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Atque, with our punctuation, connects infelix and impar.- -Impar; in unequal combat.Achilli; dative limits congressus. — 476. Curra. The ablative commonly follows haerere ; sometimes the dative. -Resupinus ; Shrown backward. The war chariot was very short and low, and open behind. Two warriors usually rode together; one to fight and the other to drive. The chariot in this case is empty, because perhaps the charioteer has been slain, and Troilus is thrown out. — 477. Tamen ; yet (though he has been thrown out of the chariot.) For illustrations of ancient chariots see woodcuts on pages 364, 593.- -478. Versa hasta; with his inverted spear; which being held in the right hand, and thrown backward over his shoulder, inscribes the dust with its point as he is dragged along.- -Pulvis. The last syllable is long by the arsis. See on v. 308.- -179. Interea; in the meay while, instead of in another picture of the series. The paintings seem like a narrative, and hence suggest the narrative term interea. In the Iliad, vi. 269–312, the Trojan matrons, by the request of Hector, bear a large shawl, or peplum, (see woodcut, page 314,) in procession to the temple of Minerva, in the hope of propitiating the angry goddess. This is the subject of the picture.-Ad templum. Gr. § 225, iv.-Non aequae; unpropitious; Minerva was under the same provocation to anger as Juno; namely, the judgment of Paris. See 27.480. Crinibus passis; with dishevelled hair; literally, their hair being spread; passis from pando. The hair was left unbound in token of woe, according to the practice of females in ancient times. Comp. iii. 65.- - 481. Tunsae-pectora; literally, beaten as to their breasts — beating their breasts. For the accusative, see note on oculos, 228. The perfect participle is used here in the sense of the present, as comitatus, 312.- -482. Solo; the ablative after fixos. Aversa ; turned away; to be taken literally; not hostile, though it implies that. The statue is represented in the painting with the head averted, and the eyes cast towards the ground. Even real statues were made by the ancient priests sometimes to move the head, and eyes, and probably the arms. Some have been found among the ruins of old temples in Italy, pierced with holes in the back of the head or neck, through which the voice of the operator could pass to the open lips of the image; or a cord could pull the machinery connected with the eyeballs, or with the movable head and arms. -483. Ter circum. Virgil does not follow here the Homeric description, Il. xxiv. 15, seq., where Achilles is said to drag the body thrice round the tomb of Patroclus, but probably has adopted the tradition of the Rhapsodists, who, in singing the wars of Troy, added many scenes and incidents of their own invention, and would be very apt to represent the body of Hector as dragged by the car of Achilles thrice round the walls of Troy, rather than round the tomb of Patroclus. -484. Vendebat. This is the action really represented in the picture; Achilles, as in the bas-relief in the capitol, listening to the entreaties of the aged Priam, who kneels before him, and begs the body of Hector; while near by is seen the chariot of Achilles with the corpse fastened to it by leather thongs. The scene is described in the 24th Book of the Iliad, 468 et seq., where the hero is represented as deeply moved by the sorrows of Priam, and as yielding up the dead body in exchange for the ransom offered, which was ten talents of gold. —Spolia refers to the arms of Hector, lying near the tent of Achilles. Observe the emotion expressed by the repetition of ut in this verse. Gr. § 324, 13. — 487. Inermes ; not feeble or unwarlike, but in its literal signification, unarmed; for he came to Achilles as a suppliant. -488. Se quoque. Aeneas, as one of the most distinguished among the Trojan heroes, must also appear frequently in these paintings; but the particular scenes are not here specified. We must not suppose that the poet has in mind any one picture, but that he conceives of Aeneas as conspicuous in several of the paintings.- -Principibus ; with Grecian chiefs ; especially in the contest with Tydides, alluded to above, 98. Aeneas is mentioned in Books v., xvi., xvii., and xx. of the Iliad. For the government of principibus see note on dextrae, 408. Permiscere governs the same cases as miscere.- -489. Eoas; eastern. Memnon, the son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came with both Oriental and Aethiopian forces to the succor of Troy, and was slain by Achilles. He is mentioned in the Odyssey, but not in the Iliad. For the quantity of the first vowel in coas see Gr. § 283, exc. 6.- -490. Amazonidum. The Amazons, a race of female warriors, were said to dwell near the river Thermodon, in the northern part of Asia Minor. According to the post-Homeric poets they came to the help of Priam under their queen, Penthesilea, who was killed in battle by Acl es.Lunatis-peltis ; an ablative of description, limiting agmina ; squadrons with their crescent shields. Gr. § 211, R. 6; Madvig, § 272.
-491. Penthesilea. Gr. § 293, 3. -492. Exsertae; uncovered. Innumerable bas-reliefs and many statues of Amazons have been preserved from antiquity, none of which justify the idea that they were supposed to cut off one of the breasts in order to carry their arms with greater facility. Exserta, therefore, must mean simply uncovered.- -Subnectens = gerens subnexa ; wearing a girdle bound.493. Bellatrix ; a warlike heroine ; in apposition with Penthesilea. Observe the emphasis given to this appellative by its position in the verse ; like vena- Amazon. trix, 319.—-Audetque. And (though) a virgin, dares to fight with men.
- Viris. Gr. & 224. The above woodcut, copied from a statue in the Vatican, represents an Amazon in the Greek style. The half-moon shield is seen at her side. For the Amazon of Asia Minor, or in the Phrygian costume, see page 432.
494–612. Aeneas is lost in contemplating the Ilian pictures when Queen Dido enters the temple, attended by a numerous train, and proceeds to give audience to her people. While Aeneas and Achates, still invisible, are watching the proceedings, they be. hold Ilioneus and the other Trojan chiefs belonging to the missing ships, entering the temple followed by a tumultuous crowd of the Carthaginians. Ilioneus, as the eldest of the party, addresses the queen, and makes known their name, nation, and recent mishap; complaining of the hostile disposition of her subjects, who have attempted to oppose the landing of the Trojans. He mentions Aeneas, and his uncertain fate, and entreats the queen to aid the remnant of the Trojans to resume their voyage to Italy. Dido makes a friendly reply, and apologizes for the harsh conduct of her subjects. She offers to give them the desired aid, or to receive them as citizens into her new state. While she is expressing the wish that Aeneas himself were present, and her determination to send messengers everywhere in search of him, the cloud, which enveloped him, is suddenly dispelled, and he thus appears unexpectedly in the presence of the queen and his Trojan friends.
494. Dum, in accordance with the general usage, both in prose and poetry, is joined here with a present, though the events are past, and the following verb, incessit, is in a past tense. See Gr. 8 263, 4, (2); Z. $ 506.
-Aeneae limits videntur as a dative of the agent, for ab Aenea. Videri is used here, as above in 326, in its literal sense; while these wonderful objects are looked at by Aeneas.- -495. Obtutu in uno; in one mute gaze; absorbed in gazing. · Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 97: Suspendit picta vultum mentemque tabella. -496. Ad templum. Gr. § 233, R. 2.- --497. Incessit ; advanced. See on 46. -Javenum ; of youthful followers ; men and women in the prime and vigor of life, from 20 to 45 years old. In fact the term is un. translatable by any one English word. For the inflection, see Gr. $ 114, exc. 1..
Stipante; as comitante, II. 40; v. 76; A great company of youthful followers attending her.- -498. Qualis—Diana exercet choros; such as Diana leads her dancing trains. Talis, correlative to qualis, is expressed below, 503.- -Eurotae Cynthi. Diana, as the goddess of the chase, and therefore the patron goddess of Sparta, which was devoted to war and the chase, frequented the banks of the Eurotas, the principal river of Sparta. Like her brother, Apollo, she was also believed to resort at times, with her nymphs, to mount Cynthus, in her native island of Delos. Comp. iv. 147. The comparison of Dido here to Diana is suggested by that of Nausicaa to Diana in the Odyssey, vi. 102–110.- -499. Quam secutae; following whom; the perfect participle for the present, as above in 481.
-500. Hinc atque hinc ; on either side. See on 162.- -Orcades; mountain-nymphs; who are assembled around the goddess (glomerantur) clothed as huntresses; as represented in Domenichino's great painting of Diana in the Borghese palace.- -Illa-pectus; she bears the quiver upon her shoulder, and as she walks, towers above all the goddesses ; joys penetrate the silent breast of Latona. This whole passage is parenthetical. Latona delights in the beauty of her twin children, Apollo and Diana.- -501. Per medios ; as in 440.- -Instans; urging forward the (public) work and her future realms. Instare is followed either by the dative or accusative.
Comp. viii. 433. -505. Foribus divae ; in, or within, the doors of the sanctuary. The queen had been advancing with her train towards (ad) the sanctuary. She has now ascended the flight of steps, crossed the broad platform or colonnade in front of the door, passed through the bronze portal, and taken her seat on a high throne, erected at some point directly in the rear of the spacious doorway, and between it and the altar of Juno.Media testadine templi; within the vault of the temple; or in the interior of the vaulted temple. Just as Cicero says, in testudine, meaning, in a vaulted apartment. Vid. Brut. 22. Virgil has in view rather a Roman than a Phoenician structure. The Romans made extensive use of the arch and dome. Media, as Wagner shows, is here very nearly equivalent to the preposition in; as any point within an enclosure is medius. Hence media testudine in testudine, within the dome, or, within the vaulted temple.506. Septa armis ; surrounded by men at arms.- -Solio, for in solio; on a throne. -50%. Jura dabat legesque viris; she was administering justice and giving laws to her people. Jura are rights, decisions, usages ; leges are forms of law, statutes. -Opernim laborem; the execution of (public) works. She was assigning the charge of these to various overseers, either directly, according to her own judgment, or else by drawing (trahebat) lots from an urn. The act of drawing the lots is transferred here by a poetic turn of expression to the labor which was to be determined by lots. Thus, she was drawing the work by lot is said instead of she was drawing the lot to decide the work.- 509. Concursu is the multitude of Carthaginians accompanying the Trojans. Thiel makes concursu here an ablative of manner, like magno comitatu ; Cicero in Catilinam, 3, 2, 6.-511. Ater quos. In prose: quos ater aequore turbo.-_-512. Penitus--oras; and had conveyed far away to other shores, i. e. other than those near Carthage, and where Aeneas had landed. Some translate penitus here by altogether, wholly; but comp. iii. 673. For the accusative, oras, see on locos, 365, and note on 2.
-513. Obstapnit is understood with Achates, and percussas with ipse. For the adjective, see Gr. § 205, exc. to R. 2; for the verb, $ 209, R. 12, note 9; also Z. § 373, n. 1, second paragraph.- Simul-simal. Not only both Aeneas and Achates (et-et), but both instantly and at the same time. -515. Res incognita ; uncertainty respecting the (as yet) unknown condition of their friends, and the reception they will now meet with. See 517-519.-Turbat; perplexes.- -516. Dissimulant; they remain concealed. Not wholly of their own choice, it is true, for they have no power to dispel the cloud; but they would not wish to emerge at this moment, if they had the power; and, hence, they connive, as it were, with the divinity which is concealing them. Dissimulare is to conceal that which is; simulare, to pretend that which is not. See Arnold's L. P. C. 17. -516. Speculantur; they seek to learn, watch to ascertain what fortune, &c., hence followed here by the dependent questions, sit, linquant, veniant. Comp. note on accesserit, 307.—-517. Fortuna ; supply sit: what fate attends the men. --Viris. See Gr. $ 226. Linquant and, 518, veniant, are substituted for the perfect because the actions are conceived as scarcely yet finished.Quid is the adverbial accusative; as to what, why ? — Cancti, translate in the predicate, after veniant; Why they come all (together). For he had supposed them to be separated from each other by the tempest. Cuncti is, all taken together, as opposed to dispersi. See Döderlein, also Arnold's L. P. C. 443. The reading cunctis agreeing with navibus occurs in very few of the manuscripts, though it would seem the more natural. -Navibus; from the ships. See note on 2.-Ibant; for veniebant; for the pluperfect, they had come ; just so veniant for the perfect, they have come. - -519. Orantes veniam; to sue for favor ; that is, here, for protection. See 526, and comp. iii. 114; the present participle is used to denote a purpose, instead of ad orandam, or ut (qui) orarent. Gr. $ 274, R. 2, (a). The construction occurs also in prose, as, legati missi auxilium orantes. Liv. 21, 6. —520. Introgressi. Which is the better form of the auxiliary to be supplied hereerant? or sunt ? - -Coram. Supply regina; before the queen.Copia fandi; an opportunity of speaking. Gr. § 183, 6.- -521. Maximas. Supply natu. The eldest ; literally, greatest in respect to age. See on 654. Some prefer to take maximus in a more general sense: the first among them in age, rank, and dignity. How many syllables does the scanning of the verse require in Ilioneus ?. -Placido ; calm, though like Neptune, 126, graviter commotus.- -522. Condere. For the infinitive depending on dare, see note on 66, above. -523. Gentes superbas; proud nations. It refers to the neighboring barbarians, not to the Carthaginians. And if the term frenare seems out of keeping with the little colony of Carthage, we must remember the stately scene before Ilioneus,—the queen upon her throne in a magnificent temple, surrounded by guards, and by a multitude of her people. She is administering justice to them; hence the propriety of invoking her power to repel the insolence of her subjects, who are attempting to drive the unhappy Trojans from the shore. See 540, 541.-524. Observe the emphatic position of Troes.—Maria is either governed by a preposition, circum or per, understood, or by vecti, taken in an active sense : having navigated, or traversed all seas. The latter construction is preferred by Thiel. Vehor often means navigo, and the latter sometimes governs the accusative, as above in 67, navigat aequor.-526. Generi. Gr. $ 223, R. 2.
-Pio; righteous ; obedient to the gods; hence deserving to be spared, and to be received in a friendly manner. Their piety is most conspicuous in their chief, Aeneas.- Propius. Render literally, more closely; implying that their real character and circumstances have been misunderstood, by not being examined carefully enough.—–527. Non, qualifying venimus, is rendered emphatic by its position.--Nos. Why is the pronoun expressed? Gr. $ 209, R. 1, (b). —-Libycos. See note on 446.— -Populare; the infinitive, after the Greek idiom, denotes a purpose here, as in 357. The construction in prose would be ad populandum, or more rarely, the su