. Horum (collium) asperrima. Comp. strata viarum, i. 422, and note.- -321. Cedat amicitiae Teucrorum; let it fall to the Trojans in token of friendship.- -324. Gentem; country; as in i. 533.328. Modum; the construction; the mode of construction.- -329. Aera. See on aere, i. 35.- -Manus; artisans and laborers for building the ships. -Navalia; equipments.- -335. In medium; for the common good.— 336–338. Idem infensus, largus; at once hostile, generous, &c.; the ordinary form would have been, infensus, idem largue. -339. Dextera; supply erat. -Habitus (est); he was regarded as.-341. Incertum ferebat; supply genus and is.- -342. Onerat; namely, Turnum.- -345. Ferat; demands. -346. Flatus; passion, arrogance.- -350. Troïa; for Troica.

-351. Fugae fidens; an allusion to the forced flight of Turnus described in x. 665 sqq.; which Drances interprets to his disadvantage, and contrasts with the pretension implied in coelum territat armis.—363. Pignus; Lavinia. The only sure pledge of peace is the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia.


-364. Invisum; here in an active sense; hostile.- -365. Nil moror; I



make it of little account, I consider it but a small matter, attended with little danger, to be your enemy.- -366. Pulsus; since you have been defeated in the war.- -371. Scilicet; ay, forsooth.- -383. Proinde: cum ita sint.- -384. Quando; since; inasmuch as; the language is ironi-397. Die; in a day. 400. Rebus tuis; to thy party, or, to thy cause; as if Drances had gone over to the Trojan side.- -405. Aufidus; the Aufidus, now the Ofanto, a river of Apulia. In fleeing back from the Adriatic, as if fearing the Trojans, it represents the fear of Diomed whose country it passes through.406. Vel cum; or (again he, Drances, shows his cowardice) when; translate, then, also; or, ay, also.—407. Artificis scelus; for artifex scelestus; the accursed falsifier; with scelus, put for the person. Comp. the use of nefas, ii. 585.-Formidine; through fear; through a pretence of fearing me, Drances seeks to strengthen the charge he brings against me, of threatening him with violence.- -415. O si is elliptical. The complete sense is: If we possessed any thing of our wonted manhood, and O that it were so. -416. Ille mihi, etc.; he in my opinion, &c. After the condition, si adesset, the regular form would have been haberemus illum fortunatum, qui procubuisset, etc.; but Turnus, to avoid giving offence, chooses to express the sentiment as his own.- -416, 417. Laborum, animi. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (a); Z. § 437; comp. above, 126.- -418. Semel; -438. Vel praestet Achillen; even though he present Achilles; i. e. though he were another Achilles.- -439. Paria; equal to the arms made by Vulcan for Achilles.- -443, 444. Nec-tollat; the sentiment is

once for all.

this: Neither, if this contest is to terminate fatally to us through the anger of the gods, let Drances be the one to appease their anger by his death, for I myself would rather do that,-nor if success and glory are to be won, let him take them to himself, for I myself desire the honor.

445-531. The council of Latinus is interrupted by the announcement that the Trojans in battle array are marching against Laurentum. Turnus takes advantage of the occasion to rouse the Latins instantly to war. He meets Camilla at the gate.of the city, and gives her the direction of the cavalry, which is to encounter that of Aeneas on the plain, while Turnus himself prepares with the infantry an ambuscade in a thickly wooded mountain pass, through which Aeneas with the Trojan infantry is expected to march.

446. Castra movebant; a military phrase for "breaking up an encampment;" here for "drawing the troops out of camp."- -450. Descendere; that they were advancing; the infinitive depends on nuntius.—457. Padusae; Padusa, now il Po d'Argenta, the southern mouth of the Po. It was, like the Cayster, much frequented by swans.- -461. Illi; the enemy.464, 465. Messapus, Coras; nominative for the vocative, Messape, Cora. See Gr. § 52; Z. § 492.—Cum fratre; for et ejus frater. For the plural, diffandite, see Gr. 209, R. 12, (6).- -467. Jusso; for jussero. See Gr. § 162, 9; Z. § 161.- -473. Praefodiunt alii portas; others dig trenches before the gates.- -475. Varia; the circle of defenders is made up of persons old and young of both sexes.——— -480. Tanti retains its final vowel here. -482. De limine; according to the ancient custom prayer was offered at the threshold of the temple.- -491. Praecipit. Comp. above, 18.500. Desiluit; Camilla and her followers dismount in token of respect for Turnus. -504. Ire depends both on audeo and promitto, which together contain the notion of paratus sum.- -506. Pedes; on foot; i. e. "with the foot soldiery.". –509. Parem. Gr. § 260, R. 5; Z. § 530.- Quando; since.

-513. Quaterent campos; that they might scour the plains; for the omission of ut, see Z. § 624.- -514. Jugo superans (ea); surmounting (these solitary heights) by the summit.-515. Furta belli; a stratagem of war; an ambuscade.- -516. Bivias fauces; a gorge opening at each extremity into a road; ad quas duae viae (ab utraque parte) ducunt.- -522. Valles; an archaic nominative form of vallis.-527. Ignota; unobserved; not visible to those passing through the defile.-529. Instare jugis; to maintain your stand on the hill tops. -531. Iniquis; dangerous; i. e. to Aeneas.

532-596. Diana looking down from Olympus beholds Camilla advancing to battle, and foreseeing her fate, commissions Opis, one of her nymphs, to descend and slay any one, whether Trojan or Italian, who shall slay Camilla.

536. Nostris armis; Camilla is armed with the quiver, bow, and arrows, the arms peculiar to Diana and her nymphs.- -540. Priverno; Privernum; an ancient town of the Volsci on the Amasenus.- -553. Robore cocto; with well-seasoned oak; or, with oak hardened by fire.-552-554. Telum-huie implicat; an instance of anacoluthon, not inappropriate in the

description of such an exciting incident. See on i. 237.- -555. Habilem (eam); light; she could be easily hurled, when thus attached to the shaft of the spear.-558. Tua-fugit; in this order: prima tenens tela tua per auras fugit hostem. Prima for primum; for the first time.- -562. Sonucre undae ; the waves (of the overflowing river) resounded; thus making the scene still more frightful. This is Thiel's interpretation. Others understand that the waves are made to vibrate like the air itself, by the swift passage of the spear so near the surface of the water. -566. Donum Triviae; a votive offering to (me) Diana. See on iv. 511, vi. 13.- -568. Neque-dedisset; nor would he with his (by reason of his) wildness have yielded; i. e. even if the Volsci had wished him to be reconciled. Dare manus is to yield.— 590. Haec; these arms; arcum et pharetram.

597-724. The opposing forces of cavalry come in sight of each other, rapidiy advance, and rush to the charge, each party alternately pursuing and retreating. Camilla is distinguished by her deeds both on horseback and on foot.

599. Compositi numero in turmas; divided into troops in equal numbers ; literally, by number.-601. Huc et huc; the fiery horse, impatient of restraint, springs now this way, now that.-607. Adventus; the advance; implying “the noise of the advancing squadrons."- -Ardescit; for crescit; rises louder and louder.-609. —que; joined in scanning with the following verse. -612. Tyrrhenus; here the name of some Etruscan warrior.

-624. Alterno gur

-Aconteus; a Latin warrior.—614. Perfracta; proleptic.-615. Pectora pectoribus rumpunt; comp. x. 361; they dash their horses one against the other, breast against breast, and Aconteus is hurled by the shock far from his seat.-616. Tormento ponderis acti; of a stone cast by an engine; i. e. by a ballista.- -617. Praecipitat. See on ii. 9.622. Mollia colla; the flexible necks (of their horses.)gite; with alternating billow; now advancing and now receding. -626. Extremam arenam; the inmost strand. -Sinu; with the curving wave; the long sweeping wave advances across the beach, curving inward more and more, while diminishing in volume and force.- -628. Vado labente; the shallow sinking away; when the wave retires, the shallow water along the beach glides away.- -633. Gemitus; supply est or erat.mes; sem-yan-i-mes.-649. Exserta. See on i. the Parthian horsemen when retreating, she would turn partially round on the horse, and discharge her arrows back upon the pursuers.- -659. Threïciae; Thracian; not here in its strict sense, but as an appellative of objects lying far to the north, as the Thermodon, which, like Thrace itself, is conceived by Virgil as situated in a northerly region, though in Cappadocia.- -660. Pulsant; when the river is frozen over.-666. Clytio; supply natum.- -670. Super; besides.- -671. Dum colligit; the horse, wounded under the body, bends down with his hind legs, thus unseating, but not throwing off, his rider, who grasps at the reins, and draws them tightly in the effort to prevent himself from falling.-678. Iapyge; adjec

-635. Semiani-654. Converso;

tive, as above, in 247.684. Agmine verso; his troop having been put to fight. When the troop in the midst of which he had advanced, had

[graphic][merged small]

turned round and retreated, he was left alone, and thus it was not difficult for Camilla to cut him off. -685. Super; as in 670.687, 688. Advenit qui, etc.; the day has come which shall have refuted (was destined to refute) your words by means of a woman's arms; Ornytus has expressed contempt for the Latins and their female allies.- -Nomen; fame.-692. Sedentis; sitting on his horse, and exposing his neck by bending forward in urging his flight.694. Fugiens; flying, but only in pretence.- -695. Interior; in the language of the circus this was the same as ab laeva, on the left, because the chariot turned the goal to the left.- -699. Incidit huic; her the son of Aunus encountered. 701. Not the last of the Ligurians (i. e. in deceit) while the fates suffered him to practise deceit. The Liguriaus were noted for cunning.- –706. Dimitte fugam; give up the chance of flight; the advantage of being able to escape on horseback. So Forbiger. But Heyne understands fugam merely as cursum equestrem.- -717. Auno; both the father and son are named Aunus.- -721. Sacer; the hawk is sacred, as connected with the sacred auguries.

725-835. Tarchon, incited by Jupiter, reproaches the Tyrrhenians for their cowardice, and sets them the example of bravery by attacking Venulus, (see viii. 9 sqq.,) whom he tears from his horse, and bearing him away on his own, stabs him. Arruns watches the course of Camilla, and stealthily keeps her within the range of his javelin, until, in an unguarded moment, while she pursues Chloreus, he hurls the weapon with fatal aim, and pierces her breast. She falls from her horse, and sending Acca to summon Turnus, she dies.

738. Exspectare depends on

730. Alas; the cavalry. Comp. iv. 121.segnes.- 740. Hostia pinguis; if the soothsayer announced favorable omens, (secundus haruspex,) a victim was slain and a sacrificial feast was held in the sacred grove.- -741. Moriturus et ipse; himself also resolved to die; not less than those whom Camilla has slain.- -759. Maconidae; another term for Lydi; the Tyrrhenians. Comp. viii. 479, 499, ix. 11.760. Prior; excelling (her); or else, with Heyne, prevertens eam, dum lateri

semper adhaeret.- -767. Improbus; with deadly purpose.- -770, 771.

Pellis-tegebat; the covering of the horse was the skin of a wild beast adorned with plates of bronze wrought into the form of scales, and lying over each other like feathers. It was fastened under the body of the horse with golden clasps.- -775. Sinus crepantes; rustling folds. -785. Soractis; Soracte, now Monte di S. Oreste, in the country of the Falisci, north of Rome. The Hirpini or priests of Apollo on this mountain were accustomed to walk over burning coals. Their feet were guarded, however, as Varro says, by some kind of ointment. Arruns, perhaps, had been driven away from the neighborhood of Soracte by his countrymen, who were now fighting under Messapus and Turnus. Hence as an exile he is acting with their enemies. 786. Ardor; flame.—788. Premimus vestigia; we plant our -798. In Notos. Comp. ix. 312, 313.—822. Partiri; was Comp. iv. 422.


wont to share.

« PreviousContinue »