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sonal verb.-136. Post-luetis; hereafter you will expiate your deeds to me by a different punishment.--139. Sorte. The whole kingdom of Saturn was allotted to Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto; the former receiving heaven, Neptune the water, and Pluto the regions under the earth.—140-141. Aula-regnet ; let him display his power (se jactet) in that court, and rule supreme (regnet) in the shut up prison of the winds. This is spoken with contempt, which is implied especially in the expression clauso carcere, as contrasted with the wide dominion of Neptune. -Eurus alone is mentioned by name, though vestras shows that all the winds are addressed. 142. Dicto; Gr. 8 256, R. 9; Z. $ 484.- -144. Adnixus is instead of the usual construction in the plural, adnici ; it refers both to the Nereid Cymothoe and to the sea god, Triton. Gr. § 205, Exc. to R. 2. The above is a representation of a family of Tritons from a beautiful antique gem.145. Scopulo. This is the same as the saxa latentia, above, 108. For the case, see Gr. § 242.-146. Aperit syrtes; opens the sand; the agger arenae mentioned in 112.-147. Rotis; in his chariot.- -148. Ac veluti. The poet bas in mind such scenes as often transpired in the Roman forum in his own day.- Saepe implies quod saepe accidit ; as often happens. Comp. x. 723. -150. Observe the caesura here in the fourth foot. Arma refers to faces et saxa. Their fury seizes such arms as stones and fire. brands only; because no citizen was allowed to carry warlike weapons with in the walls of Rome.- -151. Pietate gravem ac meritis; revered on accouni of his religious purity, and (public) services.- -152. Adstant; stand fixed.
-155. Invectus; borne along in the open air; the participle perfect used as a present ; see Madvig, § 431, b. -156. Carra-secundo; gives the reins to his swiftly gliding chariot. Curru is the contracted form of the dative, currui. Gr. $ 89, 3. Others regard it here as an ablative, joined with volans, supplying equis in the dative after dat.
157-222. Aeneas with seven of his ships lands in a secure haven, not far from the new city of Carthage. Leaving his companions a while, he ascends the neighboring rocks to obtain a view of the sea, in the hope of descrying the rest of his fleet. He falls in with a herd of deer, and thus secures food for his friends, whom he addresses, on returning, with consoling words.
15%. Aeneadae. Followers of Aeneas. Gr. § 100, i. (3).- -Quaelitora. Gr. § 206, (3). The shores which are nearest. Supply sunt. See Gr. 8 209, R. 4; Z. 8 776.– -158. Libyae. The country around Carthage was strictly Africa; Libya was the region between Africa and Egypt; but the poets use geographical terms with great freedom.-159. Secessa longo; in a deep recess. It is not likely that Virgil is describing a real scene on the African coast, though some have tried to identify the spot.
-160. Insula-laterum; an island forms a haven by the opposition of its sides. Lying along in front of the cove, and against (ob) the sea, it forms a natural breakwater.- -Quibus, the ablative, means of frangitur and scindit: by which every wave from the deep is broken, and divides itself into the deep windings of the bay; that is, rolls broken, and so with diminished force, into the haven. Heyne, however, understands by reductos sinus the “receding curves” formed by the wave itself. -162. Hinc atque hinc; on this side and on this; on either side ; not hinc atque illinc, because the two points are conceived to be equally near to the spectator.– -Gemini; two similar cliffs; two rocky promontories, forming the opposite extremities or headlands of the cove. - 164. Tum-umbra; at the same time a curtain of woods with glancing foliage, and a mass of trees dark with roughening shadow overhang from above. The rocky heights which form the sides and back part of the haven are crowned all around with dark masses of trees, whose foliage, agitated by the wind, and constantly varying in light ana shade, is described as glancing in the light, or coruscating. Virgil applies the term scena, stage-view, to this landscape, because it resembles the stage of the Roman theatre, when prepared for the sports of fauns and satyrs. For on such occasions the side walls of the stage, which in the Roman theatre curved towards the middle, and the back wall, which was straight, were decorated with paintings or painted hangings of trees and glades to represent a sylvan scene. -Silvis coruscis; an ablative of quality or description; usually rendered like the genitive: of flashing woods. See Gr. $ 211, R. 6; Z. § 471, note. The usage is described by Madvig thus: The ablative of a substantive combined with an adjective (participle or pronoun) is subjoined to a substantive by way of description either directly or after the verb esse, to denote the quality and character of a person or thing. Madv. § 272.
-165. Desaper; from above; in contrast with sub vertice.—Horrenti; I prefer the literal meaning, rough, bristling, projecting, according to Wag. ner's interpretation, as more appropriate here than the translation gloomy, awe-inspiring, which is more generally given.-- Nemus is added to scena by way of epexegesis, or more elaborate description. — 166. Fronte sub adversa ; beneath the brow of the cliffs opposite; opposite, namely, to one entering the bay; therefore situated at the inmost point of the bay. Scopulis pendentibus; of overhanging rocks ; cliffs overhanging so as to form a grotto.—167. Vivo; natural, unquarried.--Saxo, the ablative of quality, as in 164; seats of living rock. -Unco-morsa ; with crooked fuke. See the description of the anchor in Smith's Dic. Antiq., p. 58. In the Homeric period stones were used for anchors. -171. Subit. This verb often expresses the idea of approaching a lofty object, such as a hill, the wall of a city, or as here, a bold shore.- -Amore. Ablat. of manner. Gr. § 247; Z. § 472.- -173. Tabentes; drenched.- -In litore; Gr. § 241, R. 5. -174. Silici. Gr. § 224, R. 2. First Achates struck a spark from the flint, and caught the fire in leaves, and placed dry materials around (it), and rapidly roused the flame in the dry wood. Literally, seized the flame in the dry fuel. Wagner fancies that the process of swinging the combustibles rapidly round with the hand, after they were partially ignited, is signified by the words rapuit in fomite flammam.- -177. Cererem; the wheat.Cerealia arma ; utensils for preparing the wheat. Gr. 128, i. 2 (a 178. Fessi rerum ; weary with their fortunes. Gr. § 213, R. 2; Z. § 437.
-Receptas; recovered; i. e. from the sea.- -179. Torrere; to roast; in order to prepare it the better for crushing with the stone.-181. Pelago; dative for in pelagus; it limits prospectum, a verbal from prospicere; a view far seaward; a prospect far and wide over the sea. See above, on 126.Anthea. Gr. $ 86. -Si quem ; in agreement with Anthea ; whether he may see any (one as) Antheus, &c.; the idea is: if he might see any one, as, for example, Antheus; comp. iv. 328.- -Si is here interrogative (Gr. § 198, ii. 11, R. e; Z. § 354, end), and connects some clause understood, as ut se certiorem faciat, with the following videat: to ascertain whether he may see ; comp. E. 6, 56, 57; and below, 322.-182. Phrygias ; Trojan. As Troy was included in what was often called Phrygia Minor, the Roman poets fre. quently use the term Phrygius for Trojanus.- -Biremes; for ships in general. For the form of Roman ships see woodcut at the beginning of notes on Book 3d.- -183. Arma. Perhaps the shields were fastened on the stern and sides of the ship, as was the custom in the middle ages; the shield of the commander being conspicuous by the device emblazoned on its front.
-185. Armenta. The plural is designed merely to indicate a large num. ber, not a herd to each of the leaders, or stags. Whole herds follow these from behind, and the extended train feeds along the valleys.- -186. A tergo. “The preposition a or ab frequently denotes the side on which something happens, or, rather, from whence it proceeds.” Z. $ 304, b.- -190. Cornibus arboreis. Join with alta : high with branching horns; comp. viii. 417.
-Valgus; the herd, as opposed to ductores.- -192. Victor; victorious. Verbals in tor are often used adjectively. Gr. § 129, 8; Z. § 102, note 2.
-193. Fandat et aequet. The subjunctive implies not only that he does not actually cease, but that he does not intend to cease from the chase, before he has killed the seven. See Gr. g 263, 3.-Hami; Gr. § 221, R. 3; Z. § 400.-194. Hinc postea; thereupon. -195. Deinde ; usually a dissyllable in poetry; dein-de. In prose the order would be, Deinde vina quae bonus dcestes heros, sq. Comp. iii. 609. Bonus; generous.- --Cadis; dative for the prosaic construction in the accusative, with ablative of quae : quibus cados onerarat: with which (wines) he had loaded the casks. Comp. viii. 180. The amphorae, or large jars with two handles, in which wir was usually kept, are meant by cadis ; see page 595. Acestes, the son of a Trojan woman named Segesta, dwelt in the western part of Sicily, and had hospitably entertained Aeneas and his followers there during the winter just passed. -196. Abeuntibus; to them (the Trojans) when departing; namely, at the commencement of their present voyage, as described above, 34.198. Enim gives the ground of some proposition understood, as, “We must not despair,” or, “I have reason to encourage you." —Ante malorum; of former evils ; equivalent to praeteritorum malorum ; see Gr. § 205, R. 11, (b). After ante there is strictly an ellipsis of quae acciderunt; see Gr. $ 277, R. 1; Z. $ 262, note.- -200. Scyllaeam-experti. See iii. 554, where their approach to Scylla and Charybdis, and their meeting with the Cyclops, Polyphemus, are described. --Seyllaeam rabiem ; the rage of Scylla. We shall find adjectives derived from proper names very often substituted for the genitive case; as, Hectoreum corpus, ii. 543; Herculeo amictu, vii. 669; see Z. $ 684. -201. Accestis, for accessistis. Gr. § 162, (c); Z. $ 160, 2.
-203. Et haec; these sufferings also; these we now endure as well as those I have just mentioned.- Et is not often used in the sense of etiam, and when translated by “also,” there is almost invariably an ellipsis of an et preceding, as here; et illa, quae dixi, et haec. -204. Discrimina rerum ; perils of fortune. Discrimen is the decisive point, the crisis of affairs. 205. Tendimus. Supply iter or cursum, which are often omitted after this verb.
We hold our way.- -Fata—ostendunt. The fates have been revealed to Aeneas by the ghost of Hector, ii. 295; and by that of Crëusa, ii. 781; by the oracle at Delos, iii. 94; by the vision of the Penates, iii. 163; by the prophecies of Cassandra, iii. 183; by that of the harpy Caelaeno, iii. 253; and by that of Helenus, iii. 374.- -206. Illic-Trojae; there it is right for the realms of Troy to rise again. Fas is properly that which is right according to divine laws, or in the sight of God. — -208. Acger; desponding. 209. Observe the emphasis given to spem vultu and corde dolorem, both by their position in the verse and by the reversed order of the words.- -210. Dapibus. Gr. § 94. The caesura here occurs in the 4th foot.- -211. Tergora-nudant; they strip the hides from the ribs, and lay bare the flesh.
-Costis denotes here the carcases, and viscera the fleshy parts, or all within the hide; comp. viii. 180.- -212. Pars, as a collective noun, is followed here by a verb in the plural. Gr. $ 209, R. 11. The singular number, however, is the regular construction in Latin.-Trementia ; even while still quivering. - -213. Aena; bronze vessels. Such have been found at Pompeii more frequently than those of iron. The water was heated, says
Servius, not for cooking any portion of the flesh, for boiling was not then practised, but for washing the hands. Perhaps, however, the poet had in mind, as is frequently the case, the customs of his own times.- -214-15. Fasi— ferinae. And, reclined along the grass, they fill themselves (lit., are being filled) with old wine, and the fat game. After ferinae supply carnis ; see Gr. $ 205, R. 7, (1).- -Bacchi is put for wine, as above, 177, Ceres for wheat. So frequently Vulcan for fire, Jupiter for the sky, &c. For the genitive after implentur, see Gr. $ 220, 3; Z. § 463.- -216. Postquam, and other adverbs of time, when they signify as soon as, are followed by the perfect (or imperfect) rather than by the pluperfect. Gr. § 259, R. 1, (2), (d); Z. $ 507, b.-Mensae remotae; the viands were removed ; literally, the tables. The expression is derived not from the practice of the heroic, but from that of the Augustan age, when light, movable tables were often used, on which the food was brought into the triclinium, and placed before the guests. See woodcut, page 360. Hence the removal of tables came to signify the removal of the food. -217. Amissos-requirunt; they mourn in continued conversation their missing friends. Requirunt here is very nearly desiderant, regret.- -218. Credant depends on dubii. Gr. § 265. Seu and sive are used by poetic license for utrum and an, whether, or. 219. Extrema pati; that they are suffering the last; that they are dying.Vocatos; when called. Perhaps Virgil alludes to the custom of pronouncing the word vale over the body of the dead, as soon as he had ceased to breathe, and also at the funeral pyre, when the body had been burned. — 220. Oronti. Gr. § 86.- –221. Secum ; with himself, because, as mentioned above, 209, he disguises his grief from his followers.
223-305. A scene in Olympus. Venus appears before Jupiter, while he is contemplating the affairs of men, and with tears complains of the hardships of Aeneas, who is debarred, through the anger of Juno, from his destined home in Italy, in spite of his piety, and the fates, and the promises of Jupiter, while Antenor, another Trojan prince, has been permitted already to find a resting-place on the shores of the Adriatic. Jupiter consoles her by reaffirming the promise that she shall hereafter receive her son into Olympus, and that his descendants in Italy, the Romans, shall rule the world. Mercury is then sent down to Carthage, in order to exercise a secret influence on queen Dido and the Carthaginians, that they may be prepared to give the Trojans a friendly reception.
223. Finis; an end, i. e. of their mournful conversation.- -Aethere summo; from the summit of the sky; or Olympus. For the case, see Gr. $ 242.-221. Despiciens; looking downward; the opposite of suspiciens, looking upward. Gr. § 197, 7.--Velivolum; studded with sails. The term is more commonly applied to the ship “flying with sails,” but is here transferred to the sea itself. -Jacentes; spread out; as they would appear when seen from a great height above.- -225. Latos populos late habitantes, the nations dwelling far and wide.-Sic recalls despiciens, and. is virtually a repetition of it: thus (looking downward I say). Comp. vii. 663, viii. 488.- -226. Constitit; he stood.-Regnis. Either dative or