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great (as it has already been); what further object have you to accomplish? you have already entrapped Dido.-99. Quin; why not. Gr. $ 262, R. 10, n. 9; Z. § 542. -102. Communem; in common.- -102, 103. Paribus auspiciis ; under our joint auspices ; let them regard us equally as their tutelar deities. -104. Dotales; as a dowry; this is, ordinarily, a gift presented by the bride, or by her father, to the bridegroom. Here Juno takes the place of the parent.— -Permittere; to submit, or yield up. —Tuae dextrae; to thy power, or possession; as Venus would thus become the mother-in-law of Dido.—105. Oni limits dicere, understood after est ingressa, began. Venus meets Juno with still deeper dissimulation.—106. Quo; in order that.- -Regnum Italiae ; the (destined) kingdom of Italy; or Roman empire that the fates had decreed. Juno intends, if possible, to detain Aeneas and the Trojans in Carthage, so that Libya instead of Italy may be the seat of the great dominion; thus the destined empire would be turned aside (as it were) to Africa.- -109. Si. The apodosis is understood; your plan pleases me, if only, &c.—Factum; the act; namely, of uniting the two races. -110. Fatis ; ablative cause of incerta feror, not of incerta alone. I aŭ rendered uncertain, am held in doubt.- -Si; interrogative; whether.--114. Sequar; I will follow your wishes; will second you.-Excepit; replied; literally, took (the discourse) from (her); or, took it up where she ceased.- -115. Iste, in the proper signification, referring to the second person; that labor you speak of.- -117. Venatum ; supine denoting the purpose of ire. Gr. § 276, ii.; Z. § 668, 2d paragraph.- -119. Titan. Sol is so called as son of the Titan, Hyperion. When the morrow's sun shall have lifted his first risings. Retexerit; shall have uncovered ; re, negative, as in i. 358, and often. -120. Nigrantem ; black with mingled hail. -121. Dam trepidant alae; while the mounted huntsmen are hurrying around; that is, scattered everywhere in the excitement of the chase. Alae, applied properly to the cavalry of a legion; here to horsemen attending upon Dido and Aeneas.- -Nocte; darkness. -124. Spelancam. See on i. 2. -125. Adero; I will be present; as Juno pronuba, she presides over nuptials. -126. Connubio, etc.; i. 73.-128. Dolis risit repertis ; Venus having detected (seeing through) the stratagem, laughed. Dolis, ablative absol. with repertis. Comp. i. 122. Venus knew from her late interview with Jupiter, (i. 227 sq.,) that the fates would prevent the fulfilment of Juno's design of keeping the Trojans away from Italy. Some take repertis in the sense of invented; i. e. by Juno.
129–172. Aeneas and Dido, with their attendants, go to hunt among the mountains. Through the contrivance of Juno, they are overtaken by a storm, and both are brought together into the same cave.
130. Jubare; the sunbeam; for the sun itself.-131. Retia rara ; the distended toils; hunting nets, with wide expanded meshes.- -Plagae ; nets of stronger material, for larger game, such as wild boars, bears, &c.Lato ferro; see on i. 164; ablat. of quality.—132. Massyll; a people of eastern Numidia, put here for Africans in general. -Ruunt is joined by zeugma with all the nominatives; efferuntur would have been more proper with retia, plagae, and venabula. -Odora canum yis ; for canes acri odoratu; the keen-scented hounds. -133. Canctantem; lingering.-135. Sonipes; the stamping horse; i. e. the one prepared for the queen. -137. Sidoniam. The first syllable is common.- -Chlamydem; a mantle thrown over the person, either for use or ornament. See the figure of Apollo below. For the accusative after circumdata, see Gr. § 234, R. 1, (a); Z. § 458. The participle perfect of the passive is sometimes used of a person who has done something to himself, and is thus followed by the accusative, like the Greek participle perfect of the passive and middle. Madvig, $ 237, obs.
b.—Limbo; an ablat. of description, limiting chlamydem. -138. In auram. Her hair is either bound by a band of gold, or by a net of golden threads. Others say, fastened with a golden clasp. 139. Fibula ; clasp, fastening the girdle round her waist. Comp. i. 492; see also note on i. 448, 449.140. Aeneas is compared to Apollo, as in i. 498-504, Dido to Diana. Apollo in the summer visited Patara, on the banks of the Xanthus in Lycia, and in winter his native Delos. To this island resort
ed, at this season, Apollo (Belvedere).
his worshippers from far and near; among them the Dryopes from Parnassus, and the Sarmatian, or Russian Agathyrsi, who practised tatooing their skins. Hence picti.-146. Fremunt; sing (while moving), round the altars. — 148.
Fronde ; namely, the laurel, which was sacred to him.- -Fingens; his statues represent the hair neatly arranged.- -Auro; in a golden diadem.
-Tela sonant humeris ; the arrows in the quiver upon his shoulders rattle as he moves along. -149. Haud segnior ; not less glorious.- -151. Ventum (est); they came; literally, it was come. For the tense after postquam, see on i. 216. -152. Dejectae ; comp. x. 707 ; driven down from the summit of the rock; so dejectae is understood by Wunderlich, Thiel, and Peerlkamp. Others translate it, having cast themselves down.—153. Decorrere; perfect tense. —154. Transmittant carsu, for transcurrunt ; the reflexive se is sometimes omitted after transmittere, as often after trajicere.
-Cervi. See on i. 185.-154, 155. Agmina glomerant; gather their dusty herds ; i. e. in leaving the mountains they come together in herds; thus in prose the form would be montibus relictis as a subordinate proposition, instead of the co-ordinate montes relinquunt.- -158. Votis ; join with optat as an ablative of manner. -162. Passim ; in disorder; literally, here and there.-164. Amnes; torrents; instantly formed by the rain. -166. Prima; for primum; first, or in the first place. Tellus and Juno both foster marriage rites. -167, 168. Conscius connubiis ; witness to the nuptials; referring both to the lightning and the air. For the dative after conscius, see Gr. § 213, R. 7; Z. $ 437, n. 2.- -168. Ulularunt; the flashing of the lightning, and the howling of nymphs, are tokens of calamity.--170. Specie famave; by propriety or report.
173–195. Fame, a monster whose form and character are described, reports the alliance of Aeneas and Dido to Iarbas, a powerful Gaetulian prince, who is a suitor for the hand of Dido, and from whom she had purchased the right to settle in Africa.
173. The following description of Fame is in imitation of II. iv. 442, 443.
-173-175. Fama-eundo. Fame, an evil, than which no other flourishes. swifter in motion, (moves with greater swiftness,) and gains power (more rapidly) by travelling. In other editions there is a colon after ullum.— 176. Primo; at first; when a rumor first springs up, it is reported with something of doubt and timidity.- -177. Solo; on the ground. 178. Ira irritata ; provoked by the vengeance of the gods; by the punishment which the gods inflicted upon her children, the Titans, in hurling them down to Hades. The poets often confound the giants with the Titans; as here Cocus and Enceladus; the first of whom was a Titan, and the other a giant.
-179. Perhibent; they relate; perhibere is said of traditions.-181. Cui limits sunt, (understood after oculi,) and sonant. To whom there are as many sleepless eyes underneath (the feathers), to whom as many tongues ana as many mouths resound, (who) pricks up as many ears as there are feathers on her body. For every feather there is an eye, a tongue, and an ear. 184. Coeli medio terraeque, for inter coelum et terram ; medio is a noun, or agrees with loco understood; medius, for inter is thus used also in prose; Caes. B. G. i. 34: losum, medium utriusque.—185. Stridens refers to the zusbing sound of her wings. So Horace says of winged Fortune, 0. i. 34, 15; Hinc apicem rapax Fortuna cum stridore acuto sustulit. Schmidt refers stridens to the sound of the voice: “Like an owl, whooping all night long."
-186. Luce; by day.- Custos; as a guard; that she may detect every thing. --Tecti here, as opposed to turribus, palaces, signifies the common dwelling. Rumor busies herself in spying out the affairs both of the common people and of the great.- -188. Nantia ; in apposition with illa; a messenger adhering as much to the false and malicious as the true.- -189. Tum; now; while Aeneas was at Carthage.—190. Gaudens. Rumor specially delights in slanders concerning public characters. -192. Chi viro; to whom, as a husband.—Dignetur; subjunctive in the oratio obliqua. Gr. 266, 2; Z. 8 603.- -193. Hiemem fovere; a bold expression for hiemem inter voluptates transigere; they were spending the winter in pleasure, and mutual endearments.- Quam longa (sit); as long as it is); i. e. the entire winter. Comp. viii. 86.-194. Regnorum ; the kingdoms of both; that of Dido, as well as the future kingdom of Aeneas.- -195. In ora; we should have expected diffundit in aures, or spargit per ora; the poet means to include both ideas.
196-218. Iarbas calls upon Jupiter, his reputed father, to avenge the insult cast upon him by Dido in rejecting his offers of marriage, and receiving Aeneas, a mere fugi. tive from Asia.
196. Iarban. Iarbas, or Hiarbas, a powerful king of Numidia, pretended to be the son of Jupiter Ammon, or Hammon, whose worship he introduced throughout his dominions. Iarbas had sold the site of Carthage to
Dido, and was one of her suitors.198. Garamantide, for Libyca ; Libyan. The Garamantes were a people dwelling in the country now called Fezzan. -200. Vigilem ; perpetual ; always burning on the altars.- -201. Excubias ; watch-fires ; in apposition with ignem ; the fire was keeping, as it were, never-ending vigils in the service of the gods.- -202. Variis sertis ; with ever-renewed garlands. Fresh garlands were usual on the occasion of every
sacrifice and festival; hence it is implied here Jupiter Ammon.
as well as in pingue that the sacrifices were very numerous and constant.- -Solum and limina; accusatives after sacraverat. -203. Amens animi; furious. For the genit. see Gr. § 213, R. 1, (a); Z. § 437.- -204. Media inter numina ; in the midst of the images of the gods; "in the divine presence;" in the temple. A temple consecrated to a particular deity, contained usually only the statue of that deity; a pantheon, on the contrary, contained the statues and altars of all the great gods, Jupiter's being the most conspicuous. -205. Supinis ; outstretched.
-206. Nanc. Hitherto the worship of Jupiter has been unknown in this country; it is I, Iarbas, who have honored Jupiter by establishing it here.
--Maurusia ; Moorish; used here to include the people of Iarbas.-20%. Epulata; after partaking of the festive banquet. -Lenaeum honorem; the libation of wine.-209. Caeci; without aim; without purpose ; blind; are the lightnings, after all, not under thy direction ?- -210. Inania murmura;
Phrygian or Trojan youth. and do thcy (the lightnings) mingle vain thunders ?—do they occasion thun. ders, which also are not tokens of thy displeasure, and for which, therefore,