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as expressed in 23, id metuens; but it is more natural to refer it to the fear which she is exciting in others: she is wearying earth and heaven (that is, all in earth and heaven) with fear. She is incessantly exciting the fears of gods and men by plotting strife among them, and even invoking the elements, in order to gratify her revenge.-281. Consilia-referet; shall change her purposes for the better. Comp. -Mecum fo
xi. 426.vebit; shall cherish with me; that is, equally with me. Horace (0. 3, 3,) describes Juno in the council of the gods, as expressing her willingness to receive Romulus into heaven, and to give over her hostility towards the descendants of the Trojans.282. Rerum domines; lords of the world; of all things in the world. Togatam. The Romans wore the toga, the Greeks the pallium, (see page 437,) and most other nations of Asia and Europe the bracae, drawers or trousers; see page 445. Hence the Romans were called to
gati, the Greeks pal
liati, and the barbarians bracati.- -283. Sic placitum. Supply est and mihi: thus it has pleased me; or, thus I have decreed.- -Lustris. Lustrum is strictly a period of five years, but often used indefinitely. Translate: years or ages. It is in the ablative absolute with labentibus: while ages are passing away; in the lapse of ages.-284. Domus Assaraci. The Romans are so called because their founder, Aeneas, was the great-grandson of Assaracus, the son of Tros.Phthia was a city of Thessaly, and the home of Achilles.- -Mycenae and Argos were cities of Argolis, the one ruled by Agamemnon, and the other by Diomed. It is pleasing to Venus to hear that the descendants of the conquerors of Troy shall one day be subjugated by the descendants of the vanquished Trojans. Greece and Macedon were brought under the sway of Rome by T. Q. Flamininus, Aemilius Paulus, and Mummius between B. C. 200 and 146. -285. Argis. Gr. § 92, 4. Only the nom. and acc. are used in the singular, the plural is entire. It is here the ablative of situation. Comp. vi. 766. Dominor governs the dative only in the later Latin writers.- –286. Origine; join with Trojanus as a limiting ablat.; Gr. § 211, R. 6; a Trojan of illustrious origin.- -Caesar; the reference here seems to be to Augustus, who was also called Julius Caesar, in consequence of his adoption by the dictator. Nearly all the earlier commentators, however, understand this passage to refer to Julius Caesar the dictator. The reason for rejecting that interpretation is given below, on 289. The eulogy of Augustus here accords with many found in Virgil, Horace, and other writers of the period. Comp. vi. 792-798, viii. 678-688, G. i. 24-42, iii. 16-39.-287. Terminet. The relative clause expresses the end or purpose for which Caesar shall be brought into the world by Destiny; hence the subjunctive. See Madvig, § 363; Z. § 567; Gr. § 264, 5.- -Astris. In allusion to his expected deification. His glory shall be like that of Hercules, Achilles, Quirinus, and other heroes, who have been received into Olympus. Thus Horace says, O. 3, 3, 11–12, Quos inter (Alciden, Quirinum) Augustus bibet nectar.- -289. Olim; of future time, as in 20.—Coelo; ablative. After accipere the plase is either in the ablative or in the acc. with a prep.- -Spoliis Oricntis onustam. This language cannot be referred naturally to Caesar, who won nothing which even the poets would call oriental spoils, unless those of the Egyptian king Ptolemy, and of Pharnaces of Pontus could be so denominated. But Augustus at the battle of Actium, B. C. 31, according to the expression of Virgil, viii. 687, gained oriental spoils.290. Secura; thou free from alarm.-Hic quoque. Gr. § 279, 3, (d). He also, Augustus as well as Aeneas. Augustus was called Divus and Deus by the Romans, and temples were erected and sacrifices made to him in the provinces, even before his death and apotheosis. Comp. E. i. 6, G. i. 42, iii. 16.—291. Tum. That is, in the reign of Augustus, which was looked upon as the return of the Saturnian or golden age, "when first the iron age should cease, and the age of gold arise." E. iv. 8; comp. viii. 319.-Aspera secula, is equivalent to ferrea secula in the
passage above quoted; the age of strife.- -292. Fides; faith between man and man; Vesta, the goddess of the hearth, represents religion and domestic virtue. Romulus reconciled with Remus, indicates the restoration of concord among the political orders of the state.- -293. Jura dabunt; shall rule. For the plural of the verb, see Gr. § 209, R. 12, 6. The sense of the whole passage is: Social faith, domestic purity, and public harmony shall prevail. Fides, conceived of as ancient, or as cherished most in the primitive times, is cana, hoary.—293–296. One of the arches of Janus, called here the gates of war, situated at the foot of the Argiletum near the Roman Forum, was always closed in time of peace. This happened but four times before the Christian era; first during the reign of Numa, next in the year B. C. 235, shortly after the first Punic war, and twice in the reign of Augustus; namely, in B. C. 29 and 25. The image of war, conceived of as a fury, chained within, is of course a poetic fancy. Some suppose it refers to an ancient painting of war by Apelles, placed in the Roman forum by Augustus. A representation of the temple of Janus closed is given on page 547.Ferro-artis is an instance of hendiadys (see on 61) for ferreis compagibus artis; with tight iron fastenings.- -Impius has reference to the recent civil and fraternal bloodshed during the contest between Caesar and Pompey, and then between Augustus and Antony.- -Nodis; chains.- -297. Mala; one of the seven daughters of Atlas, called the Pleiades; her son by Jupiter was Mercury, the messenger of the gods. For the case, see Gr. § 246; Z. § 451.-298-300. Pateant, arceret. Both the present and imperfect subjunctive are used after the historical present; the imperfect perhaps the more frequently. Gr. § 258, R. 1, (a); Z. § 501. Thiel understands pateant to be the "immediate object" of sending Mercury down, and arceret the "inner purpose."—Hospitio; the ablative of manner, equivalent to hospitaliter; as in iii. 83.—Fati nescia; ignorant of fate; i. e. ignorant of the destiny of the Trojans, which decreed that they should settle in Italy, she might suppose they intended to make their abode in Africa, and, hence, repel them from her territories.- -Aera magnum; the unbounded air. Gr. $86.~301. Remigio; by the rowing motion, or oarage of his wings.Adstare takes either the ablat. or dative.- -302. Jussa facit; fulfils the commands; the orders of Jupiter; he does this by so influencing the minds of the Carthaginians, and their queen, that when the Trojans shall present themselves their reception will be friendly.
aside; ponere is often used in poetry for deponere.
-302. Ponunt; lay -303. Volente deo; -304. In Teneros.
because the god wills it. Probably Mercury is meant. Does Mercury exercise his power to make Dido and her people think of the Trojans, and that with a kindly disposition, (mens benigna,) or does he prepare their minds without any consciousness on their part, so that on the arrival of the Trojans their feelings will at once be friendly?
305-417. On the following morning Aeneas walks forth, attended by Achates alone, to explore the neighboring country. In the forest he is met by Venus disguised as a
huntress, to whom he tells the story of his misfortunes. She directs him to continue his walk until he shall reach the new city of Carthage, where he will meet with a kind reception; assuring him of the safety of the twelve missing ships. She then reveals herself in her real form just as she is vanishing from his sight. Aeneas pursues his way protected by the care of his mother, who renders him and his companion invisible by surrounding them with "obscure air."
305. At. See on 267.-Volvens; equivalent to qui volvebat; who was meditating; Wunderlich makes it · qui volverat; who had pondered, or, after pondering.—306. Ut primum; as soon as. See on 216.-Alma; genial. This clause denotes the time of constituit, not of the infinitives. The infinitives, exire, explorare, and referre depend on constituit: but pious Aeneas, who was (or had been) meditating much throughout the night, when the genial light first dawned resolved to go forth, to explore the new country; to inquire what coasts they have come to by the force of the winds, who inhabit them, whether men or beasts, for he sees (only) a wilderness, and to report to his companions the things ascertained. The interrogative clauses, quos accesserit, and qui teneant, depend on quaerere; Gr. § 265; Z. § 552; the conjunction connecting explorare and quaerere being omitted by asyndeton. Gr. § 323, 1, (1).- -308. Inculta refers to locos and oras. Gr. § 205, R. 2, (2); Z. § 376, b.-Videt lengthens the last syllable here by the ictus. Gr. § 309, R. 1, (1); Z. § 828.- -309. Exacta; the things ascertained.--310. Classem-occulit. Convexus, besides the English signification of convex, has also the sense of curved or circling inward. Here it is a substantive, signifying a deep recess (secessu longo) among the trees, which, according to the description above, 165, crown the precipices surrounding the bay, forming a dark vault of foliage. The passage may be rendered: He conceals the fleet in a deep recess of woods, under the overarching rock, surrounded by trees with their projecting shadows.- -Horrentibus is probably used here in its primitive meaning as above, 165, rough; jutting out, projecting; though some render it by gloomy. Nearly the same description is found in iii. 229, 230, where secessu longo is substituted for convexo.- -312. Comitatus; Gr. § 162, 17; Z. § 632; it is used here not only as a passive, but as a present participle. The regular form would be Achate comitante; comp. secutae for sequentes, 499. This usage of a perfect participle in the sense of a present arose from the want of a present participle in the passive. It is much more frequent in poetry than in prose. Wagner.- -313. Bina; as a cardinal, duo. See note on terna, 266. It was common to carry a pair of spears; see illustration, page 385.- -Crispans; grasping; not brandishing.314. Cui; limits obvia; meeting whom. -315. Virginis-Spartanac. Venus had appeared to Aeneas on other occasions, and especially in the last night of Troy, fully revealed as his divine mother; she now assumes the countenance and dress of a virgin, and also the weapons of the chase, such as befit a Spartan virgin, or a Thracian huntress, like Harpalyce. The repetition of terms, as here in virginis, occurs occasionally in all poetry, and is not unpleasing. See iv. 25, 26. Translate: Having assumed the face
and dress of a virgin, and a Spartan virgin's arms. Wagner puts a comma after arma, thus bringing Spartanae directly into contrast with Threissa; thus the sense would be, the arms of a virgin, (either) Spartan or such as the Thracian Harpalyce, &c.- -Gerens is regarded by some as a zeugma; but this seems unnecessary, as in the sense of "bearing" the word may apply to that which has been assumed, or put on, for the occasion, and hence may with propriety be joined both with os, habitum, and arma. It implies "having assumed," and so "bearing" or "exhibiting.". -316. Vel qualis; or (of such) as the Thracian Harpalyce (is who) tires the horses, &c. We often have with qualis, as here, not only an ellipsis of its antecedent, talis, (see Gr. § 206, 16,) but also of a verb, and sometimes of a connective; here all three are omitted; namely talis, est, qui; comp. below, 498; iv. 143. Harpalyce was a daughter of the Thracian king Harpalycus, and renowned as a huntress. There were poetic traditions, and perhaps statues, in existence, representing her engaged in the chase. Hence the present tense fatigat, and praevertitur.31%. Praevertitur. This verb, in the passive form, is very rarely, as here, followed by the accusative in the sense of outstrip, go before; the active form is much more frequent; as vii. 807, and xii. 345.- -Hebrum is probably the true reading, though Eurum, which has been adopted in some editions, seems more suited to the context. The Hebrus is the modern Maritza, which rises in the Balkan mountains and runs into the Aegaean.- -318. Humeris; suspendere, in v. 489, is followed by ab; sometimes also by ex and de, and also by the dative; as, suspendito arbori, a phrase quoted by Livy (l. 1, c. 26) from an ancient Roman law. -De more; after the manner; that is, of huntresses.- -319. Diffandere; for diffundendam; literally, had given to the winds to diffuse her hair. Gr. § 274, R. 7, (b); Z. § 653. The infinitive in poetry is quite frequently used to denote a purpose. Comp. v. 248, 262, 307; see also note on 66, above.. -320. Genu, sinus; as to the knee, as to the folds; with knee uncovered, and with the folds of her dress gathered up in a knot. Gr. § 234, ii.; Z. § 458; Hor. O. 2, 11, 24; Phyllis in nodum comas religata. The statue of Diana with the stag, which is now in the gallery of the Louvre, and also the one copied below from the Vatican, correspond in drapery to this description. The dress consists of two pieces, the tunic underneath and the mantle over it. The tunic is shortened by being partially drawn up underneath the girdle, and suffered to fall over it in a fold, forming a sort of flounce, and thus bringing the bottom of the tunic a little above the knee. The light and flowing mantle, (peplum,) which is long and wide, is then folded, and knotted round the waist. It is this gathering up of the tunic and knotting of the mantle that Virgil has in mind.- -321. Prior. Gr. § 120, 1, and § 205, R. 15.- -Juvenes; heroes or warriors; not quite youths in our sense.- -322. Vidistis. Gr. § 259, note; Z. § 517, note.Quam, for aliquam. For the gender see Gr. § 205, R. 12.- -324. Aut connects ideas essentially different; as here, errantem, wandering in search