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baean shoals are called hard, or rugged. Lilybaeum is now Capo Boco.——— 70%. Drepani; Drepanum, now Drepana.- -Illaetabilis; mournful; because Anchises died there; others refer it to the gloomy aspect of its barren coast and neighborhood.—711. Nequidquam; saved in vain; because he was not suffered to see the end of all their wanderings, and the accomplishment of their enterprise. There was, indeed, a tradition that Anchises actually lived to reach Italy. But the presence of Anchises at Carthage would have been out of keeping with the plot, and therefore he is represented as dying in Sicily.-18. Conticuit refers to the voice of the speaker alone; he ceased to speak; quievit refers to the task and fatigue of narrating ; he rested, having ended the story.
Melpomene, the Muse of Tragedy.
Dido-her love and death.
1-89. Dido confides to her sister, Anna, the passion she has conceived for Aeneas, and, encouraged by her, she begins to think of winning him to an alliance in marriage; meanwhile the public works of Carthage, and the duties of government, are neglected.
1. At denotes the transition from the narrative of Aeneas to that of the poet, which was interrupted at the end of the first book.-Gravi cura; with deep passion.-2. Saucia. See i. 719-722. -Alit; cherishes; not voluntarily, for at first she resists the feeling.- -Carpitur; is consumed. -3. Multa virtus; the great heroism; multa implies not only the great. ness, but the many proofs of his heroism.- -Honos; the glory of his family, as sprung from Jupiter and Venus. Comp. 12, and x. 228.- -8. Unanimam; sympathizing.—Male sana. Comp. ii. 23.- -9. Insomnia; waking thoughts; fancies that keep one sleepless.—10. Quis-hospes; an ellip
tical expression, equivalent to quis est hic novus hospes, qui successit ?11. Quem sese ore ferens; bearing himself what one in feature! i. e. presenting what a noble countenance !- -Pectore et armis; of what brave soul and deeds (he is)! armis (from arma) being taken in the sense of deeds; but Ladewig, Forbiger, and others, refer armis to his bodily frame, deriving it from armus, and supplying fortibus, strong. Comp. xi. 644.- -12. Credo ; I do indeed believe; observe the emphatic position of the verb.-Genus; for prolem, accusative after esse; eum, understood, is the subject; that he is the progeny.-13. Degeneres animos; minds of base descent. The heroism of Aeneas confirms his claim to a divine origin.- -Heu indicates her deep sympathy.- -14. Canebat; he described. -15. Fixum immotumque; in agreement with the following clause, which is the logical subject of sederet, under Gr. § 250. If it were not resolved in my mind, fixed and unalterable.-17. Primus fefellit; my first love (Sychaeus) deceived and disappointed me by death. For the usage of the participle, see on i. 69. After pertaesum supply me. For the genitive and accusative after impersonals, see Gr. §§ 215, 229, R. 6; Z. § 441.- -19. Potui succumbere ; I might have yielded; the indicative expresses the conclusion more vividly than the regular form of the apodosis, potuissem. Gr. § 259, R. 3, (d); Z. § 519, a. Thiel refers this usage of potui to Z. § 520.—Culpae. Loving and marrying another after Sychaeus, to her mind, was a fault; for she had resolved to remain true to him. Virgil, too, may be thinking of the Roman sentiment that it was more becoming, after the death of a first husband, to remain in perpetual widowhood.- -21. Sparsos Penates; after the sprinkling of the household gods, or, after they were sprinkled. See Gr. § 274, R. 5; Z. § 637. On the manner of the murder, see i. 347 sq.-22. Hic, refers to Aeneas. The quantity here is short as in vi. 792. See Gr. § 299, exc. 2. -Labantem; an instance of prolepsis; he has influenced her mind so that it is yielding.- -24. Optem; Gr. § 260, R. 6; Z. § 529; may I choose rather, let me wish rather.-Prius is expressed again in ante, 27, owing to the length of the intervening passage.- -24, 25. Dehiscat and adigat omit ut according to Gr. § 262, R. 4.- -26. Erebi; a god of Hades, for Hades itself.- -29. Habeat; supply eos, referring to amores; let him keep my affections.-30. Sinum-obortis. She falls upon the bosom of her sister, and her contending emotions find relief in gushing tears. Refert; replies.- -Luce; for quam vita.- -32. Solane—juventa; wilt thou solitary in perpetual youth (unmarried life) pine away with grief? literally, be wasted away grieving. Juventa is an ablative of manner, modifying the phrase moerens carpere: moerebis et carpere. Gr. § 274, 3, n. 2, (b). Prove the tense and voice of carpere by scanning.—33. Noris; future perfect (noveris) with the sense of a future.—34. Id. Dost thou believe that the ashes (of Sychaeus) or (his) buried manes care for that? namely, for your abstaining from marriage. When you have performed the due funeral honors to the dead, they make no farther claim upon you, for then they are
at rest and contented.. -35. Esto; be it that; granted that; referring to what follows.Aegram; desponding; mourning for Sychaeus.-Mariti; here for suitors.- -36. Libyae; the genitive denoting origin.-Tyro ; an ablative, also denoting origin; a Tyro, from or of Tyre; equivalent here to Tyrii. Lately not Libyan suitors, and formerly, not Tyrian suitors have influenced her mind.- -Iarbas; king of a Numidian tribe called the Maxitani. 37, 38. Triumphis dives; prolific in triumphs; because it abounded in warlike tribes, and chiefs continually engaged in internal wars.————— 38. Amori; pugno, bello, certo, and luctor, take the dative by poetic usage. Gr. § 223, R. 2, (b).- -40. Gaetulae urbes; the Gaetuli dwelt in the country south of Numidia. Some of them retained their nomadic habits, and others dwelt in villages composed of huts.- -Genus, in apposition with urbes, but in sense related to Gaetulae; as genus, i. 339.- -41. Infreni; riding without bridles; termed also in prose infrenati.- -Cingant; begirt; i. e. thee, or thy kingdom.—Inhospita Syrtis. Syrtis major, and Syrtis minor, one the gulf of Sydra, and the other the gulf of Cabes, or Capos; dangerous gulfs and quicksands on the northern coast of Africa, here called inhospitable on account of the barbarian tribes in their neighborhood.42. Siti, ablative; cause of deserta.- -43. Barcaei. The people of Barca in the Cyrenaic country.Tyro; from Tyre; the idea of motion from is implied in surgentia. -Dicam; the subjunctive in a question of appeal. Gr. § 260, R. 5; 530.- -44. Germanique minas; added by way of epexegesis, to define more particularly the nature of the war. Comp. i. 361 -15. Junone; as Juno is the guardian of Carthage, if she has favored the coming of the Trojans, it must be for some good to her people. It se ms hardly probable that her name should be mentioned here simply because she is the goddess of marriage. For the ablat. see Gr. § 257, R. 7; Z. § 645.- -19. Quantis rebus; by what achievements will the Carthaginian glory raise itself! Comp. factis, iii. 462.50. Ta, both in the 47th and 50th verses, is used to impress the advice more forcibly. It is thus expressed, says Thiel, to enforce counsel, rules, and precepts.51. Innecte; devise (from time to time) causes for delay.- -52. Dum; as long as. Desaevit; rages; de is intensive here.- -54. Incensum; already burning.
-55. Pudorem; her shame; her regard for the memory of Sychaeus, which led her at first to look upon the love of Aeneas as a violation of duty and, hence, a cause of shame.- -56. Per aras; at the altars; namely, of the gods immediately mentioned. For this usage of per, see on iii. 295.
-58. Legiferae. Ceres, according to an old poet, Calvus, quoted by Servius, taught laws, united in marriage those who were dear to each other, and founded great cities.- -61. Inter cornua; she pours the libation between the horns; thus consecrating the victim. She is occupied both in propitiating the gods by sacrifice, and in divining the future by inspecting eagerly the entrails (inhians exta.)- -62. Pingues, is said of the altars because of the numerous victims sacrificed upon them.-63. Instaurat; fills up the
day with offerings; renews the sacrifices throughout the day. toribus lengthens the final syllable here.—Spirantia; palpitating.Est, from edo; eats, devours.—Mollis flamma; the pleasing fire. Wagner and others take mollis (molles) in the accusative plural agreeing with medullas, regarding mollis as incompatible with flamma, which is put here for passion. Molles then signifies penetrable. Ladewig quotes Catullus, 43, 16: Ignis mollibus ardet in medullis. The sense then would be: the flame (of love) devours the yielding marrow.- -68, 69. Tota urbe. Gr. § 254, R. 2, (b); Z. § 482.- Qualis—arundo ; such as the hind, which, heedless, the shepherd having sped his arrow while pursuing with his weapons, has transfixed from afar in the Cretan woods, unconsciously leaving the deadly shaft (in the wound.) Liquit is closely appended by que to the foregoing proposition, and equivalent to a present participle. Conjecta sagitta; ablat. absol. -75. Sidonias opes; Phoenician wealth; the splendor of her new city.—Paratam; already prepared; prepared to receive Aeneas, and thus to save him from longer trial and delay. Comp. i. 557.77. Labente die; ablat. abs.; when the day is declining.- –79. Ab ore; on the lips. 80. Ubi digressi (sunt); when they (the guests) have retired.——Obscura ; fading.- -81. Cadentia sidera. See on ii. 9.- -82. Stratis relictis; on the couch left by Aeneas.- -84. Ascanium; he too is absent; but, in fancy, she caresses him.- -85. Si, interrogative and elliptical; (seeking) whether. See on i. 181. Her new passion withdraws her mind wholly from all public duties.87. Propugnacula; fortifications.- -Bello; dative after parant.
-88, 89. Minae murorum ingentes; for muri ingentes et minantes; vast and imposing walls.- -89. Machina; towers were erected on the walls for the more effectual working of the warlike engines or tormenta, the ancient artillery for hurling darts and stones. Here machina signifies the tower itself, on which the machine is elevated
Cupid torturing Psyche.
90-128. Juno seeks to entrap Venus, and to prevent the founding of the destined Trojan empire in Italy, by proposing to bring about a marriage between Aeneas and Dido, to which Venus, knowing that the fates cannot thus be frustrated, artfully consents.
90. Quam refers to Dido.her regard for reputation.- -92. Aggreditur; addresses. -93. Vero; indeed; sarcastic. -94. Numen; subject of est understood; your divinity is great and famous. Some read nomen in the accusative.-96. Adeo adds force to me; nor me at least; even if it escapes others.. -Veritam; having feared; that is, because you have feared.- -98. Quo nunc certamine tanto? supply tenditis; whither are you going now in the contest so