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being reclined.

—Strato ostro; on the spread purple; for aulaeis purpureis. Comp. 697. For the case, see note on super, above, 680.—701, 702. Canistris expediunt; they bring in, or present, in baskets.- -Tonsis villis; with, or of, soft naps; an ablative of description as aulaeis, 697.——————703. The inner apartments, where the servants are preparing the food, are separated from the atrium, or assembly room, by corridors or narrow passages, called fauces. An ordinary dining-room, or triclinium, would not, of course, be used on the present occasion. With Famulae, supply sunt. Gr. § 209, R. 4; Z. § 776; comp. note on 157.-Quibus limits est understood, of which struere and adolere are the subjects, cura being the predicate nominative, whose care it is, &c.—Ordine longo; in a long row, or in long rows; referring not to the order in which the servants stood, but to the arrangement of the dishes of food, or provisions, penum. To prevent confusion at such an entertainment all the articles of food must be properly set out in the inner room by the servants, (famulae,) so that the waiters (ministri and ministrae) might promptly perform their duty of carrying the dishes into the banqueting hall, and changing the courses. Wagner and Ladewig adopt the reading longam penum. Gr. § 88.704. Struere; to arrange; i. e. before they are carried to the guests.- -Flammis adolere; to worship the household gods with incense. Comp. E. viii. 65, G. iv. 379. The altar of the penates is in the penetralia, intus, and the servants stationed there are required to burn incense before them, as a necessary accompaniment of the rites of hospitality. In Overbeck's Pompeii, page 200, there is a representation of the house altar and private worship of the Penates. Others understand by it, not keeping the altar fire burning, but preparing food with fire on the hearth.—706. Qui. Gr. § 205, R. 2, (1). The relative pronoun referring to two or more nouns denoting living beings, and of different gen der, is in the masculine. Madvig, 315.- -Onerent, ponant; in the subjunctive with qui, to denote a purpose. Gr. § 264, 5; Z. § 567.- -707. Nec non et; and also. Gr. § 277, R. 4; Z. §§ 334 and 754. The usage of nec non in juxtaposition to connect two single ideas is peculiar to poets and inferior prose writers. Madvig, § 460, obs. 1.- -Per limina laeta; over the joyous thresholds; i. e. through the festive halls.—708. Toris pictis; on the pictured couches; referring to the embroidered coverings, aulaeis, mentioned above, 697.- -Jussi; according to Wagner this is for et jussi sunt: and have been invited. The queen first takes her place at the banquet; then the Trojan guests; and, lastly, the Carthaginians.— 711. Comp. 648, 649.

-712. Pesti; to baneful passion. Comp. iv. 90.—713. Mentem; the Greek accusative. See on 228.- -Nequit. Gr. § 182, R. 3, n; Z. § 216. 714. Puero donisque. Comp. 659, 660.—715. Complexu colloque ; in the embrace and on the neck. Pendeo is followed by ab, ex, or in, with the ablative; or by the ablative alone. Comp. ii. 546, vii. 184, xi. 577.— 717. Magnum—amorem; has satisfied the great affection of his pretended father; that is, received all the endearments that his father wished to

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manifest; but some take the sense to be: manifested all the love due to his supposed father; that is, fulfilled or acted his part well. In this case genitoris would be the object of amorem.- 717, 718. Haec-haeret; she fastens upon the child, with her eyes, and with her whole heart.718, 719. Inscia insideat; not knowing what a powerful divinity rests upon her. For the dative, see Gr. § 224; Z. § 415. The question insideat depends on inscia. Gr. § 265; Z. § 552. Insideat (in some editions insidat) is explained by gremio fovet.720. Acidaliae; a term applied to Venus from Acidalius, the name of a fountain in Boeotia, which was one of the haunts of Venus and the Graces.- -Abolere Sychaeum; to take away (from her) the memory of Sychaeus. See 343.721. Praevertere; to prepossess; that is, before her thoughts again recur to the past and to Sychaeus. The god causes her to forget her first love, and reawakens her dormant passions, (resides animos,) which he directs towards a living object, before her mind shall fall back into habitual thoughts of Sychaeus.—723. Quies; subject of fuit understood; literally, when the first rest was to the feast. Translate: when the feasting was first suspended; referring to the courses of food. For the tense to be supplied, see on 216.- -Mensae remotae; the courses were removed; the dishes of food which had formed the first part of the entertainment. -Mensae as in 216.- -724. Vina coronant; they wreathe the wine cups. Comp. iii. 525, G. ii. 528. Vina is equivalent to pocula. The Romans, in Virgil's time, were accustomed to put a wreath round the drinking cup as well as round the mixing bowl or crater. In the Homeric language, to crown the wine is to fill the goblet to the brim.-725. Fit strepitus tectis; the noise (of festivity) arises in the palace. The plural tectis expresses better than tectum the ample dimensions of the house.-Laquearibus aureis; from the gilded ceilings. The concave spaces formed in the ceilings by the beams intersecting each other were called laquearia or lacunaria. They were made highly ornamental by carving, paint, and gilding.-727. Funalia; torches, something like candles, made by dipping cords (funes) in wax or pitch.- -Aureis; a dissyllable, as in 698.- -728. Hic; frequently an adverb of time.- -Gravem gemmis auroque; heavy with gems and gold; i. e. a massive goblet of gold covered with gems.- -729. Quam is the object of implere, supplied after soliti. -Pateram; a broad, shallow cup, either with or without a handle. See page 314, and 596.730. A Belo; supply orti (descended) from Belus. The Greeks supposed the Tyrians to have sprung from Belus. Belus was also the name of Dido's father; see 621.- 731. Nam, elliptical as in 65.-Hospitibus dare jura; that you give laws for guests; for the benefit of guests. Jupiter is évios the patron of guests. "All strangers are from Jove." Odyssey 14, 57.

-733. Velis; grant. Gr. § 260, R. 6; Z. § 529. It was the practice of the ancient Romans, derived from the Etruscans, to seek first on all occasions the good will of the gods.- -Hujus (diei). Gr. § 216; Z. § 439.-Meminisse. Gr. § 183, 3, note; Z. § 221.—736. Laticum libavit honorem; poured the

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libation of liquors; a small portion of the wine was poured upon the table as a drink-offering to the gods.-737. Libato (honore); the libation having been made. For the participle alone in the ablative absolute, see Gr. § 257, R. 9; Z. § 647.- -Summo ore; to her lips; the tip of her mouth; as prima ora. G. iii. 399.- -738. Bitiae; a Tyrian or Carthaginian nobleman. Increpitans; challenging; calling upon him to drink the pledge.———Impi、 ger; not reluctant.- -Hausit; drained; not received, as some translate it. 739. Se proluit; filled himself, drenched himself; as vappa prolutus; Hor. Sat. 1, 5, 16.- -Auro, for the golden goblet. Gr. § 324, 2.- -740. Proceres. Gr. § 94; Z. § 93, (a); supply bibunt.- -Cithara; with the harp; an ablative of manner. He sings, accompanying himself with the harp. Cithara is often used for any stringed instrument, whether pópμys, λúpa, or BápBiTov. Strictly, it was the smaller instrument, formed of the tortoise shell and goats' horns, and sacred to Mercury, by whom it was invented.Crinitus. Apollo, the god of the lyre, wore long, flowing hair, and hence his votaries are so represented. See ix. 638.741. Personat; sings aloud. Docuit applies not to the music, but to the natural science taught him by Atlas. For one form of the lyre, see page --Quem is preferred to quae, which is given in some editions.-Atlas; a Titan, said in ancient fable to bear the heavens on his head and uplifted hands; and so represented in the famous celestial globe of marble, preserved from ancient times, and formerly in the Farnese gallery at Rome. Virgil adopts here the idea that Atlas was a real personage, and an astronomer, and also, in iv. 247, that he was in some way petrified, or at least symbolized, in mount Atlas.- -742. Hic refers to Iopas in distinction from Atlas.- -Labores; eclipses.- -743. Unde; supply sint. Gr. § 265; Z. § 552.- -Ignes; light nings; as in 90.- -745. Tantum; so much; so early; making the day so short in winter.-Oceano; for in oceano.- -Vel quae mora; or what delay opposes the backward nights; referring to the summer nights, which are backward in coming, being hindered, as it were, by the lingering aay. Comp. G. ii. 478-482. This form of expression was natural to the ancients; for they conceived of night as a goddess riding in a chariot. Natural phenomena were often the subject of Greek and Roman poetry.—747. Ingeminant plausu; redouble with applause; for redouble their applause. This verb is thus used as a neuter in iv. 531, v. 227, G. i. 133; and with an ablative following, ix. 811.- -748. Nec non et; as in 707.-750. Observe the fine effect of the repetition, and reversed arrangement of words in this verse, bringing the same word at the beginning and end. Other examples are xii. 29, E. vii. 4, G. iv. 342. For the case after super, see Gr. § 235, (3), and note on 680.- -751. Filius Aurorae; Memnon. See 489.752. Quantus; of what stature. For heroes were conceived to tower above common The inquiries of Dido are made partly with the interest naturally inspired by the subject, and partly with the desire of prolonging the entertainment in the society of Aeneas.- -753. Imo age; but nay, (these discon.


nected details do but irritate our curiosity,) recount to us from their first beginning the wiles of the Greeks.-Origine does not refer to the beginning of the siege of Troy, but to the final stratagem which led immediately to the sack of Troy. For it is with this stratagem of the wooden horse that Aeneas begins his narrative in the Second Book.-755, 756. Septima aestas-septimus annus. See introductory note to Third Book.

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Aeneas recounts to Dido the capture and sack of Troy.

1-249. After a brief introduction Aeneas enters upon his narrative, which begins with the story of the wooden horse. The Greeks, now in the tenth year of the siege, disheartened by their ill success, resort to stratagem. On the night which precedes the burning of the city, they pretend to give over the siege, and to take ship for their homes; leaving upon the plain, before the walls of Troy, an immense movable fabric of wood, made to resemble a horse, and of such size that it can be carried into the city only by enlarging the gate, or breaking down a portion of the wall.

Within this fabric are concealed many of the Grecian chiefs, while the army, under the command of Agamemnon, instead of continuing the voyage, is lurking behind the island of Tenedos, a few miles from Troy.

The Trojan multitude issues from the gates, and, gathering round the strange image, hesitate whether to convey it into the city, or to destroy it.

At this moment the cunning Sinon, who has purposely suffered himself to be made prisoner, is brought before king Priam, and by his artful story gains the confidence of the king, and leads him and his people to believe that the wooden horse, once placed within the citadel, will become, like the Palladium, the safeguard of Troy. The device of Sinon and the Greeks is aided by Minerva, who sends two serpents to slay the priest Laocoon for attempting to destroy the image consecrated to her. This prodigy confirms the Trojans in the purpose already formed, and by means of ropes and rollers they convey the wooden horse through the city to the citadel.

1. Conticuere; they became silent; a completed action, and hence in the perfect tense. The imperfect, tenebant, expresses an action continuing. Comp. i. 441-447; see Z. § 500, n. 1.- 2. Toro ab alto; see i. 700; high, not in a distinctive sense, but as a common characteristic of banqueting couches.- 3. Renovare; supply me. The subject would not be omitted here in prose. See Gr. § 273, 2, d; Z. § 617.-4. Ut ; interrogative how, as in i. 466. The question depends on dolorem, which implies here the recollection which causes pain; the painful memory. Others supply narrando before ut: you order me to renew unutterable grief by recounting how, &c.-Lamentabile; ill-fated.— -5. Quae que; and (the things) which; the antecedent, ea understood, is in the same construction as dolorem.6. Fando; while uttering; a gerund in the ablative expressing the relation of while and equivalent to a present participle. This usage also occurs occasionally in prose. See Madvig, § 416, obs. 1.-7. Myrmidonum Dolopum. The Myrmidons and Dolopians were Thessalian soldiers, followers of Achilles, and, after his death, of his son Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus. They are specified here as being the most bloodthirsty enemies of Troy. For the increment in these words, see Gr. § 287, exc. in o 2 and 6.- -8. Temperet;

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