« PreviousContinue »
ple of Apollo, who is therefore called altus. The temple is surrounded by a grove consecrated to Hecate or the infernal Diana.-10. Horrendae procul secreta Sibyllae; the solitude of the awe-inspiring Sibyl at some distance; at a distance, namely, from the temple; it was entered at the side of the hill. See above, note 2.- -11. Cui, etc.; to whom the Delian prophet imparts (by inspiration) great intelligence and a great spirit. Thiel and others interpret the passage as translated above; but Heyne prefers to take inspirat in the sense of incitat; in which case cui is equivalent to cujus, and the translation becomes, whose great mind and spirit the Delian prophet inspires. For Delius, see on iii. 162. Mens, when used in connection with animus, denotes the intellect, and animus in contrast with it includes all the other powers and operations of the soul.-13. Triviae; Hecate. See on iv. 511.- -Aurea Tecta; the golden temple. See on 9.- -14. Daedalus. According to tradition, Daedalus was an Athenian, and the pioneer of Athenian art, though he is sometimes called Cretan, on account of his residence in Crete under king Minos, for whom he built the celebrated Labyrinth. Having offended Minos by aiding Pasiphaë in the commission of an unnatural crime, Daedalus was imprisoned with his son Icarus in the Labyrinth, from whence he effected their escape by contriving artificial wings with wax and other materials. Icarus flew too near the sun, so that the heat melted his wings and he fell into that part of the Mediterranean called, after him, the Icarian sea. Daedalus, flying towards the north, (ad arctos,) according to one tradition, Hecate, or Trivia. landed safely in Sicily; according to another, which Virgil adopts, he first alighted on the Acropolis of Cumae.- -15. Pennis; with swift wings; ab. lative of manner. -16. Enavit; for evolavit; flew; so tranat, iv. 245.Ad; towards; not actually to the Arctic regions.- -17. Chalcidica. See note above, on 2.- -18. Redditus; returning (literally, having been restored) first to this land; reaching the earth again first at this point. Redux, reddere, and kindred words, are used of objects coming back from the air or water to the land, at whatever point the land is reached again. Comp. i. 390.—Sacravit; devoted. He suspended his wings in the temple of Apollo as a thank-offering for his preservation. Mementos and tokens of gratitude were thus hung up in temples by sailors and others who escaped from perils by sea, and a similar practice is still preserved to some extent in Italy.-19. Remigium alarum; for the simple alas.- -20. On the folds or valves (foribus) of the door, Daedalus had represented in raised work, or bas-reliefs of gold, some of the most striking events in the history of Theseus and Minos. Each of the two parts of the door was divided into panels, and
every panel was adorned with one of these designs; those on one side representing scenes in Athens, those on the other, scenes in Crete. Historical grouping, both in bas-relief and painting, was as much distinguished in Virgil's time by unity and simplicity of design as now, or as in the best periods of art; and in the Aeneid Virgil appears uniformly to conceive of works of art according to the standard of excellence which had been attained in his own age.-Letum; supply erat. -Adrogeo; Greek genitive; 'Avdpwyew, from 'Avdpóyews. See Gr. § 54; Z. § 52, 3. Androgeos was the son of Minos, king of Crete, and when on a visit to Athens, was murdered by the Athenians through envy of his success in the public games. Minos made war upon the Athenians and compelled them to sue for peace, which he granted on condition that seven of their young men and seven of their maidens should be sent to Crete every year to be devoured by the Minotaur.- -Poenas; as a penalty.- -21. Cecropidae; the Athenians are so called from Cecrops, the traditionary founder of Athens. -Miserum. See Gr. § 199, R. 2; Z. § 360.-Septena; literally, in sevens; seven of each sex.-22. Stat urna; the lots had been drawn from the urn in order to decide who among the Athenian youth should be the victims; and these with their parents and friends were represented in attitudes expressive of agony.- -23. Contra; on the opposite side; that is, on the other fold or valve of the door.- -24. Hic; on the side of the door just mentioned, or in Crete, which is represented on this side.Crudelis amor; cruel passion; because cruelly excited by Venus in the mind of Pasiphaë. But some translate crudelis, unnatural, monstrous.- -Tauri is an objective genitive.
-Supposta; for supposita.- -Furto refers to the artifice of Daedalus, who, according to the fable, constructed the image of a cow, in which Pasiphaë concealed herself.- -25. Mixtum genus; the Minotaur, or progeny of Pasiphaë, was half man and half bull.- -26. Inest; is carved or represented on the door.-Veneris monumenta nefandae; a memorial of unnatural lust; monumenta is for the singular, and in apposition with Minotaurus.- -27. Hic; here (too); on this same side or valve of the door, where the above-described scene in Crete is represented, is also another scene in Crete; namely, the Athenian hero Theseus, after slaying the Minotaur, tracing his way out of the Labyrinth by the guidance of a thread prepared for him by Daedalus at the intercession of the princess (regina) Ariadne, daughter of Minos, who had become enamored of Theseus. See Classical Dictionary, on Theseus and Ariadne.—Ille; that (far-famed.) Gr. § 207, R. 24; Z. § 701.-Labor; elaborate structure.Domus ; genitive.Error. Comp. v. 591.-28. Reginae; princess; as i. 273. Thus there were represented on the door in all, two scenes at Athens and two in Crete; the first was the murder of Androgeos, the second the delivering up of the fourteen Athenian youths to be conveyed to Crete, the third Pasiphaë enamored of the white bull of Neptune, the fourth the Laby. rinth, so represented as to show the Minotaur within just slain by Theseus,
and the latter escaping with the aid of the thread. Each of these occupies a separate panel on the door.- -Sed enim; but, (it was not always so,) for. See on i. 19.- -30. Cacca vestigia; his uncertain footsteps.- --Magnam partem. Comp. ii. 6.- -31. Sineret dolor; had grief permitted; on the omission of si see Gr. § 261, R. 1; Z. § 780; on the imperfect subj. for the pluperfect see Gr. § 261, R. 5; Z. § 525.- -Icare. See above, on 14.32. Conatus erat; supply ille, referring to Daedalus.- -33, 34. Quin protenus perlegerent; indeed they would have examined all the objects successively with their eyes. Protenus denotes uninterrupted continuance. For the tense, see above on 31.-Omnia is here a dissyllable, om-nya.- -35. Una (cum illo); with him.—36. Deiphobe; the name here given to the Cumaean Sibyl. She is also called Amalthaea, Herophile, and Demophile. For a more particular account of the Cumaean and the other Sibyls, see Classical Dictionary, or Smith's Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. -Glauci; the daughter of Glaucus. Glaucus was a marine divinity gifted with prophecy. For the genitive, see on Hectoris, iii. 319. -37. Ista; those (that you are surveying.) The pronoun iste properly pertains to the person addressed. See Gr. § 207, R. 25; Z. § 127.- -38. Intacto; untouched; the cattle not yet brought under the yoke; Bóes ǎdμntOL.- -39. Bidentes. Comp. iv. 57. Animals are bidentes when they have both the upper and lower rows of teeth complete; this happens after the second year, and at this age they were preferred as victims for the altar. Sheep were generally selected, but not unfrequently cattle and swine are also meant by bidentes.- -41. Alta templa; the lofty shrines; not the temple of Apollo on the summit of the Acropolis, just described as the work of Daedalus; but the sacred grotto of the Sibyl excavated in the side of the hill. Alta is explained by ingens in the following verse.-42. This verse by our punctuation is connected closely with the preceding, thus making latus in apposition with templa. Whether this punctuation be adopted or not, Heyne, Thiel, and other excellent commentators, regard latus, antrum, and templa, all as referring to the same object, the Sibyl's oracular cave.
-Euboicae; the rock of the Acropolis is so called because it pertains to the Euboean colony of Cumae.-Ingens; Thiel joins with antrum. The expression cut into a cave resembles in form curvatus in arcum, iii. 533.– 43. Aditus; avenues; the subterranean galleries mentioned above in note 2; at the inner ends of which are doors, ostia, opening into the antrum. -Centum; for a number indefinitely great.- -44. Unde; out of which; whenever the Sibyl has entered.- -45. Ad limen; to the threshold of the antrum, or place of the oracle.- -Poscere fata; to demand the fates; to pray for responses, which are revelations of the fates.-46. Deus! the priestess, while before the entrance (ante fores) of the interior cavern is already under the influence of the god.-47. Non unus; did not remain the same. -48. Non comtae mansere; ancient soothsayers wore the hair unbound, and hanging loose about the head; that of Deïphobe now
becomes disordered. See on iii. 370.- -49. Rabie; with (prophetic) frenzy. -Major videri; (she was) greater to the view; Ifterally, greater to be seen; the infinitive dependent on the adjective. This is Wagner's interpretation, which is sustained by Hor. O. i. 19, 7, lubricus aspici; O. iv. 2, 59, niveus videri. Others regard it as a historical infinitive.- -50. Mortale. See on i. 328. Her whole frame expands, and her voice assumes an unnatural elevation and strength of tone.- -51. Jam propiore; now nearer; already felt, though not yet even in his greatest power. Cessas in vota; do you delay to begin your vows and prayers? Thiel and Gossrau supply ire or descendere after cessas.- -53. Attonitae; the house (or cavern) is personified, as being awestruck and speechless, like a human being, in consequence of the presence of the god. Only the vows and prayers of Aeneas will suffice to impart again a voice to the hushed abode. Comp. Lucan. ii. 21: sic funere primo attonitae tacuere domus. Ladewig.—57. Qui direxti (direxisti); Apollo, as the patron of archery, gave Paris the skill to hit Achilles (Aeacides) in the heel, the only point where he was vulnerable. -58. In; the preposition sub is placed in like manner after its noun in G. iv. 333: thalamo sub fluminis alti.- -Obeuntia; washing; obire also governs the accusative in x. 483.- -59. Duce te; thou being leader; under thy guidance; because it was the response of Apollo at Delos, iii. 154 sq., which led him to undertake his voyage, first to Crete and finally to Hesperia.- -Penitus repostas; far remote, or far inland. He did not actually visit the Massyli, and the shores of the Syrtes, but Carthage, near by them. -60. Praetenta; bordering upon; followed by the dative, as in iii. 692. -61. Jam tandem prendimus; now at length we grasp; the significance of the expression is shown the more distinctly by fugientis; Italy seeking as it were to elude our grasp we have at last overtaken. Comp. v. 629. -62. Hac, etc.; thus far let Trojan fortune have pursued us; and let that be enough of ill fortune to satisfy the hostile gods. For the perfect subj. see Gr. § 260, R. 6; Z. § 529.63. Jam fas est; it is now right; it cannot be opposed now to the divine decrees, even that you, (Juno, Minerva, &c.,) should spare the Trojan race.- -66. Venturi; for the genit. see Gr. § 213, R. 1; Z. § 436.- -Non indebita; supply mihi; due to me. -67. Fatis; by, or according to, my fates. See i. 205.- -Da considere; the priestess or prophetess can give or grant this object in so far as she can inform them how to secure it. Comp. iii. 460, and similar language in regard to Apollo as a prophet, iii. 85.- -68. Agitata numina; persecuted divinities; tossed to and fro; added by epexegesis to deos errantes. 70. There is perhaps an allusion here to the temple of Apollo erected by Augustus on the Palatine, in which he placed a splendid statue of the god, between the statues of Latona and Diana. At the same time also were cele
brated the ludi Apollinares.- 71. Te quoque; this vow to the Sibyl to consecrate sacred arcana in the future kingdom of Aeneas for the preservation of her oracles was fulfilled in the history of the so-called Sibylline books
or fates. These were at first in the time of the Tarquins deposited in the Capitol; but after the burning of the Capitol in the time of Sulla, B. C. 82, a new collection of Sibylline oracles was made by Augustus, and deposited in the temple of Apollo above mentioned in two cases at the foot of the statue.. -Penetralia; sacred shrines; i. e. archives for the preservation of the books of the Sibyl.- -74. Alma; kind prophetess.Viros; at first two, afterwards ten, and finally fifteen men (Quindecemviri Sacrorum) were appointed to the custody of the Sibylline books.- -76. Ipsa canas. Comp. iii. 457.- –77. Phoebi nondum patiens; not yet yielding to Apollo. Divine inspiration is too much for human weakness at first to sustain, and her nature instinctively struggles against the influence. The prophetess thus resisting is compared in this metaphorical passage to an untamed horse, which resists the efforts of the rider to subdue his fierceness.Immanis; wild; for the adverb immaniter; join with bacchatur; she raves wildly. -78. Si; elliptical and interrogative, as in i. 181; whether she may, &c.sisse; the perfect infinitive is not used here merely for the present, a usage which is occasionally met with in poetry, but it denotes the instant completion of the action; she desires to shake off the god at once; to have done with the terrible influence, too powerful to be endured.—80. Fingit premendo; forms her to his will by curbing. Applied to the horse, fatigare is to exhaust by much exercise, domare, to break, fingere, to train, and premerc, to bridle or curb.—81, 82. The priestess and Aeneas are in the cavern, in antro, in the general sense of the term; that is, in the excavated passage ways under the hill; but not in the inner grotto or place of the oracle. But while they stand before the threshold, ante fores, and after Aeneas has made his prayer, the doors of the inner cavern spontaneously open, and the Sibyl rushes in, leaving Aeneas on the outside; her voice is then immediately heard from within giving utterance to prophecies.- -84. Terrae; supply pericula as the governing noun. Many editions have terra in the ablative.- -Regna Lavini; the kingdom to be established by Aeneas, of which Lavinium is destined to be the chief city.- -86. Sed-volent; but they will also wish not to have come. -Bella, horrida bella, cerno. Like the seer's vision in Campbell:
"A field of the dead rushes red on my sight."
-89. Alius Achilles; this other Achilles is Turnus, who is already being raised up by the fates in Latium to resist the Trojans.—Latio partus is translated by some editors, obtained for Latium; by others, raised up in Latium. The latter, with Latio in the ablative, appears to be the more natural. Forbiger understands by Latio the new realm to be established by Aeneas in Latium. To or against this Trojan Latium an Achilles is already raised up, just as Troy had also its Achilles.90. Natus-dea; and he toc born of a goddess. Turnus was the son of the nymph or goddess Venilia. See x. 76. Achilles was the son of the nereid Thetis. For et ipse, see Gr