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of the game, and prementum, actually pursuing it; vel, as above, 316, connects expressions, the choice of which is a matter of indifference. Gr. § 198, 2, R. (a); Z. § 336.-325. For the ellipsis of dixit, see on 76.--Orsus; began; from ordior.- -326. Mihi. For the dative of the agent after the passive, see Gr. § 225, ii.; Z. § 419; comp. 440. 327. Quam memorem? whom can I call thee? For the mode, see Gr. § 260, R. 5; Z. § 530.-328. Nec hominem sonat; nor does thy voice sound human; literally, sounds a human being. Sonat is here transitive. Comp. vi. 50; see Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383, 2d paragraph. Certe. For this usage of the adverb, see note on late, 21.. -329. Art thou then the sister of Phoebus, or one of the race of nymphs?- -Sanguinis. For the case, see r. § 212, R. 2.-330. Sis felix; be propitious. For the mode of sis, leves, and doceas, see Gr. § 260, R. 6, (a); Z. § 529.- -331. Tandem; at length; join with jactemur; it implies suspense and impatience. After many wanderings,


he has now reached a place which utterly surpasses his knowledge. "Where in all the world have we arrived now?" Forbiger.- -332. Jactemur; we are driven about; cast to and fro by fortune. G. § 265; Z. § 552.—que at the end of 332, loses its final vowel in scanning. Gr. § 307, 3.- -334. Multa hostia; many a victim. See Z. 109, note.-335. Equidem is always used by Virgil, Cicero, and Horace, as a compound of ego and quidem; I indeed. Gr. § 191, R. 4; Z. § 278.-Dignor, as a deponent, signifies, I deem worthy of, and governs the accusative of the direct object (me), and the ablative of that of which one is deemed worthy, (honore.) The cothurnus seen in the statues and pictures of amazons, tragedians, heroes, commanders, &c., is a boot rising nearly or quite up to the calf of the leg. It is sometimes open in front from the instep upwards, and laced with showy cords or bands; and sometimes it was made, like a modern boot, without any opening in front. See the above figure.- -338. Agenoris; one of the early kings of Phoenicia. Carthage is here called the city of Agenor, because its

founder, Dido, is descended from him.- -339. Fines; the country, or territory around the city, in distinction from regna, realm, which is here the organized state. -Genus, though grammatically in apposition with fines, relates in sense to the substantive Libycorum, Libyans, implied in Libyci. Comp. iv. 40. The country is that of the Libyans, a race indomitable in war.

-Intractabile; invincible. Gr. § 129, 4, (a).— -340. Urbe; see note on Italiam, 2. The sense of the passage 335-340 appears to be this: I am no goddess, deserving of worship, but a simple Tyrian huntress; for we whom you will see here are Tyrians, descendants of Agenor, forming a Punic state under Dido, a fugitive from her brother Pygmalion. But though we are Tyrians, the country itself (fines) is the warlike Libya.- -341. Injuria; the story of her wrongs would be long.- -342. Ambages; the details long. For the mode of est and sunt, see Gr. § 259, R. 4, (2); Z. § 520.- -Summa sequar fastigia; I will relate the principal events; give the outline of the story.- -313. Sychaens here has the y long; below, 348, the y is short. -Agri; in land, limits ditissimus, as denoting fulness, or abundance. Gr. § 213, R. 1; Z. §§ 436, 437, note 2.- -344. Phoenicum limits the same adjective as a superlative. Gr. § 212, R. 2; Z. § 429.— -Miserae; for ab ea misera; by the unhappy Dido; dative of the agent, for the ablative; see note on 326; so Thiel; but others make it the genitive after amore. The dat. is preferable; see iv. 31.—345. Pater; Dido's father was Belus, mentioned below, 621.—Primis ominibus; in the first marriage ceremonies. This is also implied in intactam, a virgin.- -347. Ante alios. Far more monstrous than all others in wickedness. Gr. § 256, R. 13, (b).- -348. Quos refers to Sychaeus and Pygmalion.- -Inter. The prepositions ante, contra, inter, and propter are sometimes placed after the relative pronoun, and occasionally after the demonstrative hic. Gr. § 279, 10, (f); Z. § 324.- -349. Impius; especially because he committed the murder ante aras; the murdered man was a priest of Hercules.- -350. Securus amorum germanae; regardless of his sister's love, i. e. her love for Sychaeus. For the genitive after securus, see Gr. § 213, R. 1; Z. § 437, note 1. -351. Aegram; desponding.- -352. Multa malus simulans; wickedly (Gr. § 205, R. 15) inventing many things; giving false reasons for the disappearance of Sychaeus.- -Spe; with the hope of seeing him again.

Amantem; the fond wife.- -353. Ipsa sed; but (in spite of Pygmalion's dissimulation) the very ghost, &c.- -354. Modis miris is hardly distinguishable from the singular; in a wonderful manner; wonderfully; it is joined with pallida. Comp. x. 822, vi. 738.356. Nudavit; laid bare, disclosed; the ghost seemed in the dream to conduct her to the altar, to show her the instruments and traces of his murder, and then to lead her to the place where bis treasures were concealed.- -357. Celerare, excedere; the infinitive instead of the regular construction after suadeo, which is ut with the subjunctive. Gr. § 273, 2; Z. § 616.-358. Auxilium viae; as an aid for the voyage. Viae is an objective genitive; Gr. § 211, R. 1; Z. § 423, 2d

paragraph. Madvig, § 283, gives signum erumpendi, occasio pugnae, materia jocorum. The apposition, auxilium, denotes the purpose of thesauros: for help; that they may serve to aid; nouns in apposition are not unfrequently so used, as laetitiam, below, 636.—Recludit, equivalent to effodit; digs out of the earth (i. e. in the dream the ghost seems to do so.) For verbs compounded with re governing the ablative, see above, on 126, and comp. 679, ii. 115, iv. 545, v. 99, 178, 409, ix. 32.- -361. Crudele; deadly; that impels to bloody revenge.- -362. Metus acer; urgent fear; that rouses to instant flight.- -Quae forte paratae; that happened to be ready; already launched and prepared for different destinations.- -363. Auro. Gr. § 249, R. 1.—364. Pygmalionis opes; not actually the property of Pygmalion, but wealth which he had expected to secure by murdering Sychaeus.- -365. Devenere. They arrived at, or reached. Locos. See note on 2, and Gr. § 237, R. 5, (a).—Nunc is not, like jam, used of the future or the past, but of the actual present. Hence cernes, which is found here in many editions, is rejected by Wagner for cernis, which is the reading of the best manuscripts, and which Wagner explains by cernere licet, cernere potes; where you now can see.- —Mercati (sunt); they bargained for.

-367. Byrsam. The citadel of Carthage was so called, according to the Greeks, (whose explanation Virgil follows,) from Búpσa, a hide; because the colonists cut a bull's hide into strips in order to measure the ground which they purchased from the natives for the acropolis of their new settlement. The real meaning of byrsa, however, seems to be citadel; being a corruption of the Phoenician word bosra.- -368. Possent. Gr. § 266, 3; Z. § 549. Venus makes the statement not as her own, but as the condition expressed by the parties themselves in their bargain.——Tergo; for corio, hide, as v. 405, and frequently elsewhere.- –370. Quaerenti; the present participle to express an action which had been going on and was hardly completed, as volvens, 305.—Talibus; supply verbis.——371. Imo; Gr. § 205, R. 17; Z. § 685.———372. Dea; Aeneas feels that she is something more than a simple huntress, notwithstanding her disavowal.- -Pergam and vacet, 373, (were I to go on; were there leisure,) would here be regularly followed by the subjunctive present in the apodosis; but the indicative, componet, is substituted for componat, in order to express the absolute certainty of the conclusion in the mind of the speaker. See Madvig, § 348, d., and Arnold's Lat. Prose Comp. § 56, a.—— -373. Et vacet; and if (you) were at leisure.— 374. Ante; before I should conclude.――Vesper; Vesper; the god of evening. He is represented by the evening star, and his office is to close the portals of the sky, or Olympus, when the sun with his chariot has entered in; and thus, as it were, he puts the day to rest (componere): Vesper, having closed Olympus, will terminate the day. Comp. G. 1, 450.- -375. Troja-vectos; having sailed from ancient Troy over various seas. Vectos, as in 121.—376. Trojae. Gr. § 204, R. 6; Z. § 425.—Iit. Gr. § 259; Z. § 517; Arnold's Lat. Prose, 437.--37%. Forte sua; by its own chance;

as opposed to the idea of any foresight or plan of ours.—- -Oris; dative, for the usual prose construction, ad oras. Comp. 512, 538, 616, and iii. 715.

-378. Raptos-veho; this is one principal proof of his piety.--380. Italiam patriam ; Italy my fatherland; because Dardanus, my ancestor, was boru in Italy.———Et genus ab Jove summo; and (I seek) my ancestry (which is) from highest Jove. Genus is the accusative. Dardanus, the father of the Trojans, was the son of Jupiter.-381. Bis denis. See note on bis septem, above, 71.—Conscendi ; I embarked on; literally, I climbed. For the term Phrygian, see note on 182.- -382. Data fata; the fates decreed. See ii. 771-784, iii. 94-98, 154-171, and note on 205.- -Secutus, for sequens. See note on comitatus, above, 312.- -383. Vix septem; barely

-Euro, for vento.- -385.

seven; even this small number hardly saved.Europa pulsus; comp. 233, clauditur orbis terrarum. -Querentem ut quereretur; not suffering him to complain any more.- -387. Quisquis es. Gr. § 259, R. 4, (3).- -Hand-coelestibus; not odious to the gods. Gr. § 222, R. 1; Z. § 409.- -388. Qui adveneris; since you have come; the relative clause denotes a reason. See Gr. § 264, 8, (1); Z. § 564.389. Te perfer; convey thyself, proceed. The common form is confer; but per implies that he is already on the road.—Limina, for domum, the palace of Dido. Gr. § 324, 3.- -390. Reduces; brought back to land. Classem refers to the twelve missing ships.- -391. Tutum, in the neuter gender, is often a substantive; safety, a place of safety.-Versis aquilonibus. The winds having changed. Aquilonibus, as quite often, for the general term, ventis; comp. v. 2.- -392. Vani; false; pretending to a knowledge they did not possess.- -Docuere. For the indicative after ni, see note on iit, 376.-393. Adspice. She calls his attention to a flock of twelve swans, corresponding in number to that of the missing ships, which during the conversation has been pursued by an eagle, and is just alighting safely on the ground. The swan was sacred to Venus. Perhaps the following translation of this much vexed passage may be of service: Behold flying joyfully in a company, twice six swans, which the bird of Jove (an eagle) was (even now.) dispersing in the open heaven; now (at this very moment) you see them (videntur; literally, they are seen) in a long line either alighting on the ground (capere terras), or looking down upon the ground already occupied (by their companions). As they on coming back (into a flock) sport with flapping wings, and have been wheeling swiftly through the air (cinxere polum), and have uttered their cries, not otherwise (rejoicing) are your ships and the manly band (pubes) of your countrymen either occupying a harbor, or entering (a harbor) with full sail. Large birds of this kind fly in a long line, and those in advance are often seen to alight first, while the others continue a little while hovering above, and circling swiftly round in the air, before they settle down with their companions. The points of resemblance between the birds and the ships are these: the swans have been scattered by the eagle, the ships by the tempest; both swans and ships have come

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together (reduces) again; a part of the swans are actually alighting, while the rest are on the point of alighting; so some of the ships are already furling their sails, or actually discharging their crews upon the shore, while the rest are coming into the harbor under full sail; the swans have manifested their joy in their escape by wheeling about the air in rapid flights, by flapping their wings, and by loud cries; in like manner the crews of the different ships, as they come together, interchange congratulations, and join in jovial songs, as they enter the harbor, or touch the land. Perhaps, says Ladewig, Virgil wrote the above verses in the following order: Aspice-cycnos; Ut reduces illi—alis; Et coetu―dedere; Aetheria—aperto; Turbabat—longo; Aut capere videntur; Haud aliter, etc.—Tuorum; of thy countrymen ; not a partitive genitive, but a limiting noun denoting that which goes to make up pubes, the manly band.- -Tenet portum; holds, is in, a harbor. For the singular number after collective nouns, see above on 212.- -401. Qua; where; by what route. Gr. § 255, 2.- -402. Avertens; supply se. Comp. 104. -403. Ambrosiae. The gods are described by Homer, and the other ancient poets, as employing perfumed unguents. These, as well as the food of the gods, were termed ambrosia. Ambrosial came at length to be used as an attribute of any thing beautiful or pleasing, pertaining to divine beings.- -Vertice; from her head.

-404. Vestis defluxit. Her dress had been girded up like that of a huntress, but now suddenly fell around her person in graceful folds.Imos. Gr. 205, R. 17.- -405. Incessu patuit; was evident by her gait. The gliding movement of a god is compared by Homer (Il. 18, 778) to that of a dove skimming along on motionless wings, just above the surface of the ground. Comp. v. 649.

-Dea. In scanning this verse the final vowel of dea is retained. See Gr. § 305, (3); Madvig, § 502, b.-407. Crudelis tu quoque; thou also cruel; as well as Juno and the other unfriendly powers. For the position of quoque, see Gr. § 279, 3, (d); Z. § 355.—408. Dextrae. Jungere and miscere are followed by the dative, by the ablative with cum, or by the ablative without a preposition. For the government of the infinitive, jungere, see Gr. § 269, (b); Z. § 597.- -409. Datur. For the quantity, see Gr. § 290, (a).——Veras; without disguise, sincere. Comp. vi. 689.—410. Moenia. The walls of Carthage, of which Venus has just spoken.-411. Obscuro


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