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could refrain; the subjunctive under Gr. § 260, R. 5; Z. § 530; see also Gr. § 145, note 4. After temperare in this sense the dative sibi is understood. See Z. § 414.- -Et; and besides; it introduces an additional consideration, as in i. 48; not only do you impose upon me a painful and difficult task, but moreover the night is too far spent for me to enter upon it. -Coelo; for de coelo.- -9. Praecipitat; supply se, as in ix. 670, xi. 617, and translate swiftly descends. Gr. § 229, R. 4. On the journey of Night through the heavens see on v. 721; comp. also iii. 512, and below, 250. -Suadent; invite. Comp. iv. 81.-Cadentia; declining.-10. Amor; supply est tibi; if such a desire possesses you. The infinitives cognoscere and audire depend on the phrase amor est tibi, which has the governing power of cupis, or vis. See Gr. § 270, R. 1, c; Z. § 598, 2d paragraph.- -11. Supremum laborem; the final disaster.- -12. Meminisse-refugit; though my mind shudders to recall it, and has (hitherto) shrunk from it with grief. Some understand the perfect here as an aorist denoting an habitual action. For examples of the perfect joined with the present, see x. 726, 804.14. Labentibus; the present denoting an action which has been going on and is still continuing; Gr. § 145, 2: so many years (having passed and still) passing away.-15. Instar; an indeclinable substantive in apposition with equum, and governing the genitive. It may be translated as large as. See Madv. § 280, obs. 6.- -Divina Palladis arte. The Greeks were indebted to Minerva both for the plan, and for the wisdom to execute it. in Ody. viii. 493, "they made the horse with Minerva;" and in the Iliad, xv. 71, "through the counsel of Minerva they took Troy." The actual builder of the horse was Epeos. See below, 264.-16. Intexunt; they construct. This verb is used like the simple texere (see 186) in the description of wooden structures, and especially of ships. Comp. xi. 326.Abiete; an ablative of means; it is scanned here as a trisyllable, ab-ye-te. Gr. § 306, (3); Z. § 611; comp. parietibus, below, 442.- -17. Votum; supply esse. The Greeks indicated by some inscription on the image that it was a votive offering, or votum, to Minerva, and was intended to secure through her favor safe return to their country.- -18. Huc is equivalent to in equum; lateri refers more definitely to the interior of the horse; both terms limit includunt. Translate as if it were written hujus in latus; into (in) his body. Comp. Cic. Phil. 2, 13, 32: me in equum Trojanum includis. The accusative with in, or the dative, is not unfrequently substituted for the ablative after includere, condere, and abdere, as in such verbs the notions both of motion and rest are mingled.- -Virum corpora; for viros.Penitus complent; they fill to its inmost depths.- -20. Milite; with soldiery; used collectively, like custode, i. 564. So also frequently eques and pedes.- -21. In conspectu; in sight; i. e. of Troy.—Tenedos ; Tenedos is a small island, about five miles from the shore, and opposite Troy.— 22. Opum; for the genitive, see on i. 14; comp. v. 73.- -23. Nunc tantum. sinus; at present there is only a bay; literally, there is so much (as) a bay.
Tantum implies so much only as, nothing more than.
-Male fida; unsafe. So male pinguis, G. i. 105; male amicum, below, 735; male sana, iv. 8.—— 24. Huc may be joined with condunt, according to the usage illustrated in 18, or with provecti.- −25. Abiisse (eos). Gr. § 239, R. 4; Z. § 605.— Mycenas; put for the whole of Greece; as in i. 284.- -26. Teucria; for Troja. Luetu; the ablative under Gr. § 251. The woe occasioned by the ten years' siege is the long (continued) grief referred to.—27. Dorica ; for Graeca.- -29. Tendebat; encamped; stretched (his tents). Comp. viii. 605.- -30. Locus; subject of erat understood.- -31. Stupet; is amazed at; this verb is sometimes followed by the accusative in poetry. For the singular and plural of the verb in the same sentence, after a collective noun, see Gr. § 209, R. 11, 2; comp. below, 64.-Donum. The horse was at once a gift to the Trojans, (see 36, 44, 49,) and to Minerva, (see above, 17.) -Exitiale; fatal. The idea is that of the narrator, not of the Trojan multitude, who were gazing at the fabric.- -Minervae; an objective genitive; the gift of, that is, made to Minerva; like the expression sometimes used in English, "the sacrifice of God," meaning, "in honor of God.”32. Thymoetes is mentioned in the Iliad, iii. 146, as one of the elders of Troy. A soothsayer had predicted that a child should be born on a certain day, who should cause the destruction of Troy. On that day both Paris, the son of Priam, and Munippus, the son of Thymoetes, were born. Hence Priam, supposing the prophecy had reference to Munippus, ordered both the infant and his mother, Cylla, to be put to death. Aeneas, therefore, is in doubt whether the advice of Thymoetes to carry the horse into the city, is given out of resentment and treachery (dolo) or under the influence of fate (sic fata ferebant.)— -33. Arce. For the omission of the preposition, see on i. 2. -34. Ferebant; directed. Ferre is thus used in such expressions as res, usus, opinio, tempus, occasio, causa, natura—fert. -35. Capys; a Trojan chief, not mentioned by Homer, but by Virgil, i. 183, vi. 768, and elsewhere.- -Quorum―menti; supply erat; to whose mind there was, &c.; equivalent to quibus melior sententia erat; who entertained a better purpose.- -36. Pelago; dative for in pelagus. Comp. i. 6, and note.————— -que. There are two plans suggested as to the disposition to be made of the horse; one, to destroy it at once, the other to penetrate the fabric and ascertain what there is in it. These two main propositions are separated by aut. The first of them, however, contains two subordinate ideas as to the method of destroying the horse: some advise to cast it into the sea, and others, to burn it. Hence the propriety of -que, rather than ―ve; a read. ing sometimes adopted here, but without good authority.- -40. Primus; first; Laocoon was foremost of all who were hurrying from the Acropolis on hearing of the wooden horse and of the debate concerning it.—41. Laocoon (La-o-co-ōn; Gr. § 299, 2, exc. 2) was acting as priest of Neptune. See below, 201.- -Ardens; glowing with zeal.- -42. Procul; supply clamat. For the ellipsis of verba declarandi, see on i. 76.—Insania; supply
est ista?—43. Creditis? In vehement language the interrogative particles utrum and -ne are often omitted.-Ulla; used here because the question implies a negation: nulla putetis. See Arnold's Lat. Prose, 389, 390.- -44. Carere dolis; to be without stratagems. The ablative is under Gr. § 250, 2, (2); Z. § 460.— -45. Achivi; for Graeci. Comp. i. 242.46, 47. Machina-inspectura. Virgil has in mind the siege towers of a later period, which, being rolled up to the walls of the besieged city, enabled the assailants from the several stories and from the summit of the tower to hurl their missiles, and to pass over upon planks to the battlements of the besieged. Thus the Greeks might intend to use the wooden horse. For the use of the future participle here, see Gr. § 274, R. 6, (a); Z. § 639. Ventura desuper rather refers to the descent of those in the machine upon the city, than to the machine itself. -48. Aliquis is occasionally employed in the sense of alius quis, some other, and is so understood here by Thiel and Forbiger.Error; deception.- -49. Quidquid est; the indicative is commonly used after the pronouns and adverbs which are doubled, or which have the suffix cumque. See on i. 387.-Et; even.— -Dona. See on 31.
-51. In latus inque alvum. He hurled the spear with such violence that it penetrated not only into the frame, but even into the belly or inner cavities of the beast. For the gender of alvus, see Gr. § 49. On the repetition of in, see Z. § 745.— -Feri, as in v. 818.- -Compagibus is joined with curvatam) as an ablative of means: curving with jointed work. -52. Illa; it; the spear.- -Recusso; ablative absolute with utero; the womb reverberating. The participle, according to Forbiger, is equivalent to repercusso.- -53. Cavae cavernae. Forbiger compares this tautological expression to similar poetic archaisms in Lucretius and Plautus; as, anxius angor, Luc. i. 826; sonitus sonans, id. iii. 816; pulchra pulchritudo, Plaut. Mil. iv. 1, 13.- --Gemitum is the hollow sound given back by the wooden fabric. Comp. iii. 555; ix. 709.- -54. Si fata; supply fuissent; if the fates of the gods had been, or had so willed. Comp. 433.- -Si-fuisset ; if our mind had not been perverse; referring to the infatuation of the multitude. 55. Impulerat; he had induced us; the indicative instead of the regular construction in the subjunctive, impulisset, which would not so vividly have expressed the conviction of the narrator. See Gr. § 259, R. 4;
Z. § 519; Arnold's Lat. Pr. 448.- -Faedare; to lay violent hands on; to tear in pieces.- -57. Ecce. A striking incident now diverts their attentior from the horse.- -Manus; the Greek accusative; bound as to his hands having his hands bound. See on i. 228.59. Dardanidae; Dardanian used adjectively with pastores.- -Venientibus; join with attulerat.-60. Hoc ipsum; this very purpose; namely, that of being brought before king Priam. Strueret; might execute. The subjunctive denotes the pur pose of obtulerat.- -61. Fidens animi; confident in spirit. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (2); Z. § 438.- -In utrumque; for either issue; for either of the alter. natives expressed in the following lines. For the gender see Gr. § 205, R.
7, (2).- -62. Versare dolos; to follow out his stratagems. The infinitives may be joined with utrumque as nouns in apposition. Some prefer to make them depend directly on paratus.- -64. Circumfusa ruit; more lively than circumfunditur; the youth gather rapidly round. For the number of the verbs, see above on 31.- -65, 66. Ab uno-omnes; from one wicked act learn (to know) all the Greeks; from the treachery of one understand them all. Such is the interpretation of Heyne, which is supported by the following imitation of Silius, vi. 39: Nosces Fabios certamine ab uno.— -67. In medio conspectu; in the midst of their view; in the midst of the circle of spectators gazing upon him.- -68. Phrygia; Trojan; as in i. 182. Observe the spondaic verse.- -69. Heu. The first object of Sinon is to gain the pity and confidence of the Trojans by pretending to have been cruelly treated by his countrymen, and to have been compelled to flee for refuge even to his worst enemies.- -Inquit. Gr. § 279, 6; Z. § 802.—71. Super; adverbially, moreover; as i. 29, iv. 606.- -72. Poenas cum sanguine; for poenas sanguineas; bloody punishment. Comp. iv. 514, x. 617.Quo gemitu; by which lamentation. The Latin prefers the close connection of the relative where the English more frequently employs the demonstrative or personal pronoun with a connective particle; and by this lamentation. See Gr. § 206, (17); Z. § 803.would stand before compressus. "In poetry, et, nec, (rarely aut, vel) and sed, sed enim, are sometimes put after a word in the second member of a sentence." Madv. § 474, d.- Quo sanguine cretus; of what lineage he is sprung; sit is understood. The poets use cretus from cresco like natus. Z. $148.- –75. Quid ferat; what (information) he brings. Comp. 161, viii. 119. The questions in the subjunctive in this passage depend on fari. See Gr. § 265.- -Memoret; that he declare; the mode is governed by hortaGr. § 273, 2; Z. § 624. Hortari is followed both by the infinitive and subjunctive. -Capto; supply sibi; what ground of confidence he has as a captive.- 76. Formidine. He lays aside his pretended fear.-77. Quodcumque fuerit; whatever the result shall have been. This is the interpretation of Servius, followed by Thiel and others. Wunderlich finds that the future perfect is not only used relatively to the future, but that it is also used absolutely, as in the following example from Caes. Bell. Gall. 4, 25 : ego certe mecum reipublicae atque imperatori officium praestitero. Quodcumque is used here substantively for quidquid.- 78. Me; subject of esse understood.Hoc; object of fateor understood.- -Sinonem; the name is here an emphatic substitute for me. Comp. i. 48.- -80. Finxit; has rendered; for the mode after si, see Gr. § 259; Z. § 517, note.-S1. Fando; by hearsay, or report; an ablative of means, as in the phrase fando audire. See Z. § 220.- -Aliquod nomen; any mention.-82. Palamedis Belidae; Palamedes the descendant of Belus. Palamedes was the son of Nauplius, king of Euboea, who derived his lineage from the Egyptian king Belus. Virgil follows the tradition which ascribes the death of Palamedes
-Conversi; supply sunt.- -Et in prose