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none need stand in fear of thee?- -212. Pretio. See i. 367.213. Leges, for imperium; dominion over the place; so Heyne; but others understand by leges, the conditions or terms, on which the place should be held; and the latter has the advantage of making the scorn of Iarbas the more pointed. She was so humble that she submitted to his terms in making her first settlement on the shore.-214. Repulit makes the inseparable re long. Gr. § 285, R. 3, (b).—215. Paris; the term is applied to Aeneas in contempt of his nation, as well as of his present connection with Dido. Iarbas would claim to be another Menelaus.-Semiviro; the Romans in the republican period despised the dress of the Phrygians as effeminate.

-216. Maeonia; more strictly a Lydian country, but distinguished by the same habits of dress as Phrygia, whose inhabitants wore a peaked cap with lappets passing round the face, and meeting under the chin. See head of Priam, p. 395. In the cut on the preceding page the lappets are folded up on the temples.- -Mentum; the Greek accusative, (see i. 228,) to be joined with subnixus. Some editions have subnexus, fastened under, instead of supported.Madentem; anointing the hair with perfumed oils was also a custom of Asiatic origin. 217. Potitur; here of the third conjugation, as iii. 56; Gr. § 177; Z. § 210.—218. Quippe ; forsooth.- -Inanem ; empty; that brings me no real advantage; referring to his supposed relation to Jupiter.

219-278. Jupiter sends down Mercury to reproach Aeneas for his forgetfulness of his destiny and duty, in lingering so long in Carthage, and to require him to prepare immediately for his departure.

219. Aras tenentem; to be taken literally; in earnest supplication the worshippers laid hold upon the altars as if thus to come into close contact with the god of the altar.- -220. Moenia; Carthage.223. Vade age; hasten. Comp. iii. 462.—Pennis; with your wings; referring to those on the sandals and on the cap of Mercury.-225. Exspectat; is delaying. -228. Ideo; for such a purpose; namely, as that of dwelling at Carthage. Bis. Aeneas was rescued by his mother from Diomed, see on i. 97 sq., and Il. vi. 311, and again when in danger of perishing in the sack of Troy; see ii. 632, 633.- -Vindicat; the present tense implies has saved, and is still protecting.- -229, 230. Qui regeret; such an one as should

govern. Gr. § 264.- -231. Proderet; should propagate. Supply et. For

the subjunctive imperfect as a future, after past tenses, see Z. § 496, 5.232. After accendit supply eum.- -233. Super; on account of.- -Ipse, in contrast with Ascanius.- -234. Pater; does he a father envy? -235. Spe does not lose its vowel here.- -236. Ausoniam; Italian; his destined Latin descendants.237. Hic nuntius esto; let this be the message from -239. Talaria; winged sandals. -242. Virgam; the caduceus, or wand, around which two snakes were coiled, the emblems of peace.- -244. Morte resignat; opens the eyes (of the deceased) from death; he conveys the dead to Hades, and thus unseals the eyes of the dead in conducting them to Hades. The true interpretation must remain doubtful. The one to be pre


mountain. Met. iv. 631-662.

ferred next to the above is that of Jahn, followed by Ladewig, which refers re to the foregoing dat somnos adimitque; thus: he closes and opens the eyes in (ordinary) sleep, (and) again he closes the eyes in death.- -245. Illa fretus; depending on this; sustained by this.- -246. Apicem; the summit. 247. Vertice. See on i. 741. Ovid describes the changing of Atlas into a -Duri; much enduring. Comp. iii. 94. -248. Atlantis; of Atlas, whose pine-bearing head continually encompassed by dark clouds, is lashed both by wind and rain.-Cui may be translated by whose, and might have been in the genitive limiting caput, but, as a dative, limits cinctum; the head being surrounded to whom. Piny is a frequent appellative of mountains.- -250. Tum; at the same time; then moreover.- -Mento; de is omitted.- -251. Praecipitant; rush down; se is omitted, as in ii. 9.- -252. Nitens; poising himself.-Cyllenius; Mercury is so called from his birth-place, Mount Cyllenus, in Arcadia. Mercury first rests on Mount Atlas, and then darts down to the point for which his flight was first directed. Milton has caught from this his description of the descent of Raphaël. Par. Lost, v. 266.- -253. Toto corpore; with his whole weight; allowing the weight of his body to have its full effect, without any resistance from the wings.—254. Avi; some bird, of the kind that feeds on fish, and hence is accustomed to dart down swiftly to the water, when it has caught sight of its prey.—255. Humilis, like sublimis, agrees with the person or thing whose



situation is indicated.
258. Haud aliter-proles.
authenticity of this passage is de-
nied by Heyne, Wagner, and oth-
er commentators, and defended
by Jahn, Wunderlich, and others
of equal note. Ladewig follows
the latter in regarding the verses
as in keeping both with the man-
ner of Virgil and Homer. Comp.
above, 149, 150; Odyss. v. 51-54.
Instead of ad governing litus
some editions have ac. -257.
Secabat has the same termination
as volabat in the foregoing verse.
Such οἱμοιοτέλευτα are occasion-
ally met with in the poets. See
iii. 656, 657, v. 385, 386, vi. 844,
845.- -259. Tetigit; for the
tense, see on i. 216.- -Magalia.
for nova tecta aedificantem.-
(glowed) with Tyrian purple.

Mercury conveying the message of Jupiter. See on i. 421.-260. Tecta novantem ; -262. Tyrio ardebat murice; was resplendent Murex was a shell-fish found on the coast of

Phoenicia, Laconia, Thessaly, Tarentum, and elsewhere, from which the purple dye was obtained.- -264. Discreverat; she had inserted between the long threads of the cloth (telas) cross threads of gold; the cloak was woven therefore by Dido herself, in accordance with primitive customs. -265. Continuo; at once.- -Invadit; assails him; the term is chosen to express the angry tenor of the message. Carthaginis is emphatic.268. Tibi, for ad te.- -269. Torquet; causes to revolve. Wunderlich thinks it is to be taken literally with reference to the turning of the earth on its axis; for Virgil knew, says he, that which Cicero expresses in Quaest. Academ. ii. 39: terra circum axem se summa celeritate convertit et torquet. Comp. ix. 93.- -270. Mandata; instructions.- -271. Teris otia; do you idly squander time.Iuli. See on i. 267.-276. Debentur. They are due or destined to him by fate.- -277. Mortales visus; human vision; referring only to Aeneas here.- -Medio sermone; in the midst of his words; when he had scarcely ceased to speak, and without waiting for an answer. 279-295. Aeneas calls his captains together in secret, and orders them quietly to get every thing in readiness for the voyage.


279. Amens; amazed.- -283. Agat; the subjunctive, implying much doubt; what can he do?—Ambire; approach; literally, to go round, as if in danger of a hostile reception; like one attempting to approach a furious animal. -286. In partes rapit varias; hurries (his thoughts) in different directions; thinks rapidly of various expedients. Comp. viii. 19, 20.— 288. Mnesthea; acc. from Mnestheus. Gr. § 86.-Vocat. His plan is explained by what he does, instead of being stated; this would have required -289–291. Aptent, cogant, parent, and dissimulent, depend on imperat or hortatur understood.- -290. Rebus novandis; for entering on new adventures, or for renewing their adventures.- -291. Quando; since.292. Nesciat, speret, are in a dependent clause after the infinitive, in the oratio obliqua; hence in the subjunctive. Gr. § 266, 2; Z. § 545, (a). Speret here is apprehend.—Rumpi is chosen with nicety, because the matter is already in progress; not will be, but is being broken.- -293. Tentatarum (esse); the construction passes over into the infinitive, depending on dicens or putans.- -Aditus; the approaches; the ways of addressing her so as to give the least offence. Supply sint after tempora, and sit after modus. -294. Rebus is in the dative after dexter; adapted to circumstances.Ocius; supply dicto; quicker than said. Comp. i. 142.- -Omnes. The Trojan chiefs.

296-449. Dido becomes aware of the secret preparation of the Trojans, and, bitterly reproaching Aeneas, still begs him, with entreaties, and by repeated messages, conveyed by Anna, to change his purpose, or, at least, to postpone his departure.

297. Excepit; she first detected the coming movements; she caught the indications of something new projected by the Trojans. She saw something inusually earnest in the looks and movements of the Trojans, a disposition

to talk apart, perhaps, and to absent themselves from the palace; especially Aeneas himself would be more reserved. Lovers are always apprehensive; res est solliciti plena timoris amor, Ov. Heroid. 1, 12; hence she was constantly fearing some interruption to her present enjoyment, omnia tuta timens, fearing all things (even while) secure. -298. Eadem; the same rumor, which had already roused Iarbas.—Furenti is proleptic. The report rendered her furious.- -300. Inops animi; for amens animi. Gr. § 213, R. 1; Z. § 437. -301, 302. Baechatur qualis Thyias; raves like a Bacchanal. The first foot of the verse is composed of Thyias, taken as a dissyllable, and the first syllable of ubi.- -301. Commotis sacris. The vessels and symbols being brought forth from the temple.- -302. Audito Baccho; when Bacchus is heard; that is, when the cry, Io! Bacche, is heard, announcing the Bacchanalian rites. 303. Nocturnus; by night.— Cithaeron; a mountain in Boeotia, on which the rites of Bacchus were celebrated. -305. Sperasti. Not only has he resolved to leave her, which she regards as an outrage, but to conceal his departure.-30%. Data dextera. The right hand given to Aeneas and his friends, in token of protection when they were cast away on her shores.—308. Moritura; destined to die. He must know that neither her honor nor her disappointed love will suffer her to live if he departs.-309. Moliris, for paras. Comp. iii. 6.—310. Aquilonibus, for winds in general.-311-313. Si-aequor ; even if it were not a foreign and unknown country that you were going to, even if your native Troy were still in existence, would you, at this inclement season, when the sea is rough and dangerous, set out for Troy?—314. Mene? is it I, then, whom you flee?—Per; for the separation of this preposition from its case in adjurations, see Gr. § 279, 10, e; Z. § 794.Dextram; the right hand of hospitality. Comp. 307.- -Connubia; compare the quantity with that of connubiis in 168.-Inceptos; the formal marriage had not yet taken place, but Dido understands that a private betrothal, or the beginning of the nuptials, has been made.- -317. Fuit aut; for aut fuit.- -318. Domus labentis; my house, or family, ruined in its prospects, if you now desert me.- -320. Nomadum; for Numidarum.321. Infensi Tyrii; nothing was more natural than that her own Carthaginian or Tyrian nobles should be jealous of Aeneas and the new comers, and especially when they saw that Aeneas was about to be made their ruler.

-322. Sidera adibam; I approached the stars; I was highly renowned. Comp. iii. 462. Prove the case of sola by scanning the verse.- -323. Moribundam. Comp. above, 308.- -324. Hoc nomen; since I am permitted now to call thee only stranger, instead of husband.-325. Quid moror;

i. e. to die.—326. Destruat. Gr. 263, 4; Z. § 575.-Gaetulus; for African or Libyan.-327. Suscepta fuisset; among the Greeks and Romans it was the custom for the father of the new-born infant to lift it up (suscipere or tollere) in his arms, in token of his intention to protect and rear it. Hence suscipi and tolli sometimes are equivalent to nasci. Trans

late here: had been born to me. -329. Tamen; but, only; though not the real Aeneas, yet Aeneas in feature; the concessive clause with quanquam before tamen, is sometimes suppressed, as here.—330. Capta; captured either by Iarbas, or some other enemy. -332. Obnixus; struggling (against his emotions); the perfect participle for the present. Comp. i. 155. -Curam. The grief which her words and his circumstances awakened, -333. Plurima; translate in the antecedent clause, as i. 419; I will never deny, O queen, that you have done very many favors to me, (literally, deserved of me,) which you can enumerate in speaking.- -335. Elissae; Di


do's original name. -337. Pro re; in defence of my act.-339. Praetendi; I have never carried before thee (caused to be carried before thee in bridal procession) the torches of a husband; marriage torches.—Aut, for -Foedera; marriage contracts.- -340, 341. Meis auspiciis; under my own direction; at my option.- -341. Componere curas; to close my toils; referring to his wanderings.- -342, 343. Dulces reliquias; the dear remnant of my countrymen. Comp. i. 30.- -343. Colerem; I should cher ish; should be now cherishing in my own native land.- -344. Posuissem; I should have built again for the conquered, the citadel of Troy, restored by my hand. -345. Gryneus; an appellation of Apollo, from Grynium, a town in Aeolis, where he had a grove and temple.- -346. Lyciae sortes, also refers to the oracles of Apollo, which are called Lycian, because he had a famous oracle at Patara in Lycia. See on 140.- -Hic amor; this is my love; this destined Italy is the land which I must love as my own.- -319, 350. Quae invidia est (tibi)? What envy have you at the Trojans settling, &c. ? Et nos; it is right for us also (as well as you.)— -353. Turbida imago; the countenance of his father, seen in his dreams, seems displeased, and to reproach him for dallying in Carthage.—354. Capitis cari; his dear person; life. Caput indicates all that is most essential to life and happiness.— 355. Fatalibus; destined; quae illi fatis debentur.- -356. Interpres divum; the messenger of the gods; Mercury.—357. Testor utrumque caput; I swear by each person; i. e. both by you and me. Comp. Ovid, Her. 3, 107, perque tuum meumque caput. But perhaps the two gods, Jupiter and Mercury, are meant.- -362. Aversa; with averted look; askance. Comp. i. -363. Huc illuc; now darting a glance towards him, now away from him; furious, yet scarcely believing that her words have made so little impression; that he can speak so coldly. -Totum; him all; his whole person; from head to foot.-364. Luminibus tacitis; with silent looks; speechless at first with amazement and anger. Join sic with accensa; being thus cxasperated; i. e. by the conviction of his utter want of feeling.—Profatur is the historical present, not the same usage of the present as the two verbs preceding, which denote what has been going on, and is still continuing.


-366. Cautibus is construed with horrens; rough with jagged rocks. So says Wunderlich. The other interpretation, e duris cautibus te genuit, proluced thee from its rugged cliffs, seems more natural. Horrens is, properly,

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