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sepsit. Enclosed them, (Aeneas and Achates,) as they walked along, with dim air. This fancy is not unfrequent in the ancient epics; as Odyss. xiv. 39-43.- -412. And the goddess surrounded them with the thick covering of a cloud; a poetic repetition of the idea contained in the foregoing verse. The compound circum-fudit is separated by tmesis. Gr. § 323, 4, (5). For the construction the cases after circumfundo, see Gr. 8 249, R. 3; Z. $ 418.—-413. Neu, for neve, or lest. — 414. Moliri; to occasion.- -415. Ipsa, contrasted with Aeneas.-Paphum. There were two cities called by this name, Old and New Paphos, both in the western part of Cyprus. Old Paphos, now Kukla, or Konuklia, was renowned for the worsbip of Venus, who was hence styled “the Paphian.”—416. Laeta. No longer tristis (see 228) since the interview with Jupiter.—Sabaco. This term was applied to incense, because it was brought chiefly from that part of Arabia Felix which was inhabited by the Sabaei.—417. Thure. No victims were slain at the shrines of Venus; she was worshipped with incense and flowers.- Sertis. See illustration, page 547. The ancients were accustomed to hang festoons of leaves and flowers around the temples from pillar to pillar, and also about the altars. Lersch.

418-493. Aeneas soon comes in sight of rising Carthage, and wonders at the energy of the colonists who are rapidly constructing fortified walls, public and private edifices, streets, arsenals, and docks. He enters the newly erected temple of Juno, and is both surprised and consoled on discovering there, painted on the walls of the temple, the principal incidents of the siege of Troy; including the battles in which he himself had been conspicuous.

418. Interca. While she hastens to Paphos, in the mean while Aeneas and Achates take their way to Carthage.- -Corripuere ; rapidly pursued ; literally, seized. Comp. v. 145.- -Qua. Comp. 401, and note. -419. Plurimus; very high. On the position of the adjective after the relative, see Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp. 53, and Gr. 3 206, (7), (b); comp. ii. 278, v. 728.-420. Arces. This refers to the fortifications of the Byrsa, or citadel of Carthage. -421. Molem ; the massive structure of the works. Magalia quondam; formerly huts; i. e. where huts formerly stood. Gr. § 204. Aeneas might infer from the huts.remaining in the neighborhood, that others had once covered this ground also. Perhaps, however, the words are thrown in by the poet, and not to be regarded as the thought of * Aeneas. -422. Strata viarum ; for stratas vias; the paved streets. Gr. § 212, R. 3, note 4; Z. $ 435. The genitive here is partitive in form, but not in sense. “In the poets and later writers the partitive idea often disappears, and only the quality of the thing is expressed.” Madvig, § 284, obs. 5. - 423. With our punctuation, ducere, and the following infinitives, depend on instant; a construction which occurs again, ii. 628, and x. 118; see Gr. § 271. Thus also Horace, 0. 2, 18, 20, urges summovere ; and Cic. Verr. 2, 30, 59. Translate: the Tyrians earnestly press on to build, &c.Pars; in apposition with Tyrii. Gr. 204, R. 10; Z. § 367; comp. E. 1, 64–65. -425. Optare; to select. Comp. iii. 109.- -Concludere sulco; supply eum, it: to enclose (the place chosen) with a furrow; i. e. a plowed line marking, according to the Roman custom, the limits of the estate, or, as we should say, “house-lot.” Some understand here a trench for the foundation wall of a building. The pronoun is, when in the same oblique case as the foregoing noun to which it refers, omitted. Gr. § 207, R. 26, (d); Z. § 766.–426. Jura sometimes for judicia, courts, and hence put here by metonymy for judices. Others take it in its proper meaning, and translate: make laws and choose magistrates, &c.; considering legunt an example of the zeugma. Gr. § 323, 1, b. 2; Z. $ 775. It is not necessary to suppose that every thing mentioned here is actually seen by Aeneas. The poet wishes to convey to the reader an idea of the intense activity of the colonists. They are building a city, with its docks, fortifications, public edifices, and private houses, and organizing a state, all, as it were, in a day. Hence the sentence, jura legunt, &c.; they choose judges, magistrates, and a reverend senate naturally comes in as a part of the picture. -42%. Alta; deep. -429. Rupibus; from the quarries. The African marbles are celebrated. Theatres did not exist at the period of the foundation of Carthage; but Virgil seems here, as well as in the account of the paintings below, (466–493,) and not unfrequently elsewhere, to have had his own times and the customs of his own nation in view.- Scenis. This is a dative after some participle omitted, (as ens,) instead of a genitive limiting decora. Gr. $ 211, R. 5, note. The dative stands with substantives, where also the genitive could be used; but the dative does not limit the substantive.Alta; lofty; this word means extending vertically, up or down, according to the point of view: Lofty ornaments for the future stage. 430. Qualis. See on 316. Gr. $ 206, (16); the antecedent being supplied, the sentence will be, talis labor eos exercebat, qualis labor apesexercet. The English idiom omits the noun (labor) in the second clause, preferring to express it in the first: such labor (employed them) as occupies the bees in the fresh summer, &c.-- 431-432. Fetas adultos; the newly matured swarms.Liquentia. The first syllable is long here. Comp. v. 238, ix. 679.–433. Stipant; store. --Nectare. Gr. $ 82, exc. 1, (b).- -434. Venientum; for venientium.- -Agmine facto; having formed a battalion. -436. Fervet opus ; the work glows ; is briskly pursued.—Thymo. Honey produced from thyme, such as that of Hymettus, has a very strong odor of the herb, and a different flavor from that which we are accustomed to in America. The latter, indeed, has little or no odor. The accusative, Thymum, would be used in prose after redolere. Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383, 2d paragraph. Thymo by some is joined with fragrantia as an ablative of cause, and redolent, in that case, is used absolutely; emits odor.- -437. Jam ; even now; in contrast with the fortune of Aeneas; for his promised walls of Lavinium (258) are not yet begun.- -438. Suspicit; looks up to; the opposite of despicere. Comp. above, 224._439. Dicta. See on visu, 111. -440. Medios. Supply viros. The midst of the people. Gr. $ 205, R. 7, (1).Miscet. Supply se. Gr. § 229, R. 4, 1. -Viris. See on dextrae, 408. Ulli; for ab ullo. Gr. $ 225, ii.; Z. $ 419, note. In prose this usage of the dative for the doer occurs very rarely, except with the passive participles.- 141. Lucus, as distinguished from nemus and silva, is a sacred grove ; nemus, a wood diversified with lawns and glades; silva, forest, or wood in general; saltus, a wild place in the midst of mountains. -Laetissimus umbra; very abundant in shade. Many editions give umbrae. 442. Quo; join with loco. -Primum; in the beginning, or on their first arrival. 443. Signum; the token.- -444. Monstrarat; had indicated ; i. e. she had foretold to them through some vision or oracle, that from the ground where she desired them to plant their new city, they would dig up as a sign the head of a horse.- -Sic; by such a token as this.- Fore; depends on monstrarat understood; for she had thus shown that the nation would be renowned in war and easily victorious for ages.- -445. Facilem victu ; equivalent to facile vincentes ; readily conquering; easily victorious. The supine victu here is probably from vincere, taken in the active sense, to conquer. The supines auditu and relatu are so used in the passage quoted by Ladewig (1st edition) from Pliny's Ep. v. 6, 3. The interpretation of Heyne, “easy to be supported, easy to be nourished,” from vivo, would be indicated by the head of an ox better than by that of a horse. Ladewig, however, seems in his last edition to have adopted Heyne's interpretation. The coins of Carthage, in commemoration of this story, were stamped with the image of a horse. — 446. Sidonia. Virgil uses as synonymous the terms Sidonian, Tyrian, &c. See above, on 12.-447. Donis—divae ; rich with offerings (valuable treasures given by devotees) and with the powerful manifestation (numine) of the goddess. Some take numine to signify a beautiful statue of Juno, or Astarte, which may have been presented as an offering to the temple. -448-449. Aerea. Gr. $ 128, i. 1. The costly material of the door, bronze, indicates the splendor of the temple. The idea is still more impressed by its repetition in aere and ahenis, as well as by the position of the terms at the beginning and end of the verse. Comp. gold, golden, thus repeated in iv. 138, 139, and vii. 278, 279.

-Cui, limiting surgebant, is equivalent to cujus, limiting gradibus ; from_whose steps arose a threshold of bronze. -Nexae aere trabes ; timbers bound with bronze; this describes the bronze door-posts, which were heavy timbers cased or covered over with bronze. The Greek terms, xpovobetos, goldbound, and xarkódetos, bronze-bound, or simply bronze, are analogous to nexae aere ; as, ev xankodérous aŭrais; Antigone, 945.-Foribus ; in the dative after stridebat, instead of a genitive, forum, limiting cardo; and this construction renders ahenis more emphatic by throwing it into the predicate. The passage may be thus rendered: from whose steps arose a threshold of bronze, and bronze (door) posts, (while) the hinges creaked upon (literally, to) the folding doors of bronze. Virgil had in mind the splendid buildings erected in Rome in his own time; one of which, the Pantheon, is still standing. Its bronze door-way, which is 39 feet high and 19 feet wide, rises from a platform, or stylobate, of five steps. The folds (fores) of the double door, and the grating above them, are also of bronze. Peerlkamp, Henry, and Forbiger adopt the reading nixae for nexae ; translating thus : the beams rested on bronze pillars; but this would be a very unusual material for pillars or columns in front of Roman buildings, and Virgil would scarcely think of mentioning such; though Ladewig adopts this reading also in his last edition.- que, in 448, is joined to the next verse in scanning. Gr. § 307, 3, (3). -452. Rebus. Gr. § 223, R. 2; Z. § 245, ii. But the ablative occurs more frequently after confidere. Z. $ 413.- -453. Lustrat dum singula; while he surveys the objects one by one. — -454. Quae—arbi (miratur); he wonders at the prosperity which the city enjoys. Quae is the relative, not the interrogative. Gr. § 266, 3; Z. $ 549.- -455. Artificum manus; the skill of the artists.- -Inter se ; (comparing them) with each other. -Operum laborem; the finish of their works. Thiel understands these last words to refer to the building itself, i. e. the labor bestowed upon the construction of the temple, in contrast with the foregoing expression, (artif. man.,) which refers to the works of art in the temple. The paintings were in honor of Juno, who had been victorious in the Trojan war. -456. Ex ordine ; in their (historical) order.-458. Ambobus ; to both parties; Achilles was cruel to the sons of Atreus, (Agamemnon and Menelaus,) in refusing so long to aid in the defence of the Grecian camp against the Trojans; and cruel to Priam, because he had slain so many of his sons, and particularly Hector, the bravest of them.- -460. Laboris ; filled with (the story of) our misfortune. Gr. § 213, R. 1, (3); Z. § 436. -461. En Priamus. En and ecce prefer the nominative, though sometimes followed by the accusative. Gr. § 209, R. 13; Z. § 403, n. 2.- -461. Sunt-laudi; glory (praiseworthy conduct) has even here its own reward, i. e. even in this remote part of the world. Sua refers to laudi.


may refer to another substantive in the sentence, (instead of the subject,) where it may be expressed by his (her, its, their) own.” Madvig, $ 490, b.; Gr. 8 208, 7, (a).- -Pracmia. The reward in the present case is fame and human sympathy, as expressed in the following beautiful line.- - 462. Rerum ; for misfortunes; an objective genitive. Gr. $ 211, R. 1; comp. ii. 413, 784.—Mortalia ; hu

-463. Haec fama; this renown. The knowledge of our history which the Carthaginians show in these pictures.- -Tibi. Comp. 261.464. Pictura ; painting; in its general sense, referring to the whole collection; not picture, tabula.- -Pascit ; satisfies, fills.-Inani; unreal. 465. Multa gemens; groaning much. The neuter accusative of adjectives, both singular and plural, is sometimes used adverbially by the poets. Madvig, S 302; Gr. $ 205, R. 10. - 166. Uti is interrogative, how, and the following subjunctives are under Gr. 8 265; Z. $ 552; Madvig, $ 456.--Pergama means properly the citadel of Troy, but is sometimes put, as here, for the whole city.- -Circum. See note on 32. The series of pictures here mentioned, which we must imagine to be painted on panels on the walls of the temple, consists of, 1. The victory of the Trojans under Hector; 2. The victory of the Greeks under Achilles ; 3. The death of Rhesus ; 4. The death of Troilus; 5. The Trojan matrons before the statue of Minerva ; 6. Priam as a suppliant before Achilles ; 7. The battle of Memnon; and 8. The battle of the Amazons with the Greeks.- -467-468. Hac; adverb; here; in this part; i. e. on this panel: Here the Greeks were flying, (while) the Trojan youth pursued; here (on the next panel) the Trojans (were flying, while) the crested Achilles in his chariot pressed on. The first of these scenes is suggested by the Iliad, xiv. 14; the second by Il. xx. sq.Curru Zumpt and Ramsh. regard as an ablative of the instrument. -469. Nec procul hinc; and not far from hence ; i. e. from that part of the series of paintings which has been mentioned in the preceding verses. -Rhesi. Rhesus, a Thracian prince, who had come to the aid of Priam, and encamped on the night of his arrival outside of the city. It was fated that Troy should not fall unless the horses of Rhesus should come into the possession of the Greeks before they had tasted of the pasturage of Troy, and drunk of the river Xanthus. In the Il. x. 433, Ulysses and Diomed penetrate into the camp of Rhesus on this first night of his arrival, slay the chief himself, and twelve of his followers, and convey the horses to the Grecian camp.

man woes.

-Niveis velis; with their snowy coverings. Gr. $ 211, R. 6. In the heroic age tents were not used; but huts made of turf and interwoven twigs. The poet employs the language of his own day, and the painter takes a similar license. -470. Primo prodita somno. Translate literally : betrayed by the first sleep, i. e. by the sleep of the first night, or during the hours of sleep on the first night after his arrival. This is the obvious meaning, though many take primo somno in the sense of the first part, or the earliest, and so deepest, part of slumber. But the passage of the Iliad in the 10th Book, which Virgil here had in mind, by no means justifies the idea that Rhesus was slain in the early hours of the night, or of sleep.-171. Vastabat; had been devastating. He was not represented in the painting as actually engaged in slaughter, but the bodies of the slain, scattered around in the picture, suggest this idea, which is made more impressive by the imperfect tense. -472. Avertit; is leading away; driving away. This is the immediate subject, or, so to speak, the action of the picture.-Castra refers to the Grecian camp. -473. Gustassent. The pluperfect is used here after an historical present; after a real present, it would not be thus used. For the mood, see Gr. § 263, 3; Z. & 576.474. Parte alia ; in another part; i. e. of the series of pictures. -Troilas. The youngest son of Priam. “Troilus is only once named in the Iliad (xxiv. 257); he was also mentioned in the Cypria ; but his youth, beauty, and untimely end made him an object of great interest with the subsequent poets." Grote, 1, p. 399.- -Armis. Ablat. absol. with amissis. It refers only to his shield and helmet.- -475.

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