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pine, populatum. Gr. § 271, note 3; and § 276, R. 4; Z. § 668, 2. Penates; put by metonymy (Gr. § 324, 2) for hearths or homes.-—528. Raptas_vertere. In English, to seize and drive away. See note above, on 69. Vertere is for avertere (comp. viii. 208), and refers especially to the captives, and the cattle, which would form the most valuable part of the booty. -Praedas is stronger than praedam. –529. Ea ; such.- -Animo, victis; supply est before the datives; our mind harbors not such violence, nor have the conquered such insolence. Gr. $ 226.- -Superbia ; insolence, audacity. -530. Compare the beginning of this description, in point of style, with that above in 11; also, 159; ii. 21, v. 124, et al.Hesperiam ; which the Greeks call Hesperia by name. Gr. $ 230; Z. $ 394. The other accusative here is quam understood. In the verse of Ennius Ann. 1, 36, from which this is taken by Virgil, the quam is expressed : “Est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant.” Hesperia, from čo tepos, vesper, is properly the western land. The term was frequently applied by the Greeks and Romans to Italy and sometimes to Spain.- -531. Potens; excelling. -Ubere. Gr. $ 60, 2; here for ubertate, fertility, as in vii. 262.
-532. Oenotri. These people were said to be kindred with the Pelasgi of Greece, and also with the Siculi, and to have occupied Bruttium and Lucania, in the south of the Italian peninsula. Italia was originally another designation for the same part of the peninsula, but was gradually extended in its application, until in the time of Augustus it came to signify, as in modern geography, the whole country south of the Alps. —Fama; predicate nominative after est understood; of which dixisse is the subject. Gr. $ 269; Z. $ 597.--Minores; their descendants ; accusative before the infiuitive: That their descendants have called the country Italy, from the name of a leader, (is) the report.- -Gentem is put here for terram. -533. Ducis; this leader was Italus, a king of the Oenotri, or, according to Thucydides, of the Siculi. -534. Hic; this was our course. Hic must not be mistaken for an adverb here. Huc is found in some editions, but not on good authority. This verse, like many others in the Aeneid, was left unfinished, though the sense is complete, as indeed in nearly all other instances, where such
See iii. 340, and vi. 94. -535. Assorgens fluctu; rising from the wave. See on Italiam, 2. In the language of the Romans, a star is said to set heliacally (heliace), when it disappears in the sun's rays just after sunset, and to rise heliacally, when it appears in the east a little before sunrise. When it rises and sets exactly with the sun, which happens in the interval of six weeks between its heliacal setting and heliacal rising, it is said to rise and set cosmically (cosmice). About five months after its heliacal rising the star rises and sets opposite the sun. This is called its acronical rising and setting. Besides these descriptive terms, also the expressions matutino, mane, vesperi, vespertinus, and cum sole, were sometimes employed in connection with the words that denote rising and setting. More frequently, however, as here, the reader is left to infer which kind of rising or setting is meant. In the present instance we are to understand the heliaca! rising of Orion, which happened in Virgil's time in the month of June, and which was attended with stormy weather. Hence Orion was supposed to exert a direct influence upon the weather. The first 0 in Orion here is short; in iii. 517, it is long.- -536. Penitus; as in 512. — Austris; for ventis ; as aquilonibus, 391. The ablative denotes the instrument or means: llas driven us with the raging winds far over the waves and dangerous rocks, the sea overpowering us. -538. Pauci; few in number ; that is, as compared with the whole fleet, a large part of which is missing.- -Oris ; see above, 377.539. Quod genus hoc hominum ? what tribe of men is this? referring to the subjects of Dido. -540. Hospitio. Gr. § 251; Z. & 468.
-541. Cient refers to the Carthaginian guards on the shore, not to che native Libyans; Dido has commanded her people to oppose the landing of strangers on the coast. -Prima terra; the very shore; literally, the first part of the land; as Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 3, 6, prima provincia ; the entrance of the province. See Gr. $ 205, R. 17; Z. $ 685.- -543. Sperate; a sostened expression for metuite. Comp. iv. 419, E. viii. 26. With Deos supply fore.--544. Quo justior; the punctuation is that of Heyne, who renders the passage thus: than whom neither has any other been more rightcous, nor greater in piety, or in war and in arms. The common punctuation omits the comma after alter, and pietate is thus joined with justior : neither has there been another more righteous in pious duties, nor greater in war and
Nec alter; nor a second, nor one other. See Z. § 141; Madvig, $ 496. Andrews' Lex. Alter, 5.- -547. Aetheria. The poets sometimes use aether and aetherius for aër and aërius. Comp. below, 587, and vi. 762, vii. 557.-- – 547. Umbris, for in umbris : nor yet lies in the pitiless shades (of Orcus). Comp. v. 371, x. 705. Heyne regards it as a dative equivalent to morti; but rest after death, seems to be the idea, not encountering death, or the state of dying; which would be the sense of occumbere morti. 548. Priorem, for prius. Gr. 5 205, R. 15, and § 120. You would have no fear, nor would you repent of having been the first to show kindness ; literally, to have vicd in duty before him); quam illum (Z. $ 603, b.) is understood.
-549. Et = praeterea ; moreover. Besides the consideration that there is a hope of recovering our chief and that he will return your favors, we have also Trojan friends and cities in Sicily, ready to receive us; so that you need not fear any attempt on our part to settle here in your country.
550. Some authorities give arma for arva, meaning armed auxiliaries, who are ready to aid and defend us.—552. Silvis; ablative with in omitted. Comp. iii. 220. -Stringere remos; to trim oars ; for facere remos. -553. Recepto agrees with the nearest noun, and is understood with sociis. See Gr. $ 205, exc. to R. 2.- -Italiam. See above, on 2.- -554. Ut petamus, here and in 558, is the purpose of subducere, aptare, and stringere : Let us (liceat) draw up our fleet shattered by the winds, &c., in order that we may joyfully seek Italy if it is granted, &c.- -556. Iuli; an objective genitive; Gr. §
211, R. 2; Z. § 423; if we can no longer hope for Iulus; if there is no hope of his safety. Forbiger understands: hope in his leadership. -557. Atsaltem ; yet at least (even though Aeneas be lost) that we may seek the waters of Sicily-Freta ; waters, as below, 607.-Sedes paratas. The settlement already established in Sicily under king Acestes. See above, on 195.
-558. Unde advecti. They have just left Sicily. See above, 34.- -559. Talibus; supply verbis, as in 370, and ait as in 76.- -561. Vultum. See note on oculos, 228.- -Demissa; downcast; not only from natural modesty, but also on account of the outrages charged-upon her subjects, 525, 539-541.
-562. Corde. Gr. § 251 ; Z. § 468. -563. Res dara; hard necessity; my hard condition ; for she is in constant danger of invasion from the warlike Libyans (see 339), or from her hostile brother (see 347, et seq.) Talia moliri; to make such preparations; to contrive such things, namely, as patrols (custode).- -564. Custode, for custodibus, as milite, ii. 20, for militibus. -565. Aeneadum, for Aeneadarum. See Gr. & 43, genit. pl.; Z. $ 45, note 3.- -Quis nesciat; a question of appeal. Gr. § 260, R. 5; Z. $ 530; Arnold's L. P. C. 425; who can be ignorant of ; surely no one can bave failed to hear of. How Dido has heard of the Trojans is explained below, 619, et seq.- -Trojae ; genitive, instead of the prose construction, Trojam, in apposition with urbem.- -566. Virtutes; the prowess.-567. Obtasa ; blunted, un feeling.– -568. Aversas; remote. The sun does not so withdraw his beams from us, our climate is not so frigid as to make us cold and devoid of sympathy. The expression indicates the common belief that climate affects mental temperament.- -569. Saturnia arva; an appellation of Latium because it had been the retreat of Saturn, when driven by Jupiter from his throne in Olympus. Comp. viii. 319; G. ii. 173. The expression Saturnia arva has here the same restrictive relation to Hesperiam as, in 2 Lavina litora to Italiam.- -Seu-sive; either if-or if; whether-or.570. Erycis; a mountain in the western part of Sicily, sacred to Venus, who is hence called Erycina.- -571. Auxilio; join with tutos as an ablative of means, rendered safe with help; with all that is needful-for security on their voyage.
-572. Vultis et, for praeterea si vultis. For the ellipsis of si, see Z. $ 780, and Arnold's L. P. C. 449. The omission occurs especially in animated discourse; as Liv. 21, 44, et inde cessero, in Africam transcendes, for si cessero, etc. Et, as in 549; moreover, I present this consideration : if, dc. -Mecum pariter; on equal terms with me. -573. Urbem quam, for urbs quam; literally, what city I am building (this) is yours. Gr. 206, (6), b; Madvig, § 319, obs.; Z. § 814. The order of the words in prose would be reversed: quam urbem. Comp. above, 181.
-574. Mihi. See on ulli, 440.- -Agetur; shall be governed, or treated. The singular instead of the plural is found thus also in prose: cur Lysias et Hyperides amatur? Cic. Brut. 68.575. Noto, for vento; as austris, 536. 576. Afforet. How would the present subjunctive alter the meaning ? Gr. $ 263, R.; Z. $ 571.-Certos; trusty. -577. Lustrare ; to explore. For the mood, see Gr. § 273, 2, (d); Z. § 617.- -Extrema; a partitive; the frontiers of Libya. Gr. § 212, R. 3, n. 4.-578. Si is the interrogative here. Comp. above, 181. “As an interrogative (in dependent questions) si is sometimes followed by the indicative and sometimes by the subjunctive.”. Thiel. - Ejectus; having been cast away.- -Silvis and urbibus should be joined with errat, as ablatives of situation. Urbibus is taken in an indefinite sense for inhabited places.—579. Animum. See on 228.581. Ardebant; had been desiring. The imperfect here denotes what had been going on and was still continuing. Gr. § 145, ii. 2.- -Prior, as in 548. -582. Nate dea ; O goddess born ; a frequent appellation of Aeneas, as the son of Venus. For the case, see Gr. § 246; Z. $ 451. —584. Unus abest ; one only is missing ; that is, Orontes, who was lost in the storm, ipsius ante oculos, as described in 113–117. All the captains of the twelve ships therefore are present, or Achates could not know that Orontes only is missing. -585. Dictis matris. See 390, 391.-587. Aethera, for aëra. Comp. 547; Gr. 80, R. ; Z. $ 71.- -588. Restitit; stood revealed; literally, remained; the cloud having dispersed.- -589. Os hamerosque; in respect to his face and shoulders. See on oculos, 228.- -590, 591. Lumen purpureum; the ruddy glow; the brilliant complexion supposed to belong to Apollo, and the gods. - Laetos honores; sparkling beauty; expressing and causing joy: honores is for the singular, honorem, in the sense of decus. -Afilarat; had imparted; breathed upon him. His mother had given to him for the presentooccasion a supernatural beauty.-592. Qualo decus; such beauty as. See on 430. Tale decus, if expressed in the antecedent clause, would be in apposition with caesariem, lumen, and honores.
-Manus; supply artificum; the hands of artists. Comp. 455.- -593. Parius lapis ; Parian marble; from the island of Paros, one of the Cyclades, famous for the beauty of its statuary marble. Gold, ivory, and silver, as well as marble, were extensively employed in ancient works of art, as for example in the great statues of Phidias; and Aeneas now appeared like some beautiful statue of such materials. Such seems to be the comparison intended; which would lose its beauty and become puerile if we were to apply it to the details of form and feature. - Aut ubi; or (such beauty as appears, quale decus est) when.-594. Alloquitur, as in 229.-Canctis limits the adjective improvisus.-~595. Quaeritis is addressed to the assembly, and not to Dido alone.- -597. Miserata, a participle instead of a relative clause : quae miserata es ; literally, 0 thou alone having pitied; for, who alone hast pitied; as passi, above, 199. Miseror is to manifest pity, misereor, to feel it. -598. Reliquias Danaum; the remnant escaped from the Greeks. Comp. 30. -que-que, for et-et, both—and. See on 18. 599. Omnium. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (3). " Egenus, indigus, and sterilis are usually found only with the genitive.” Madv. 290, obs. 1.
-600. Urbe, domo; not the ablative of situation, but under Gr. $ 250, the ablat. denoting that in respect to which they are made associates. Socias, for vis so.
ciare; who art willing to associate us.- -601. Non opis est nostrae, for non possumus ; we have not the ability; literally it is not (a matter) of our ability. Gr. § 211, R. 8, (3); Z. § 448. Nec quicquid, nor (is it in the power of the Trojan race) whatever of the Trojan race exists anywhere.- -603. Si qua. Gr. § 138; Z. § 137. Si is often used in prayers and imprecations. Comp. ii. 536. -Pios. Dido is pious in fulfilling the duty of kindness and hospitality towards strangers; for piety, in the Latin sense, embraces not only religious duties, but also those which grow out of the relations of man
Justitia and mens conscia recti in the following verse, refer to the scrupulous performance of such duties on the part of Dido. For sibi and recti, see Gr. § 222, R. 3.- -604, 605. Si quid-recti; if righteousness and a mind conscious to (in) itself of integrity are any thing (are duly estimated) anywhere; that is, if the conscientious fulfilment of duty, such as is illustrated in this act of Dido, is properly appreciated by any divinities in the universe. The reading, siquid justitiae est usquam, if there is any justice anywhere, would not refer to Dido, but to the righteousness of the gods.
-606. Tanti ; so illustrious.—607. Freta occurs frequently in poetry for maria. Comp. 557.- Montibus, for montium; see note on cui, 448.
-608. Convexa; the sides. Translate, while the shadows shall traverse the sides of the mountains, i. e. as long as the sun shall pursue his diurnal
The movement of the shadows produced by the mountains on their own slopes or convexities is thus expressed by Hor. 0. 3, 6, 41: sol ubi montium mutaret umbras. -Polus; the sky, as in 90. -Pascet. The sky or atmosphere was supposed to afford nourishment to the stars, or to keep them burning, “by means," says Cicero, “of the vapor which the sun draws up from the heated fields and waters ; " de nat. deor., 2, 46, 118; but according to the Epicureans, they were nourished by the fiery particles of aether contained in the atmosphere. Hence, v, 838, they are called etha real.Tuum, agrees with nomen, and must be supplied in the proper forms with honos and laudes. Gr. $ 205, exc. to R. 2; comp. 553.—-610. Quae me cunque; whatsoever lands summon me; whether I accept your invitation to dwell in Carthage, or go to other lands, or whatever may be my destiny, your fame will be immortal. The separation of a compound by intervening words, which occurs occasionally in poetry, is called tmesis. See Gr. § 323, 4,(5). -611. Ilionea ; the Greek form of the accusative in ea is usually taken from the Ionic form éă, but here and in iii. 122, from the other Ionic form ña.
. See Schneider's Formenlehre, p. 295. —-612. Post, for postea. 613-694. Dido having recovered from her first surprise, addresses Aeneas cour. teously, and immediately prepares to entertain her new guests with royal hospitality. Aeneas sends Achates to the ships to summon Ascanius, and to bring suitable presents for the queen. Venus causes Cupid to assume the form of Ascanius, while she conveys the latter to Idalium.
613. Primo; at first; not an adjective here. -614. Casu tanto; at the wonderful fortunę or history of the man.616. Immanibus ; savage ; be