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334. Stat stricta; a lively expression for est stricta; suggesting the erect position of the blade. Mucrone corusco; an ablative of manner limiting stat. Primi; those who are foremost, or nearest to the gate, and who are the first to attempt resistance.- -335. Caeco Marte; in the furious conflict. Caeco is not here dark, or nocturnal, for the scene is lighted up by the conflagration, and it is moonlight.-336. Numine divam; by the divine impulse; not by his own deliberate purpose, for he had not sat rationis in armis.- -337. Tristis Erinys; the dark fury; the gloomy spirit of conflict.- -339. Addunt se socios; join me as comrades. Comp. vi. 778. The names here given are invented by Virgil.——341. Agglomerant; supply se; gather around.Nostro; for meo, as in 139.

Coroebus; the son of Mygdon, a Phrygian king, described by postHomeric poets as the accepted suitor of the mad Cassandra, and slain either by Diomedes or Neoptolemus.- -343. Insano; passionate, ardent; a common signification of the word; though some refer it here to the hopelessness of his love; frantic love.- -344. Gener; as a (future) son-in-law.345. Furentis; prophetic. See on 246.- -346. Audierit; subjunctive under the same principle as above, 248.- –347. Quos ubi vidi; and when I saw them. Gr. § 280, iii. 1; Z. § 803.—Audere; venturing upon. Gr. § 272, R. 5.- -348. Super; for insuper, moreover; as in i. 29. The connection seems to be this: besides the enthusiasm they already manifest, I seek to enkindle more, and so begin with these words.- -His is regarded by Thiel as an ablative of manner; comp. talibus, i. 559; by Forbiger and others as a dative for ad hos.- -349. Pectora; as animi, 144, for persons.- -Audentem; supply me.— -Si vobis-est. The protasis is in the indicative, since there is no uncertainty, and the apodosis, moriamur and ruamus are for the imperative. See Arnold's Lat. Prose, 435, foot-note g.- -Extrema; destruction; extreme perils.- -350. Certa cupido; a fixed desire; implying both desire and resolve. Sequi. For the inf. depending on cupido est vobis, see note on 10.-Sit. Gr. § 265; Z. § 552. What is the state of (lit. to) our fortunes. 351. Excessere. The ancients believed that the capture of a city or country was preceded by the departure of its tutelary gods. Thus Horace, 0. 1: Juno et deorum quisquis amicior Afris inulta cesserat impotens tellure. Adytis; ablative absolute with relictis. -352. Quibus; through whom; ablative of means. Gr. § 247, R. 4; Z. § 455.-Steterat; had flourished. Comp. v. 56, i. 268.- -353. Moriamar -ruamus. "Let us die, and (to that end) rush into the midst of the enemy." Ladewig. Others take it for a striking example of the hysteron proteron. Gr. § 323, 4, (2). Comp. iii. 662.- -354. Una salus; predicate nominative: to hope for no safety is the only safety of the conquered.—356. Raptores. See Gr. § 205, R. ii.; comp. i. 21.- -357. Exegit; has driven forth; i. e. from their dens.- -Caecos; blind; i. e. to all danger.-359. Mediae. See on 218.- -360. Nox atra. The moon is at times obscured; as we learn from 397, 420, and 621.-Cava umbra. Comp. i. 516, v. 810, ix.

671, x. 636.361, 362. Fando explicet. Comp. 6, 7.

-Labores; ca

lamities.- -364, 365. Perque-Perque. See on i. 18. The repetition of the preposition gives emphasis.-Inertia ; lifeless; referring to the corpses of the slain. Others, with Heyne and Thiel, refer it to the helpless bodies of old men, women, and children, and persons unfit for war. Observe the climax in vias, domos, deorum limina, throughout the streets, dwellings, temples.—Poenas dant sanguine; suffer punishment with blood; suffer death. Comp. 72.367. Quondam; sometimes. Comp. 416, vii. 699, xii. 863.


-369. Ubique; everywhere. Z. § 288.-Pavor. Gr. § 309, R. 1, (1). -Plurima imago; very many an image; meaning many a repetition of death, innumerable corpses, representations of death, everywhere seen; thus Ovid, Met. 10, 726, repetitaque mortis imago.— -371. Androgeos; Androgeus, a Grecian hero, not mentioned in Homer.- -Credens; supposing; supply nos esse.- -372. Ultro; at once, first; as in 279; without being first addressed.- -376, 377. Fida responsa; reliable answers.- -Sensit delapsus; having fallen he perceived (it); a Greek idiom for sensit se delapsum esse. G. § 271, n. 3; Z. § 612, at the end; Kühner § 310, 3.Retro repressit; withdrew or checked. Comp. 169.- -379. Veluti, etc.; a comparison derived from the Iliad, iii. 33 sqq.-Aspris; for asperis.380. Humi nitens; walking on (or along) the ground. Gr. § 221, R. 3, (1); Z. § 400, 2d paragraph.- -380, 381. Refugit attollentem iras; has fled back from him, throwing his angry head upward; "throwing his neck upward threatening wrath." Thiel. Iras is equivalent to iratum caput.Colla. Greek acc.- -Et densis etc.; and we surround them with our serried arms; the dative iis is understood; we are poured about (to) them. Gr. § 249, R. 3; Z. § 418.--que connects the verbs circumfundimur and sternimus. -385. Labori; conflict; like πóvos in Homer.- -386. Successuanimisque; exulting with success and with ardor; both are ablatives of cause; both success and boldness of spirit make the youth exult. In like manner confidence of spirit is assigned as a cause of exsultare, in v. 398. Hence it is unnecessary to suppose any zeugma here.- -387. Qua. Comp. i. 401.388. Ostendit se dextra; for ostendit se dextram; shows herself favorable; dextra, adjectively, agreeing with fortuna.—389. Insignia; martial ornaments; the arms by which the Greeks were distinguished from the Trojans; especially their helmets and shields, with their peculiar devices.

-390. Dolus; supply sit.—Requirat; a question of appeal. See on 8. -391. Deinde. See on i. 195.—392, 393. Insigne decorum induitur; puts on the beautiful device. Shields were often adorned with raised work in bronze, representing sometimes a thunderbolt, or some formidable animal, or, as on the shield of Achilles, scenes from life and history. For the acc. instead of the ablat. after induitur, see Gr. § 234, R. 1; Z. § 458, 3d paragraph.- -394. Rhipeus; dissyllable. See on i. 521.- -396. Haud numine nostro; not under a favorable divinity; literally, not under our own divinity. Noster and the other possessives sometimes have the force of se

cundus, propitious. Comp. v. 832: ferunt sua flamina classem. Thiel refers this, and parallel expressions in the ablative, to Z. § 472, the ablativus modi. Comp. iii. 17, iv. 103, iv. 340; also Hor. O. 3, 6, 1: Troja renascens lugubri alite; 1, 15, 5; mala avi; Cic. in Catil. 1, 13: hisce ominibus-iisdem auspiciis.- -401. Conduntur; for se condunt. Comp. 24.-Alvo. See on 51.- -402. Nihil fas (est); for non licet. Fas is what accords with the decrees of the gods. For nihil, as an emphatic non, see Gr. § 277, R. 2, (b); Z. § 677.— -Quenquam. Gr. § 207, R. 31; Z. § 709, 17. Translate the passage: It is not right that any one should be confident, when the gods are opposed. Divis is in the ablat. abs., and not governed by fidere, which is used here absolutely, or without a case following. The sentiment is intended to introduce the incident which immediately follows, and which turns the tide of success against the Trojans.- -403. Passis crinibus. Cassandra was a prophetess, inspired with the divine frenzy; hence the dishevelled hair, as in the description of the prophetess at Cumae, vi. 48: non comtae mansere comae. -Priameia; daughter of Priam; from the Greek form Пpiaunios. Gr. § 283, exc. 6, (3).- -404. A templo Minervae; she had fled to the shrine of Minerva for refuge.-Adytis; from the inner sanctuary. This was the occasion of the outrage referred to in i. 41, which provoked the wrath of Minerva against Ajax Oileüs.- -40%. Speciem; spectacle.— Coroebus. See 341 sqq.- -Furiata mente; ablat. absol.- -408. Periturus. Gr. § 274, R. 6; Z. § 639.- -409. Densis armis; ablat. of manner, as in 383. Iis, or hostibus, in the dat., is understood after incurrimus.- -410. Delubri culmine. A party of Trojans was hurling down missiles from the top of the temple of Minerva.- -411. Obruimur; for the quantity of the last syllable here, see on pavor, 369.-412. Armorum facie, etc.; on account of the appearance of our arms, and the mistake arising from our Grecian crests; so facies is used in v. 768.- -413. Ereptae virginis; at the rescue of the virgin; a causal genitive, like jubarum, 212; Gr. § 211, R. 1. For the use of the participle see Gr. § 274, R. 5; Z. § 637.—414. Acerrimus. Ajax was exasperated by the loss of Cassandra, whom he had seized as his peculiar captive.—415. Dolopum. See on 7.416. Adversi; opposed to each other.- -Quondam ; as in 367.—Turbine rupto; a whirlwind having burst; not an ablative of manner.- -41%. Comp. i. 85, 86. -418. Equis; limiting laetus. Comp. tegmine, i. 275. The winds are sometimes described as riding on horses; as Eurip. Phoen. 2, 18: Zépupos inrevoas; Hor. O. 4, 4, 44: Eurus per Siculas equitat undas.—————419. Spumeas Nereus; the foaming Nereus. Nereus (dissyllable) was an ancient sea-god, son of Pontus, to whom the trident and the dominion of the sea are sometimes attributed, as here.- -Imo fundo. Comp. i. 84 and 125. -420. Si quos; for quoscumque.- -Per umbram. Comp. 397.421. Insidiis; by our stratagems. See 387.-Urbe. Gr. § 254, R. 2, b.422. Primi; the foremost; those who now came near enough to examine us more closely.----Mentita; used here passively; we may translate it,

counterfeit, or assumed. Gr. § 162, 17; Z. § 632. Mentitos is also understood with clipeos.- -Agnoscunt; they recognize; they perceive that our arms and shields are theirs, though worn by enemies. -423. Ora sono discordia signant; they point out (to each other) our speech, differing (from theirs) in sound. Ora is put for speech, or dialect; sono refers to pronunciation, or accent, in which alone Virgil supposes the language of the Trojans to have differed from that of the Greeks.. -424. licet; instantly, thereupon; so in poets of the golden age. Thiel takes signare here as equivalent to declarare, indicare.- -425. Penelei; scanned Pē-ně-lě-ī, (Iŋvéλews;) Gr. § 86. Peneleus here is an imaginary personage.- -Dextra. Comp. i. 98.

-Armipotentis. See on delubri, 410.- -Ad aram; near the altar; the great altar stood at the foot of the steps in front of the Пpóvaos, not within the temple itself. -426. Unus; emphatic, as in i. 15.-427. Acqui. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (2); Z. § 438.- -428. Dis aliter visum; it seemed otherwise to the gods; he deserved to live, but the gods willed it differently. The good and evil are alike subject to accident and death. Comp. below, 430.- -429. Sociis; by their friends on the summit of the temple, who are ignorant of their real character. See 410.- -Panthu. See 318, 320.- -430. Infula; the fillet of the priest is put by metonymy for the sacred office itself.431. Flamma meorum (civium). Aeneas speaks as if burning Troy were a great funeral pile, in which his slain countrymen had been consumed.432. Vestro may be referred both to Troy, implied in Iliaci, and to meorum. -433. Vices Danaum; perils from, attacks made by, the Greeks.Vitavisse; the subject, me, is omitted, as not unfrequently, where the pronoun is easily suggested by the foregoing words. Comp. iii. 184, 201, 603, iv. 493, vi. 457.—Fata fuissent contains the notion of decreeing, commanding; hence the following subjunctive with ut. Gr. § 273, 2; Z. § 620.434. Manu; by my hand; by my bold deeds. Translate the passage: if the fates had decreed that I should fall, I deserved (death) by my prowess.435. Iphitus et Pelias mecum; supply divelluntur; are separated from the rest with me.- -436. Quorum; a partitive genitive, after a proper name used partitively. Comp. i. 71. A substantive sometimes supplies the place of a partitive. Ramshorn, § 105, c; Madvig, § 284, obs. 2.- -Aevo gravior; somewhat enfeebled by age; the comparative according to Gr. § 122, R. 3; Z. § 104, 1, n.———— -Vulnere Ulixi; the wound of, that is, given by, Ulysses. Gr. § 211, R. 2, (a). For this form of the genitive, see on i. 30.—437. Clamore; by the shouting; Aeneas is now attracted by the noise of battle to the palace of Priam, on the Acropolis.

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438-558. On reaching the Acropolis, Aeneas finds the great body of the Greeks, led on by Pyrrhus, making a furious assault on the front of the palace of Priam. He effects an entrance by a private postern gate, and, ascending to the roof and battlements, aids the defenders in hurling down missiles, and masses of the building material, on the assailants. From the battlements he sees the Greeks under Pyrrhus finally burst through the principal gate, and rush into the interior of the palace. He

sees Pyrrhus slay Polites, a son of Priam, at the feet of his father, and Priam himself after a feeble resistance, slain by Pyrrhus near the family altar.

438. Ceu, in the sense of as if, is followed by the subjunctive; Gr. § 263, 2, (1); as if the other battles were nowhere raging; i. e. as if all the fighting were concentrated here.-Bella-proelia; a poetic use of the word.440. Sic is explanatory of the foregoing words, and qualifies indomitum, ruentes, and obsessum; so furious, rushing so, and so closely beset.-Martem; conflict; as in 335. For the participle after cernimus, see Gr. § 274, 3, (c); Z. § 636. The Greeks are making an attack on the front of the palace in two divisions; one party is attempting, by means of scalingladders, to reach the roofs of the buildings, (442-444;) another, headed by Pyrrhus, is storming the palace gate, under cover of their shields, which they join together above their heads, by lapping one shield over another, like the tiles or shingles of a roof; thus forming a testudo, under the shelter of which they are safe from the missiles hurled down upon them by the defenders. The Trojans are vigorously defending the palace, partly in the vestibule and court within the gate, partly on the walls and roofs.-141. Acta testudine; a testudo having been advanced. Agere is more properly said of heavy military engines, moved upon rollers; but here, as in ix. 505, of the testudo formed by shields, the soldiers who form it advancing in a compact body to the point of attack. -Limen; the gate.- -442. Haerent; the ladders terminate at the upper end in hooks.- -Parietibus; the ablative; on the walls; the sides of the palace, not moenia, city walls. On the pronunciation of the word here, paryetibus, see note on abiete, 16.Sub; up to. For its position, see Gr. § 279, 10, (f).—443. Nitantur; they climb; referring to the assailants. Gradibus; on the steps (of the ladders.)- -Ad tela; against the missiles; i. e. of the Trojans on the walls, Join sinistris with objiciunt; they present their shields with their left hands.

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An attack upon a fortified palace.

-445 446 Teete culmina; the covered summits; the whole roofing, inclad also the gilded rafters, auratas trabes, underneath the tiles.-His

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