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ablative Virgil uses both cases after defigere, but the ablative is the moro frequent; comp. xii. 130. Defigo, pono, statuo, consido, mergo, take the ablative when the idea of rest is prominent. See also Gr. g 241, R. 5; Z. S 490.227. Tales—curas; meditating upon such cares; such, namely, as are occasioned by the present condition of Aeneas, in Libya, to which especially Jupiter has turned his attention, while he stands “on the summit of heaven." -228. Tristior (quam solita); very sad; with unwonted sadness, for she was by distinction the smiling goddess.--Oculos; the accusative of synecdoche, or “Greek accusative,” limiting suffusa ; literally, suffused as to her eyes. We shall meet with this construction very frequently in poetry. Gr. $ 234, ii. R. 2; Z. § 458.- -229–30. O qui-terres. O thou who rulest the affairs both of men and of gods with thy eternal commands, and dost terrify with thy thunderbolts. The statues of Jupiter often represent him as holding a sceptre in one hand, and in the other a thunderbolt. The latter was to the ancient poets the most forcible symbol of his power and vengeance; comp. Horace, 0. i. 3, 38. Neque per nostrum patimur scelus Iracunda Jovem ponere fulmina. Comp. also iv. 208.- -231. Quid; what offence.Io; against; in this sense it is followed by the accusative. 232. Quibus; dative after clauditur; to whom the whole world is closed. Funera; disasters. Funera signifies here not only deaths, but other great calamities. 233. Ob Italiam; because of Italy; because Juno desires to keep them away from Italy, and so prevent the founding of the Roman empire. -Clauditur. In prose the subjunctive claudatur would be used here; see Gr. § 264, 1, (b), & Z. $ 558; for quibus after tantum would generally have the force of ut iis, and be followed by the subjunctive. The indicative presents the circumstance more vividly as an actual fact, not as a conceived consequence.

-234. Hinc; from hence, from them; referring to Aeneas and the Trojans, and equivalent to ab his.- -Olim; hereafter. Volventibus annis; supply se; ablative absolute; in the course of revolving years, or ages. The participle is used in a passive or reflexive sense. — 235. Fore; would arise. Gr. § 154, R. 3. It is here equivalent to oritur vs

-Revocato; restored or re-established. The blood or race of Teucer, the Cretan ancestor of the Trojans, has well-nigh perished in the fall of Troy; Jupiter has promised that it shall be revived in Italy through Aeneas and his followers. -236. Omni dicione; with unlimited sway. Omni implies that nothing whatever shall be wanting to their absolute power.Qui tenerent; what would be the tense and mode in the oratio recta? See below, 287.- -237. Pollicitus. The best authorities make pollicitus here a participle, and not pollicitus es, as indicated by the punctuation in some editions. With our punctuation, we must consider the nominative as a substitute for the accusative agreeing with te, and translate as if the sentence were, certe Romanos fore ductores pollicitum quae te sententia vertit; .what purpose has changed thee, O father, having (once) promised that from this source there should spring Roman leaders, &c. ? This imperfection in the structure of a sentence, which arises from haste and excitement, causing the speaker to begin with one construction and end with a different one, is called anacoluthon; see Gr. § 323, 3, (5).- -238. Hoc; ablat. with this; supply promisso. -Occasam—solabar; I was consoling the fall and sad ruins of Troy; instead of me solabar de occasu; I was consoling myself for the fall. After solor either the accusative of the person exercising the feeling, or of the emotion itself, or, as here, the acc. of that which causes the emotion, may be used. Comp. A. x. 829, xii. 110.- -239. Fatis, ablative of price. Supply melioribus, or aliis; with other (or propitious) fates ; their promised kingdom in Italy. Contraria; adverse.- -Rependens; balancing, or off setting. -240. Nanc is emphatic, even now, when we had a right to look for better fortunes.- -242. Antenor; a Trojan prince, nephew of king Priam. He escaped from Troy, and followed by a large number of Heneti of Paphlagonia, as well as by some of his own countrymen, he landed at the north-western part of the gulf of Venice, and founded the city of Patavium, or Padua. Livy 1, c. 1) says the place where he first landed was called Troja, and his new nation the Veneti.- -Tutus; safe; notwith. standing the warlike character of the Illyrians and the Liburni, and the dangers of the navigation.-244. Superare; to pass by.- -Timayi. This little stream, the importance of which was much exaggerated by ancient writers, is a few miles north-west of Trieste. It is thus described in Murray's Handbook for Southern Germany: “Near San Giovanni the sources of the Timao (the classic Timavus) burst out of the foot of a bare rock from under the road in a vast volume, and form at once a river, which after a course of a mile enters the Adriatic. (Hence Antenor is said to pass by the fountain.) The number of sources (ora) is variously stated: a recent traveller mentions 4; Strabo speaks of 7; Virgil 9. It is believed that these sources are the outlet of a river which buries itself in the mountain at St. Canzian.”245. Vasto—montis. See above, note on 55.- -246. It—sonanti; it rolls (as) a dashing sea ; and covers the fields with its sounding flood. It seems natural to explain mare as in apposition with fons; but some of the best critics make proruptum the supine after it, and mare either the object of the supine or of in understood; it goes to break the sea; or into the sea. 247. Hic tamen; here nevertheless, that is, though he encountered these perils in coasting the Adriatic, yet here, in this region, he founded the city of Patavium and the dwellings of Trojans.—Patavi. On the case, Gr. $ 204, R. 6: on the crasis, Gr. § 306, (5). -248. Nomen; he called the nation Veneti, gave name to the nation; see note on 242. Or it may be understood, he gave his own name to the nation, calling them Antenoridae.

esse.

-Arma fixit; suspended his arms. In token of gratitude for the successful achievement of his enterprise and the termination of his wars, he fastened his arms to the walls or pillars of the temple of his patron deity.- -249. Compostus, for compositus. Gr. 8 322, 4. This verb often denotes, as here, the last offices performed in the sepulture of the dead, implying especially the depositing of the body, or of the funeral urn, in the tomlı, buried he rests in peace. It is forcing the language too much from its usage, to make it refer to the tranquil old age, rather than the death of Antenor.-—250. Nos, expresses forcibly the maternal feeling of Venus, which makes the interest of Aeneas her own, and places her, as it were, among his companions in suffering. -Coeli arcem; the abode of heaven; Olympus. The poets are fond of designating it by such expressions as arx coeli, aetherea domus, lucidae sedes, igneae arces, and the like.-_Annuis arcem; thou promisest ; literally, thou noddest to. Jupiter has at some time promised that Aeneas shall be received into heaven after his death.-251. Infandum; O wrong unutterable! Exclamations, either with or without an interjection, are in the accusative. Gr. § 238, 2; Z. $ 402.-Amissis. Only one ship was actually lost.

-Unius, refers to Juno. See note on 41, and compare the quantities of unius in that verse and this. -252. Prodimur. This word casts reproach, by implication, upon Jupiter himself, and is justified by the heavy grievances of which she complains. “We are betrayed; we are left unprotected (by thee) from the cruel machinations of Juno, though we are but obeying your will and that of fate.”. - 253. Sic—reponis ? dost thou thus restore us to power? Is it thus that thou fulfillest thy promise of re-establishing our Trojan empire in Italy ?- -Sceptra, the symbol of power, instead of imperium. Gr. $ 324, 2. In prose the sentence would be: sic nos in imperium restitvis ? Repono is followed by the accusative with a preposition, or by the ablative.- -254. Olli is often used by the poets for illi. Gr. § 134, R. 1; Z. § 132. -Subridens. Gr. § 197; Z. § 329.- -256. Dehinc. See note on 131. -Oscula libavit natae ; he kissed the lips of his daughter. -25%. Meta; for metui. See above on 156. -Cytherea. Venus was so called from the island of Cythera, near which she sprung from the sea.

-Immota; in the predicate; remain unmoved. -Tibi ; not thy fates, but the fates of thy people remain unmoved to thee. For this usage of the dative of personal pronouns, see Gr. § 228, note (a); Z. $ 408. It is termed the dativus ethicus, and indicates personal interest or sympathy.Lavini; for Lavinii. See note on Patavi, 247.- -259. Sublimem. This adjective denotes in its primitive signification either the direction or situation of the object with which it agrees: on high, aloft.-Feres ad sidera coeli; in accordance with the promise alluded to above (250), Coeli annuis -261. Hic refers to Aeneas.- -Quando; since.

Haec cura; equivalent to cura de hoc; anxiety on his account. Madvig, § 314. Kemordet; continually worries. -262. And unrolling farther I will declare the secrets of the fates. — Volvens, is descriptive of the opening of a scroll or volume, in which the decrees of fate are conceived to be written. Cic. Brut. 87, 298; volvendi sunt libri.- Movebo. I will declare ur rehearse. From the frequent signification of this verb to open, or enter upon, (as, for example, to “start” some new theme,) it is occasionally used in the sense here given to it. Comp. vii. 45, 641, x. 163, and Hor.0.3,720, historias movet. -263. Italia; in Italy. See note on Italiam, 2. -264. Mores ponet; he shall establish laws (mores), and a city (moenia) for his people (viris). Ponere is used alike with mores (or leges), and with moenia. Mores, is here constitution, or civil organization, and laws. Comp. vi. 852, viii. 316. Some understand by viris the conquered people, the Rutuli and Etrusci, or feroces populos, mentioned in 263. But we have below, 507, dabat leges viris, said of Dido and her own people, where viris stands precisely in the same relation to the queen as the same word here to Aeneas.- -265, 266. He shall be engaged in this work of establishing his power (shall reign) three years, after having subdued Turnus and the Rutulians. Then (we are to understand) he shall be taken into heaven. According to some traditions Aeneas was drowned in the Numicius; according to others he was slain in battle, and buried on the banks of that river. This period of three years is expressed here by tertia aestas and terna hiberna, meaning three summers and three winters. -Regnantem is not beginning his reign,” but “continuing his reign.” For the distributiv numeral in terna hiberna (tempora), see Gr. § 120, 4; Z. $ 119. Wunderlich is followed by Thiel and others in making Rutalis subactis the dative after transierint, by a Greek construction. But whether we take it as a dative, or as an ablative absolute, which seems preferable, the sense is, “after the subjection of the Rutulians." Literally, until the third summer shall have seen him reigning, and three winters shall have passed away, the Rutulians having been subdued. -267. At often denotes the transition to a new idea or new topic, not inconsistent with the foregoing, but merely different from it. But and now are so used in English. Ascanius, the son of Aeneas and Creüsa, is accompanying his father in his wanderings.-Iulo. For the dative case here see Gr. $ 204, R. 8; Z. § 421, note. The name Tulus appears to have been invented by the Julian family, or by their eulogists, as the form from which to derive Julius, and as bearing some resemblance to the name of the Trojan king Ilus, founder of Ilium. No authentic tradition ascribed such a name to Ascanius, or, as he was also named, Euryleon. Julius Caesar, in his eulogy upon his deceased aunt, Julia the wife of Marius, boasted of this high descent! Paternum genus cum diis immortalibus conjunctum est-nam a Venere Julii cujus gentis familia est nostra. Suet. Jul. Caes. 1, 7. -268. Ilas. Ascanius is fancied to have been so called after his ancestor, the king mentioned in the last note. -Dum-regno; while the Nian state flourished in its sovereign power. Res is frequently state or commonwealth. Regno is an ablative of manner. -269. Magnos—orbes; great circles of revolving months; that is, great annual circles or years, each of which consists of revolving moons or months. The same idea is expressed in 46. Volvendis for volventibus. See the same usage of this participle, ix. 7; Gr. $ 274, R. 9; Z. $ 471.Mensibus is an ablative of description or quality. Gr. § 211, R. 6. Ramshorn quotes the following, among many examples of this usage of the ablative: accepi tuam epistolam vacillantibus literulis. Cic. ad Fam. 16, 15.

arcem.

manner.

Others take it less correctly as an ablative absolute. -270, 271. The idea of Virgil seems to be this: In the course of his reign of thirty years he shall transfer the seat of royal power from Lavinium to Alba. Other accounts say that Ascanius removed the seat of government to Alba in the 30th year of his reign.--Vi; strength, not only in position and fortifications, but in population and resources.- -Maniet, for exstruet. Very often this verb signifies, not to strengthen that which has been already built, but to build strong, or simply, to build.. -272. Hic jam ; here then; or here from that time.-273. Hectorea. An emphatic substitute for Trojana, as Hector was the most renowned hero of Troy. Regina sacerdos-Ilia. Change the order slightly, and translate, a priestess, daughter of a king, (and) of Trojan descent. Ilia, or Rhea Silvia, was the mother of the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus; she was the daughter of the Alban king, Numitor, and is hence called both regina, which means, here, princess, and Nia, or Trojan, because the Alban royal family was founded by the Trojan Ascanius. She was a priestess of Vesta.—274. Partu dabit, for edet, shall bear. Partu is an ablative of

-275. Lapae nutricis. The infants, Romulus and Remus, were nourished by a she-wolf until they were discovered by the shepherd Faustulus. In allusion to this story Romulus was probably sometimes represented in statues clothed in the hide (tegmine) of a wolf; or, at least, his helmet was adorned with a portion of the hide. In like manner an ancient statue of Hercules, in the Berlin museum, represents that hero clad in the skin of the Nemean lion. Translate : rejoicing in the skin of the nursing wolf; that is, a wolf such as nursed him. He did not actually wear the hide of his fostermother. -Tegmine; ablative after laetus, which is used poetically to sig. nify possessing or using, with the accessory idea of pleasure or advantage. It is analogous to the ablat. after contentus, preditus, and fretus, as explained by Ramshorn, $ 142, 3, and Madvig, § 268, c. ; comp. below, 696.-276. Bomulus-gentem; Romulus shall receive the race (under his power); succeed to the dominion. Gentem is the Alban or Trojan nation. Excipere is properly to take, either for a good or an evil purpose, that which is passing along or away. See Döderlein. The Ascanian dynasty of Alban kings terminates with Amulius and Numitor. Romulus receives the dominion which is passing away with them, and re-establishes it in Rome. -276, 277. Mavortia moenia. The walls, or city of Mars. Rome is so called because its founder, Romulus, is the son of Mavors, or Mars.—De; comp. 367, 533.- -278. His. The Romans. -Ego. The expression of the pronoun gives greater weight to the promise ; even I, who have the power both to promise and fulfil.

-Nec-pono; I. assign neither boundaries nor periods to their power. Metas refers to the territorial extent, and tempora to the duration of their dominion.- -279. Sine fine; unending. Rome is the "eternal city.”—Quin; nay, even, what is still more worthy of remark.

-280. Metu is understood by some as referring to her fear for Carthage,

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