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696. Turbidus aqua, etc.; a whirling shower intensely black with waters, and with thick driving winds. Turbidus refers to the agitation of the rain, now swept this way, now that, by the successive blasts. The winds that drive and rush violently without intermission, may be called densi, like densis ictibus, thick coming blows. See above, 459. They also increase the blackness of the clouds and rain by packing them, as it were, together.-697. Super, for desuper; from above. "The attempt of the Trojan women to burn the ships of Aeneas, when in Sicily, is also mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 1, 52, and also by other historians." Ladewig.

Jupiter pluvius.

700-778. Aeneas in his perplexity is advised by the aged Nautes to leave a portion of his followers in Sicily, to form a new colony under the rule of Acestes. In a nocturnal vision Anchises appears to him, and approves of the counsel of Nautes, recommending that only the hardy and warlike youth should be conveyed to Italy. He then consults his captains, and Acestes. The new colonists are set apart, the ships are repaired, the new settlement is planted, a temple is consecrated to Venus on Mount Eryx, and all preparations being made for the voyage, the last farewells are exchanged, and Aeneas, with his diminished number of followers, sets sail once more for Italy.

701, 702. Curas mutabat versans; was revolving mighty cares in his mind, now this way now that, considering whether, &c.- -704. Unum; more than all others.- -Tritonia. See on ii. 171.- -706. Haec; these; namely, both those which, &c. Varro states that the descendants of Nautes inherited from him the priesthood of Minerva. She inspired him with prophetic power, just as she is said by Callimachus (Hymn in Min. 121) also to have made Tiresias a prophet.- -708. Solatus; as a present participle. Comp. -711. Est tibi;

i. 312.—Isque; and so he; and therefore he. Z. § have.Divinae stirpis; Acestes is the son of the river god Crimisus. See above, 38.- 712. Volentem; not if he is willing, but since he is willing.713. Superant ; for supersunt; those who are too many (for our remaining ships) their ships having been lost; referring to the men and women belonging to the four ships that were burned.- -716. Quidquid; whatever there is, &c. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives in the neuter gender are often used of persons.-17. Habeant sine; suffer to have. See on 163.

718. Permisso nomine; the name of Acesta being allowed by you, though you yourself are the true founder of the city. Cicero, in Verr. iv. 33, 72, says that Segesta (the name then given by the Romans to Acesta or Egesta) was founded by Aeneas, and that the people from that circumstance held themselves bound to the Romans, not only as allies and friends, but also as kinsmen.—719. Incensus; was roused to action; with our punctuation est is understood. Wagner puts only a comma after the participle, thus connecting with the following sentence: being roused—then truly.720. Animo. Comp. viii. 370. Jahn has adopted this reading, which is given by the Medicean and other manuscripts, as being better authenticated

than animum; in either case the sense of the passage is as follows: then indeed he is distracted in mind with all anxieties.- -721. Nox. Night is borne in a chariot. She is usually fancied by the poets to rise in the east at sunset and follow in the footsteps of the sun, but sometimes she was conceived to rise in the west when the sun sets, attain the zenith at midnight, and disappear in the east when the sun rises. See Heyne's Excurs. ii. to Aen. Book ii.; comp. ii. 8, iii. 512.up (having ascended) in her chariot.

-Bigis subvecta; having been carried
-Polum tenebat; was in mid-heaven;

-730. Dura atq. aspera

-731, 732. Ditis domos; the

the zenith.- 728. Pulcherrima; translate in the antecedent clause; the most excellent counsels, which, &c. See on i. 419.culta; hardy and savage in habits of life.abodes of Pluto. He is called the Dives, Dis, or Пλoúтwv, because his realms are the interior of the earth, which was regarded as the source of all riches.

-Ante; first; i. e. before you proceed to Latium.- -732. Averna per alta, etc.; seek an interview with me through deep Avernus. See Gr. § 92, 1. The passages to the lower world most frequently mentioned were those of Taenarus in Laconia, and Avernus on the bay of Naples. Avernus is the name of a small lake, occupying the crater of an ancient volcano. A cavern on the side of the lake was supposed to communicate with Hades.————734. Tartara tristesque umbrae; hendiadys for the gloomy shades of Tartarus. See on i. 61. Tartarus was that part of Hades which was set apart for the confinement of the guilty. For the declension of Tartarus, see Gr. § 92, 1.

-735. Colo; I dwell amidst. The ō is not elided.—Sibylla. See iii. 452.736. Nigrarum; black victims were sacrificed to the infernal gods. See vi. 243 sq.- -Sanguine; an ablative of instrument or means. By slaying many black victims she will secure an entrance for you.-738. Torquet cursus; she has passed the zenith and is turning her course down towards the horizon.-739. Saevus; pitiless; for it breaks off my interview with you. Ghosts and dreams can visit the earth only in the night, and must flee before the dawn. Thus the Ghost in Hamlet, 1, 5:

Fare thee well at once!

The glow-worm shows the matin to be near.

-741. "Quo" deinde "ruis "—inquit; Jahn and Thiel follow Servius in thus joining deinde with inquit; Aeneas exclaims: whither do you hasten, &c. Wagner puts the adverb with ruis; whither do you hasten so soon? without longer delay?—Proripis; supply te.- 743. Sopitos ignes; he renews the fires on the domestic hearth, that he may offer incense to Vesta and the Penates. It seems to have been usual to perform such an act of worship after the appearance of a vision, just as in the case of prodigies. Comp. iii. 177.- -744. Larem; perhaps the deified Anchises, but more probably the Pergamean Penates are meant.- -Canae; the venerable, the ary, because she was one of the most ancient deities; the only one, peraps, who was really and originally common to Greece and Italy.- -Pene


tralia; the shrine; for the goddess herself. Her image was kept under the charge of Aeneas in the most secret part of his dwelling.- 745. Farre pio; the mola salsa, or salted meal.- -Plena acerra; with full censer; full of incense. Hor. O. 3, 8, 2: acerra turis plena. In the time of Aeneas, however, incense was not used. The poet has in mind the custom of his own times.—746. Primum. See on iii. 437.750. Transcribunt; they assign the matrons to the city; strictly, they transfer them from among the Trojans to the new city by enrolling them among its citizens. Transcribere was said of a mere transfer from one city to another; ascribere of assigning to a colony.————Urbi is for in urbem.—Populumque volentem; the people desiring it; referring to those of the men who wished to remain.Animos, etc.; spirits not at all moved by the desire of great glory.- -Nil is emphatic; not at all. 752. Reponunt; they replace in the vessels the timbers which have been injured by the flames, (and) prepare both oars and cordage.- -753. Rudentesque is connected with the following verse in scanning.754. Bello; the dative after vivida; few (indeed) in number, but (whose) spirit is ardent for war.- -755. Designat aratro; this was a sacred eeremony in marking out the boundary of a new city. "The builders of a city," says Servius, "yoked an ox and cow together, the ox on the right and the cow on the left; and in the Gabine cincture,—that is, with the toga partly drawn over the head, and partly fastened round the waist,held the plough-handle so curved that all the sods fell inward. And by the furrow thus drawn they designated the places for the walls, while they lifted the plough over the places where gates were to be built."- -756. Domos;

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he allots the places for dwellings.—Ilium, haec Trojam; he directs them to look upon this (city) as their Ilium, upon these places (around the city) as Troy. 758. Indicit forum, etc.; he appoints the business of the forum, and having summoned the senators he announces his decrees. Forum seems here to be put for judicia, the courts, the proceedings of which constituted the characteristic business of the forum in Virgil's time. Instead of the ablative absolute, Wagner and others make patribus the dative, and the sense of the clause: he gives organic laws, and rules of procedure, to the convened fathers. The former interpretation is preferable.—759. Erycino. See on i. 570.-760. Idaliae. See on i. 681.- Tumulo sacerdos; a priest, or flamen is appointed to the tomb of Anchises, and the wood far around it is set apart, or consecrated; late sacer; sacred far around; as pertaining to the shrine.-761. Anchiseo; a possessive form for the genitive. See on i. 200.- -762. Novem; nine days was the ceremonial time for the continuance of festivals. See Smith's Dict. Antiq., novendiale; comp. 64.-Aris; ablat. of situation; and sacrifice had been performed on the altars.763. Placidi straverunt; tranquil winds calmed the waters; left them free from boisterous waves. Comp. iii. 69. Quum, answering to jam in the preceding clause, is omitted here, as in ix. 459.– -764. Creber et adspirans ; fresh and favorable. Creber in its primitive sense, as iii. 530,

crebrescunt. -768. Non tolerabile nomen; above, 613, 617, the women were described as gazing upon the great sea, and weeping, and as weary of suffering (perferre) its hardships. The very name of the sea was suggestive of woe, and was intolerable. Numen, given in many editions on the best authority, is less likely to be the true reading, as no numen or divine power was ascribed to the sea, and a numen could hardly be called intolerabile, without disrespect.- 770. Quos. Gr. § 205, R. 2, (1).—771. Consanguineo; Acestes is Dardanian.- -772. Eryci; a sacrifice is made to Eryx, the deified hero, as one of the gods of the place, and, as in iii. 120, to the Storms, as divine powers which may forbear to molest them, if propitiated.

-773. Ex ordine; one after another. Comp. vii. 139.- -774. Caput; the Greek acc. limiting evinctus.- -Tonsae; trimmed. See above, 556. The olive was used not only for victors' crowns, but sometimes also for those of priests and persons making sacrifices. It was the symbol of peace.776. Porricit. Comp. 235-238.

779-871. Venus, in her dread of the persistent anger of Juno, appeals to Neptune for his interposition to prevent any further disaster by sea to the fleet of Aeneas. Neptune reminds her of his former friendly acts to Aeneas both on sea and land, and promises now to protect him, requiring, however, that one of his crew shall be lost on the voyage. Meanwhile, the whole fleet proceeds under full sail, led by the ship of Aeneas, which is steered by the pilot Palinurus. In the night Aeneas and all on board fall asleep, except Palinurus, who watches, and keeps the helm alone. Somuus descends from the sky, and tempts him to sleep, and, in spite of his resistance, overpowers him with the Lethean influence.

Palinurus falls over into the sea, still grasping the helm, and carrying a fragment of the ship, torn off with it.

Aeneas is awakened by the irregular motion of the ship, and, perceiving the fate which has befallen Palinurus, bemoans his loss, while he himself directs the course.

781. Nec exsaturabile pectus; and her insatiate revenge; in translating it is best to separate the negative in nec from the copula here, as often elsewhere.782. Omnes; all; even the most humiliating.—783. Longa dies; length of time. -Pietas; his piety in general, as well as towards Juno. He made an offering to Juno, iii. 547.—784. Infracta; subdued; from infringere. Comp. ix. 499, x. 731, xii. 1. Juno knows the fates concerning Aeneas, but she still persists.- -785. Exedisse; literally, to have devoured; strongly expressive of her hatred, so horrible that it cannot be uttered, nefandis.786. Traxe; for traxisse. See Gr. § 162, 7, (c); Z. § 160, 2.- -Poenam per omnem; through all suffering; that is, of the ten years' siege.-787. Reliquias, etc.; she pursues the remnant of Troy, the (very) ashes and bones of the city she has destroyed. Reliquias in former editions has been usually joined with traxe (traxisse); but the best commentators now adopt the reading here given, taken by Wagner from the Medicean manuscript.- -788. Sciat illa; she may know; no other deity can understand the cause of such unreasonable spite. -789. Tu testis; supply eras; you yourself lately witnessed on the African waves. See i. 50, sq.

791. Nequidquam; in vain; for Neptune had thwarted her attempt, by repelling the winds of Aeolus.793. Per scelus actis; behold, having urged on the matrons to crime, she has shamefully burned up the fleet. Per scelus is not an adverbial expression for sceleste, wickedly, but a substitute for ad, or in scelus; meaning, through all the steps of crime; from the first idea of the criminal act, and from the ripened purpose, to the execution of the deed.- -794. Subegit; supply eum or Aenean. -Classe; a part of the fleet. -796. Quod superest; as the only thing that remains; i. e. to be asked for. Some, with Heyne, refer it to "the remnant" of the fleet: may you suffer that (part of the fleet) which is spared, &c.- -797. Tibi; join with vela dare; let it be lawful (for them) to commit their sails safely to you; to your protection. So Thiel and Ladewig, following some of the earlier commentators. Heyne takes tibi for per te, like σoí for dià σé, meaning, so far as depends on you.-Laurentem. The Tiber is here called Laurentian from Laurentum, which was the capital of the Latini.- -798. Ea moenia; that city which Aeneas is aiming to establish in Italy.800. Omne; for omnino; it is wholly right.- -801. Unde genus ducis; whence you derive your birth; she sprung from the foam of the sea. See on i. 257.—Quoque; it is not only right by the laws of nature, but also I have by my own friendly acts deserved your confidence. The frequent occasions referred to on the sea are such as are mentioned in i. 125 sq., iii. 192 sq., v. 10 sq.; though the direct interference of Neptune is mentioned only in the first of these passages.-805. Impingeret agmina muris; hurled their terrified battalions against the walls. The reference is to Hom. Il. xxi. 294, 295. -80%. Nec reperire viam. Comp. Hom. Il. xxi. 218, 219.808. Xanthus; another name for the Scamander.- -809. Congressum; having met the son of Peleus with neither gods nor strength equal. Comp. Hom. Il. xx. 318-339.810. Nube cava. See on ii. 360.- -Vertere; to overthrow. See ii. 610-612.—811. Perjurae; Troy is called false, because her king, Laomedon, had violated his promise to Neptune to pay him a stipulated reward for building the walls of the city.- -813. Quos optas; which (harbors) you desire (to reach.)- -Portus Averni; the harbors of Avernus; referring especially to Cumae, which is near Lake Avernus.- -814. Unus erit tantum, etc.; there shall be one only, whom he (Aeneas) shall seek in the surging deep; Palinurus is the destined victim.. -815. Caput; for vita.- -816. Laeta; proleptical, for he soothed the breast of the goddess so that it was joyous. See on i. 637.- -817. Auro; for aureo jugo. Aurum frequently stands for that which is made of gold; as i. 739, vii. 279, et al.—818. Feris; steeds. Comp. ii. 51.- -820. Subsidunt undae; Neptune calms the waters by riding lightly over them in his chariot; as i. 147.- -Axe tonanti; under his thundering car; axis is for currus, as frequently.-821. Aquis, for mari; an ablative of situation; the swollen surface is laid calm on the water. Comp. 763.-Fugiunt; disappear.- -Vasto aethere seems to be sy

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