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to Ulysses. The i in Belides is here lengthened, as an exception to Gr.
§ 291, 4.-
-83. Falsa sub proditione; under a false charge of treason.
Thiel calls this usage of sub a Grecism.- -84. Infando indicio; by wicked
testimony. Through the contrivance of Ulysses a letter purporting to be
signed by king Priam, and a quantity of gold, were secreted in the tent of
Palamedes, and these being produced against him, he was stoned to death
by the Greeks on the charge of correspondence with the enemy.- -85.
Demisere neci; they have cast down to death; so morti demittere, v. 692.-
Cassum lumine; deprived of light; i. e. of life. Comp. cassis aethere, xi.
104. The ablative may be referred to Gr. § 250, 2, (1); Z. § 462; or, with
Thiel, we may consider cassus as derived from careo and followed by its case.

-Lugent; they mourn him because they need his wise counsels. It was his réputation for wisdom which had excited the jealousy of Ulysses.86. Illi-annis; this clause answers to the conditional proposition commencing with si; my father, being poor, sent me hither to the war from the first years (of the war) as his companion, being also related to him by blood.

-Et connects comitem and sanguine propinquum as two considerations on account of which Sinon was sent; more fully expressed it would be: because he wished me to be his companion, and because I was nearly related to him. -87. Pauper; as in iii. 615, the term is calculated to excite compassion in the hearers.- -In arma; for in bellum. -88. Stabat regno; flourished in his royal dignity; the ablative as in i. 268.- -Regum vigebat conciliis; was strong in the assemblies of the kings. See on 85. The Grecian kings held frequent councils in their camp before Troy. -89. Et nos; I also; so also the plural is used in 139.——que—que. Comp. i. 18.– 90. Gessimus; sustained.- -Ulixi; for this form of the genitive see Gr. § 86.-91. Haud ignota; things by no means unknown. The cunning of Sinon shows itself in connecting his pretended misfortunes with the real ones of Palamedes, the account of which has doubtless already reached the Trojans.- -Superis ab oris; from the upper world; from this region of the living to the lower world, sub umbras. Comp. iv. 660. For the tense after postquam see Gr. § 259, (2), d; Z. § 506.- -92. In tenebris; in gloomy solitude. -94. Me; the subject of fore understood.--Tulisset; should bring it about; literally, should have carried. The pluperfect subjunctive serves as a future perfect subjunctive in connection with past tenses. Gr. § 260, R. 7, (1); Z. § 496, 5.——95. Ad Argos; for ad Graeciam. Comp. i. 285. On the forms of the word see Gr. § 92, 4; Z. § 89. Palamedes was from Euboea.- -96. Odia. The hatred, namely, of Ulysses.-97. Hine; from hence; from this cause. Comp. unde, i. 6. But Thiel understands it of time; from that time forward.——Prima labes; the first token of disease. ――98, 99. The infinitives here are historical: Ulysses was always terrifying, was disseminating, was seeking. Gr. § 209, R. 5, note; Z. § 599, note. Conscius; conscious of his crimes; knowing his own guilt, and the danger of being exposed by me.- -Arma; weapons; means for my destruction.

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-100. Enim introduces the ground of the foregoing statement: he was certainly seeking to destroy me, for he did not rest, &c.- -Calchante minfstro; Calchas being his agent. Calchas was the prophet and priest of the Grecian army at Troy. Sinon artfully breaks off here in order to excite the Trojans to farther inquiries.--101. Sed autem; but however; these two particles are found thus connected nowhere else in Virgil. The second adversative seems intended to add additional emphasis.—Ingrata; painful; i. e. to Sinon. But Forbiger understands things unacceptable, or of no interest to the Trojans, and which can gain no favor with them towards Sinon.

-102. Si; nearly equivalent here to quoniam.- -Omnes; all the Greeks; whether such as Palamedes and Sinon, or such as Ulysses.-103. Id; this; that which I have now narrated to you concerning myself: if you hold all (of us) in the same estimation, and it suffices to have heard this. Jamdudum; now at once. It implies that the act has already been long delayed, and, therefore, should be instantly executed. See Gr. § 191, R. 6; Z. § 287.-104. Ithacus; the Ithacan, Ulysses; a poetic form for Ithacensis. Magno. For the case see Gr. § 252, R. 3; Z. § 456. With velit and mercentur, would wish, would purchase, the protasis, si possint, is to be supplied. See Gr. § 261, R. 4.- -Atridae; the sons of Atreus; Menelaus and Agamemnon.- -10%. Prosequitur; proceeds. This verb in this sense, and without an object, seems to occur only here.- -109. Moliri; to prepare. The term implies effort to overcome difficulties.- -Bello; join with fessi.-110. Fecissent; would that they had so done.. Gr. § 263; Z. § 571. If they had gone away at that time, Sinon would not have been condemned as the victim for sacrifice.- -111. Euntes; when departing; not actually on their way, which the present participle would usually mean, but when on the point of going. Gr. § 274, R. 1; comp. ix. 243.- -112. Trabibus. Gr. § 287, 3, exc. in a 2.-114. Suspensi; uncertain; doubting what to do.

-Eurypylam; Eurypylus, a Thessalian chief, who joined the Grecian expedition with forty ships from Ormenion.- -Scitantem; to consult; if the reading is correct, we must consider this a present participle denoting a purpose. Comp. i. 519; Gr. § 274, R. 2, (a). The reading scitatum lacks authority. -115. Adytis; from the sanctuary. For the case see on i. 358. -116. Placastis; for placavistis. See Gr. § 162, 7; Z. § 160, (a).Virgine caesa; with a virgin slain. Gr. § 274, R. 5. The Grecian chiefs had assembled at Aulis before sailing for Troy, and being detained by contrary winds, were instructed to sacrifice Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, as a propitiatory offering to Diana. Virgil follows some tradition which represented the victim to have been actually slain. According to the ordinary account Iphigenia was saved by the interposition of Diana, and conveyed to Tauris.-118. Quaerendi; supply sunt.—Litandum; a sacrifice must be made; literally, it is to be expiated.- -119. Argolica; Grecian. A Greek must now be slain, just as the victim at the beginning of the war was a Greek.--Vox; response.— -Ut; when.—Vulgi; of the multitude;

the common soldiery.-120, 121. Ima ossa; through our inmost bones. The marrow was regarded as the seat of animal heat Comp. iii. 308, ix.

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475. -Cui fata parent; (fearing) for whom the fates are preparing (death). This and the following question depend on metuentrum implied in the foregoing cucurrit tremor.— -Quem poscat Apollo; whom Apollo demands (for the sacrifice ;) i. e. who it is that the oracle of Apollo means.- -122. Hic; here; as an adverb of time. Comp. ibi, 40; i. 728, et al.123. Protrahit; drags forth; Calchas pretends to be reluctant.- -Ea numina divum ; these commands of the gods; Ulysses demands of Calchas what person is meant by these divine revelations.- -124. Jam canebant; were already foretelling.- -125. Artificis; of the plotter. The cunning of Ulysses, as Sinon wished the Trojans to understand, was not exercised in devising the oracle, for that was authentic, but in turning the oracle to his private purpose by causing his tool Calchas to single out Sinon as the victim. -Ventura; what was to come.. -126. Bis quinos. Comp. i. 71, 381, and note.--Tectus; with hidden purpose; covered in respect to his mind. So Heyne; but Henry, quoted by Forbiger, takes it literally, covered: "shut up in his tent."-127. Prodere; to announce.129. Composito; by agreement; for ex composito. Calchas had a private understanding with Ulysses, as to the individual who should be assigned to the altar.- -131. Conversa (ea); equivalent to earum rerum conversionem; the turning of these things. See Gr. § 274, R. 5, (a); Z. § 637. They (readily) suffered the turning of those dangers, which each feared for himself, to the destruction of one unhappy wretch; because when once I was declared the victim they were all relieved from farther apprehensions.-132. Parari; were being prepared; historical infinitive.- -133. Salsae fruges; for mola salsa; the salted meal. Comp. iv. 517. Grain pounded, parched, and mixed with salt, was thrown upon the sacrifice.-Vittae; fillets, or twisted bands of white and red wool, adorned the heads both of the priest and of the victim.134. Fateor; I confess; the term implies that it might be considered culpable to have shrunk from a sacrifice demanded by religion. But Sinon knows that the Trojans will hold him guiltless, because he was unjustly doomed to the altar.--Vincula; "The cords with which he was bound when being led to the altar." Heyne. Others merely understand imprisonment, bonds.135, 136. Obscurus delitui; unseen I lay hid; hid and unseen. Comp. vi. 268.- -Dum vela dedissent; until they should have set sail; another instance of the pluperfect subjunctive used as a future perfect in narration. See on 94.- -Si forte; if perhaps; the uncertainty is whether the Greeks would, after all, set sail without having made the appointed sacrifice of one of their own countrymen.- -139. Et poenas; the reading ad poenas does not rest on good authority. We must regard quos as an accusative of the person, and poenas as an accusative of the thing, under Gr. § 231; Z. § 393: from whom perchance they will both demand* punishment on account of my escape, and will expiate this (my) fault by the


death of (my) unhappy (friends). Reposcere also takes two accusatives in vii. 606.- -141. Quod; wherefore, as to which; as in Greek % for κað å di' %. Gr. § 206, (14); comp. vi. 363.-Te; addressed to Priam.—142. Per; the following clause suggests the object of per: if there is still any pure faith remaining anywhere among (to) men, by this I adjure thee. Comp. vi. 459; x. 597, 903.- Quae restet. Gr. § 264, 6; Z. § 561.143. Laborum; misfortunes; for the case see Gr. § 215; Z. § 442.Animi; a spirit; put for the person himself.- -Non digna; undeserved.145. Lacrimis. Thiel and Ladewig make this an ablative of cause: by reason of these tears; others consider it a dative; to these tears; for illi lacrimanti.-145. Ultro; Servius explains by insuper, moreover, not spontaneously, because it is his pathetic story which has called forth sympathy. For the infinitive after jubet, see Gr. § 273, 2, (d); Z. § 617.—148. Amissos; whom you have lost. -Hinc; henceforth; adv. of time.—Graios; for the case, see Gr. § 216; Z. § 439.-- -149. Haec edissere vera; declare these things to me true (truthfully); edissere imperative from e, dis, and sero.150. Quo; whereto, for what purpose.- -151. Quae religio, etc.; what devotion (token of devotion) is it, or (if none) what engine of war?————154. Aeterni ignes; perpetual fires; sun, moon, and stars. Comp. iii. 599; ix. 429.-155. Enses; the sacrificial knives. See page 596. All the holy objects Sinon appeals to, are witnesses of the outrage he has suffered, and that he is held by no tie of loyalty to his countrymen.-15%. Fas; supply est.-158. Ferre sub auras; to bring to the light; sub, up to.- -159. Si qua tegunt; if they (the Greeks) conceal any thing. For the form of the pronoun, see Gr. § 138, 2; Z. § 136.- -160. Promissis; the prose construction is in promissis maneas; abide by thy promises; comp. viii. 643; stare is more common than manere in this phrase.—163. Auxiliis stetit ; depended on the aid. Gr. § 245, ii. 5; Z. § 452, second paragraph.Ex quo; from what time; relative to ex illo, below, 169.See on i. 97.Sed enim; elliptical

-164. Tydides. as in i. 19: but (their confidence failed) for, &c. For the position of the words, see on 73.-165. Fatale Palladium; the Palladium of destiny; so termed because the fate of Troy depended on its preservation. -Aggressi; having attempted. The Palladium was a small image of Pallas which was believed to have fallen from heaven, and was guarded by the Trojans with great care, being even bound to the wall of the temple by chains, because the safety of the city depended on the possession of the


Diomedes and Ulysses.

image.―Avellere; to tear away; referring to the fact that the Palladium was bound.168. Vittas; the fillets round the head of the image.Fluere, referri. Historical infinitives; comp. 98; translate: from that time the hope of the Greeks began to wane, and gliding down, to be carried back again. This metaphor seems to be drawn from a ship which the rowers have suddenly ceased to propel against the current, so that it again falls down the stream. Such is Wagner's explanation, which is sustained by G. i. 200. Others understand it differently.-171. Ea signa; these tokens; i. e. tokens of these things, or of her displeasure. Comp. iii. 505.—Tritonia; an appellation of Minerva, either derived from the name of a stream in Boeotia called Triton, or from that of the Libyan lake Tritonis. Both of them are mentioned by different myths as places of her birth.- -Monstris ; by prodigies.172. Castris; ablative.- -Simulacrum; the Palladium.

-173. Luminibus arrectis; from her starting eyeballs.- -174. Ipsa; she herself; the image itself bodily, as opposed to its parts; not only the eyes glared, but the whole image was animated.-Ter. See on i. 94.- -Solo. Gr. § 242.- -Dictu. See on i. 111.-175. Emicuit; leaped up.- -176. Canit; declares, announces. As priests and prophets always made their revelations and uttered their prayers in metrical formulas, the verb cano, to sing or chant, comes to signify both prophecy, announce, and pray. Comp. 124. That an image should show such miraculous signs of anger, is a sufficient reason to the minds of the Trojans, as Sinon is well aware, for the advice of Calchas and the hasty departure of the Greeks. There is therefore no difficulty now in believing that the Greeks have actually gone, and that what Sinon adds about the destination of the wooden horse is reasonable and true.- -178. Omina ni repetant Argis; unless they seek the omens again in Greece. Gr. § 254. They had before sailing for Troy taken the omens at Aulis; and they must now repeat the ceremony either there or in some other part of Greece. Perhaps Virgil has reference to the practice of Roman generals, who, under certain circumstances, went back to Rome to renew the auspices.-Numen; the divinity; meaning the palladium itself; though some understand by the term here the divine favor; an interpretation inconsistent with the following line.- -179. Quod-avexere; which (says Sinon) they have carried away. This is not the statement of Calchas, which would have been quoted indirectly here and therefore in the subjunctive mode, but the language of Sinon himself.- -180. Quod petiere-parant; as to the fact that they have sought, &c., (it is because) they are preparing. Gr. § 206, (14); Z. § 626, note, and § 627.- -181. Arma deosque; reinforcements for war and the favor of the gods.- -183. Moniti; being instructed; namely, by Calchas.- -Pro; as a substitute for, in place of. Here Sinon comes to the most delicate part of his story; he must give a plausible reason both for the building of the horse, and for its vast size, and ne must make such suggestions as shall induce the Trojans to take it into the city. 184. Quae piaret; to atone for. Gr. § 264, 5; Z. § 567.—

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