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bristling. -36%. Hyrcanae; Hyrcania was a country on the south-east coast of the Caspian Sea.—Admorunt ubera; gave thee suck.- -368. Nam quid dissimulo. Dido now casts off all restraint. She had entertained some hope of moving him, in the belief that he was sincere, and that his love had but for a moment yielded to ambition; but she now feels that she has been deceived, and she scorns the idea of appearing any longer as a suppliant, where her passion is really unrequited. Therefore, why should she conceal her indignation? Why should she seek to win him back? Why reserve herself, or restrain her feelings, for some greater outrage-what greater, indeed, can she expect?- -369. Fletu is in the dative after ingemuit. Observe the person of the verb. She does not address Aeneas directly, partly from her distraction, and partly from scorn. -371. Quae quibns anteferam ; this clause is understood in two ways: 1. What shall I say before what? to what feeling shall I first give utterance? 2. To what outrages shall I prefer these? I look upon any outrage as being more tolerable than this. Surely no greater injuries can be inflicted on me. The latter interpretation is the best. Quae is a relative, referring to the foregoing facts; quibus is interrogative, in the dative after anteferam. A relative and interrogative, or two interrogatives, may stand in the same clause; as, Quae quibus propositis essent consequentia. Cic. Brut. 41, 152.- -373. Nusquam tuta fides. She has in mind the circumstances which she immediately mentions, as proving his ingratitude. Comp. i. 601-610.-Litore; ablative of situation; on the shore. Comp. iii. 135.- –374. Excepi; not accepi, as if he had come of his own accord to Carthage, but excepi, because he was taken in as a wanderer, accidentally thrown in her way.- -379. Scilicet; forsooth.

-Is labor, ea cura. See on ii. 171. The fortunes of Aeneas, forsooth, are the occasion of labor and anxiety to the gods in their tranquillity.— 382. Pia; the gods are pious inasmuch as they protect the pious, and punish impiety. Comp. ii. 536.383. Hausurum; that you will suffer; te would be expressed in prose.- -Dido; accusative after vocaturum.384. Atris ignibus; with smoky fires; either suggested by the idea of the furies, who pursued the guilty with whips and torches, or by the anticipation of her own funeral pile. The former is preferable. The meaning of the passage, then, is this: as long as I live I shall, though absent, be present to your conscience, like a fury; and when I am dead, my ghost shall haunt you everywhere.- –386. Dabis poenas; you shall suffer punishment.387. Manes; for Hades. -388. Dictis; the ablative of manner, to be joined with abrumpit.- -Medium sermonem. See on 277, above.-Auras, for lucem; the light of day. -389. Aegra; broken-hearted.- -390. Multa; adverbial; Gr. § 192, ii. 4, b; delaying much.- -Metu; through fear that if he says any thing more in his own defence, he will but increase her anger. -392. Thalamo; dative for in thalamum. Comp. v. 451.-Stratis ; ablative.—393. Pius; because he is mindful of duty in spite of feeling.—395. Multa; as in 390. Comp. i. 465.—————397. Incumbunt; apply

themselves; i. e. to the work of refitting their vessels.- -397, 398. Litore deducunt; draw down the ships from the shore; launch. Comp. iii. 71. Observe the slow movement of the spondees in the first part of line 398, contrasted with the latter part, natat uncta carina.- -399. Frondentes. In their haste the Trojans bring boughs from the woods with the leaves still on, and timber unhewn, for forming oars, yards, benches, &c.—Silvis ; from the woods.—401. Cernas; one may see, they may be seen. The second person singular of the imperfect, instead of the present, subjunctive, is the usual form in prose for expressing the indefinite one might, one may, &c.; see Z. § 528, n. 2; but the poet here substitutes the present as a more vivid expression.- -Tota; as toto, above, from every part of.- -402, 403. Velut quum; the manner of introducing the comparison is like that of i. 148.404, 405. It convectant; both agree with agmen. See on iii. 676; Gr. § 209, R. 11, 2.- –406. Obnixae; with great effort; for the construc tion, see Gr. § 205, R. 3, and comp. v. 108.- -Agmina cogunt; keep the ranks together.- -407. Moras; for morantes.409. Fervere; glow; animated with the stir of the multitude hastening their departure. Ferveo, strideo, fulgeo, are both of the second and third conjugation. Show by scanning to which conjugation fervere here belongs. 412. Quid cogis. See note on the similar sentence, iii. 56.—413. Ire in lacrimas; to descend to tears; that is, to tearful entreaties.-414. Animos; her proud spirit.

−415. Frustra moritura; she would die in vain; there would be no just occasion for her contemplated suicide, if it should after all be true that Aeneas may be won back.- -416. Properari; impersonally; that it is being hurried; that they are hurrying to and fro all over the shore.—————418. Imposuere coronas; they have hung wreaths on the sterns of the ships in token of joy at their departure.419, 420. Si-potero; if (since) I might have expected such grief, I shall also have proved able to sustain it, my sister. It is what I ought to be expected to sustain, inasmuch as it was easy to foresee that it would come.- -Tamen; yet, though I express this hope of bearing up under this trial.-423. Sola―noras; you alone understood the most favorable ways and moments of addressing the man.———— -424. Hostem superbum; my proud foe; i. e. the one who acts as if he and I were no longer friends, and, indeed, as if I had been among his most deadly enemies, the Greeks. Hence the following words: I have not conspired with the Greeks, &c. Others take hostem here in the sense of stranger.- -426. Aulide. The Greeks assembled at Aulis before setting sail for Troy. -ve; nor. -427. Cinerem revelli; to violate the ashes of the dead was an act of the greatest impiety.- -428. Demittere; to admit; literally, to let down. The petition of Dido is contained in verses 429, 430; det; expectet; the foregoing ideas are to be presented by Anna to Aeneas in urging the request. -429. Munus, for gratiam; favor.—430. Expectet, etc.; let him wait for a convenient departure, and auspicious winds.- -Ventos ferentes. Comp. iii. 473.—433. Tempus inane; a trivial delay; a brief

season of time, which can be of little importance to him. -Spatium; respite; opportunity for my violent emotions to subside.- -434. Dolere; to endure grief.- -435. Veniam; I ask this last favor of you (my sister.). 436. Quam remittam; which, when you shall have given me, at my death 1 will repay generously.— -Cumulatam, agreeing with quam, means heaped up, largely increased.—Morte is an ablative of time, as below, 502. The above seems to be the most natural interpretation of this troublesome and much disputed passage.- -438. Fertque refertque; both bears, and bears again, these various appeals to Aeneas. Repeated and earnest action is denoted by this combination of a simple verb, and its compound with re. Comp. v. 709, xii. 866.- -440. Placidas. He is disposed by his natural disposition to give a kindly hearing, but duty forbids.- -443. It stridor; the roaring (of winds) resounds. -Altae; proleptic; the leaves overspread the ground, so that they lie deep.- -445, 446. Ad auras aetherias; to the upper air. -448. Tunditur; is plied, is buffeted.—Curas; anguish.449. Mens; purpose. As Aeneas remains immovable, Dido resolves on self-destruction.—450. Tum; then; as soon as Anna had conveyed the final message of Aeneas.-Fatis exterrita ; rendered frantic by her terrible fates, or destiny. But Ladewig refers fatis to the fates or oracles, which controlled the action of Aeneas. See above, 345, 440. The unhappy lot of Dido, however, is more naturally meant.- -451. Convexa; the vault. -452, 453. Quo magis peragat―vidit; that she may the more readily accomplish her design, &c.—she sees. The subjunctive here with quo denotes the destination or purpose of some higher power; as if she were made to see these signs that she might thus be led on to her fate.- 152. Lucem; life; the light of this upper world; for the pagan notion was that the dead dwelt in the shades under the earth.- −454. Latices nigrescere; the libations of wine, poured out when she was sacrificing in private, became dark like gore, a sign which boded ill.-Obscenum; ill-boding. -456. Visum; substantively; appearance.- -45%. In tectis; within her palace; in the open court of the palace, there was a funereal chapel dedicated to the manes of Sychae-459. Velleribus niveis; with snowy woollen bands, or fillets. See on i. 417.462. Bubo is feminine only in Virgil. It was a bird of ill omen, and whenever it appeared in Rome, an expiatory sacrifice was made, and if it were caught on the premises of any private family, it was nailed to the door, that its own death might serve as a preventive sacrifice to avert the death which its cry was supposed to presage in the family.- -Culminibus ; on the palace roofs.- -463. Longas-voces; seemed to draw out her long notes in lamentation.-464. Vatum priorum; of the prophets before; the prophets, namely, who had been present at the former sacrifices, mentioned above, 65. Heyne has substituted piorum.- -467, 468. Semper-terra ; an impressive foreshadowing of death. Her mind is filled with diseased fancies; she is like Pentheus, who was driven mad by the Furies (Eumenides, Divae) because he opposed the introduction of the Bacchanalian rites


at Thebes. His story was the subject of the play of Euripides, called the Bacchae, which seems to be meant here. "In this, v. 912, 913, Pentheus says: I seem to see two suns, and Thebes, and the seven-gated city double." Ladewig. Pentheus and Orestes, the sons of Agamemnon, are both represented on the stage as pursued by the Furies. Aeschylus, and the Roman Pacuvius, wrote tragedies concerning Orestes. His crime was the murder of his mother, see iii. 331, whose ghost therefore pursues him, armed with torches and scorpions. He flees for refuge to the temple of Apollo, at Delphi, and the Furies follow to the door of the sanctuary, which they are afraid to invade; therefore they sit, guarding the entrance.- -471. Scenis; on the stage. Ladewig adopts the reading saevis, agreeing with facibus.

-Agitatus; pursued.

474-552. Dido makes preparation for her suicide by causing a funeral pyre to be erected in the court of the palace, ostensibly for the purpose of burning an image of Aeneas, and the arms and clothing left by him, which ceremony, she assures Anna, will magically work the cure of her love for Aeneas, or else restore him to her affections. A sorceress from the Hesperides has given her instructions to perform the ceremony, with the promise of such a result; and Dido causes Anna to believe that she intends nothing more than to go through with these magic rites. In the night, when by herself, she gives utterance to her deep emotion.

474. Concepit furias; had become infected with madness; for the tenses, see on i. 216.475. Secum; with herself alone; without the knowledge of Anna, or any confidant.- -Modum; the mode of accomplishing her death.-476. Exigit; plans; thinks out. The deceptive conversation with her sister, which immediately follows, is a part of the plan.- -Aggressa; having addressed.- -477. Spem fronte serenat; shows calm hope in her countenance. Comp. i. 209.479. Quae reddat vel solvat; such as may restore him to me, or release me loving from him; from loving him. It was a common superstition that incantations had power to bind or release lovers. -481. Atlas. See on i. 741.- -482. Torquet. Atlas was supposed to sustain the heaven while it revolved.-Aptum; from the obsolete apere, (änтeodai,) studded, spangled.483. Massylae; Libyan.—Hesperidam ; the temple of the Hesperides was in the fabulous garden of the Hesperides, sometimes assigned to the Canaries, or "islands of the blest." The dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides, and the priestess, who is now in Carthage, and known to Dido through the information of others, (monstrata,) had exercised such power over the dragon as is related of Medea, who soothed the rage of the Colchian dragon, by means of honey mingled with drugs, so that it became harmless to those whom she wished to protect.

-484. Epulasque. The connective -que here joins the attribute custos, and the attribute expressed by the relative clause, quae dabat epulas, sq.; the keeper and the one who, &c.- -486. Spargens; connect with dabat. -48%. Carminibus; by her incantations; magical rites accompanied by forms of words in verse. Promittit, like speret, 292, departs from the regular prose construction, which requires the future infinitive after verbs

of promising, &c. See Arnold's Lat. Prose, 15. The idea is: She says that she releases, and she promises, therefore, that she will release; i. e. from love.- -488. Duras curas; the keen anguish of love.—490. Nocturnos ; by night. Comp. 303.-Videbis is applied to mugire, because visible motion as well as sound is conceived of in the quaking of the earth.- -493. Caput. Comp. the sense of the word above, 357.-Invitam; the apology is rendered necessary by Roman rather than by Carthaginian manners; for magic rites were not reputable at Rome. See Horace's epode on the sorceress Canidia, Ep. 5.—Accingier; for the old infinitive in er, see Gr. § 162, 6; Z. § 162; for the accusative artes, see on chlamydem, 137; that I am unwillingly begirt with magic arts; that I do not willingly have recourse to them, I call the gods to witness, &c.—494. Secreta; unobserved.- -Tecto interiore; in the interior of the palace.- -Sub auras; into the air; on high. Heyne explains it merely as sub divo, in the open air.-495. Arma; by directing Anna to place the weapons as well as the garments of Aeneas on the pyre, she secures the means of putting herself to death without exciting the suspicions of her sister. That she is told to do all this secretly, too, occasions no alarm, because magic rites are always performed in secret.498. Juvat, monstratque sacerdos; it pleases (me) that all mementos of the man should be destroyed, and the priestess so directs. Jubet is given in some editions for juvat.- -500. Tamen; though the deadly paleness that suddenly overspreads the countenance of Dido might have excited suspicion, Anna does not believe her sister is concealing her death with these sacred rites, (is contriving her death under the pretext of sacred rites.) For this use of praetexere, comp. above, 172. The construction might also be funeri sacra praetexere, which, indeed, is more common. -501, 502. Mente concipit; nor does she imagine such fury, i. e. as that of her sister.-502. Aut continues the negation. Comp. 339.- -Morte; an ablative of time, as in 436; nor does she apprehend more serious things than (what happened) at the death of Sychaeus; that is, funeral rites attended with the inconsolable affliction of Dido.- -504. Penetrali in sede; in the secluded court; namely, the tectum interius mentioned in 494.- -505. Taedis atque ilice secta; of pitchy wood, and cut oak; some join these ablatives with erecta, as denoting the material; others with ingenti as ablatives of the cause. The former construction has the best authority; though the reading, huge with pines and cut oak, accords with a frequent idiom of the language. Comp. i. 165, horrenti atrum umbra; 189, 190, alta cornibus arboreis; 648, signis auroque rigentem; iii. 464. In the construction first given join ingenti directly to pyra; a huge pyre being erected, &c.- -506. Intendit-sertis; for intendit loco serta.- -506, 507. Coronat-funerea; wreathes with the funeral cypress.-50%. Super; adverbial; above; on the couch.-508. Effigiem; an image of wax, which, as it melted in the fire, was supposed to betoken either the softening and yielding of the estranged lover, or else his wasting away and death.---Futuri; of what is coming; i. e. of her approaching

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