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Bee Gr. § 279, 10. f.—Longe is joined with contra. Not only opposite but far opposite; separated from the mouth of the Tiber by the Mediterranean sea.- −14. Dives etc.; rich in resources, and formidable in the pursuits of war. For the genitive after dives see Gr. § 213, R. 1, 3; Z. §§ 436, 437, n. 2.- -15. Terris magis · magis quam terras. For the ablative after the comparative, instead of the accusative of the object, see Gr. § 256, R. 5; Z. § 484. Unam. This word is often used emphatically, to signify one in particular, and here the emphasis is increased by its position at the end of the verse.- —16. Posthabita Samo; (even) Samos being less esteemed. The most ancient temple and worship of Juno were in the island of Samos, where she was nurtured, and where she was married to Jupiter. The o in Samo is not elided here, and yet retains its quantity; the hiatus being relieved by the caesural pause, as well as by the division of the sentence.- -17. Hie currus fuit. The gods, like the heroes, used war chariots. See page 523. That of Juno is described in the Iliad, v. 720-33, where she comes down with Minerva from Olympus, to aid the Greeks at Troy. Mars kept his chariot in Thrace, that is, was the patron god of the Thracians (see iii. 13), and thus Juno, according to the poet's fancy, kept hers at Carthage; though in fact the patron goddess of Carthage, Astarte, was represented as seated, not in a chariot, but on the back of a lion.- -Hoc agrees with the following noun, regnum, according to Gr. § 206, (8); Z. § 372, though it refers to urbs. Regnum esse; to be the ruling power over the nations. The infinitive after fovet instead of ut sit. Regnum is a substitute for regno, a dative of “the end,” and gentibus a dative of “the object," governed by esse. See Gr. § 227, R. 4.- -18. Si qua; if in any way.- Sinant; the present subjunctive indicates doubting and uncertainty. Gr. § 261, 2 & R. 2; Z. § 524.—Jam tum; even then; so early in the history of Carthage, before it was even completely built, and before it had subdued even the neighboring tribes of Africa. Tendit fovet; literally, she strives and longs; translate, makes it even then her aim and purpose that this may be the ruling power of the nations. The couplet, que-que, for et—et, both—and, is rarely found except in poetry. Gr. § 198, ii. 1, R. (e); Z. § 338.- -19. Sed enim; an elliptical expression; but (she feared for Carthage) for she had heard.Duci; was descending; more literally, was being derived: the race was even then springing up. Thus Thiel; but the Gr. § 268, R. 3, takes duci here as a substitute for ductum iri.- -20. Quae verteret; the subjunctive under Gr. § 264; See on 287. The imperfect subjunctive often serves as a future in relation to past tenses. The "overthrow of the Tyrian citadels" has reference to the sack of Carthage by Scipio Aemilianus, B. C. 146.21. Hinc; from hence; that is, from this offspring; ex hac progenie; by some, however, hinc is taken here as an adverb of time; then, immediately after the fall of Carthage.- -Late regem; for late regnantem; ruling far ana wide. This usage of the substantive for an adjective or participle is chiefly poetical. See Madvig, § 301, c., obs. 2. For the adverb before rex, see

Gr. § 277, R. 1; Z. § 262, note.- -22. Excidio Libyae; to the destruction of Africa; literally, for destruction to Libya. For the two datives see Gr. § 227; Z. § 422. After the Scipios had destroyed the power of Carthage, the succeeding generations of Romans rapidly advanced to the conquest of the world, thus becoming late regem, everywhere supreme. Libya is often used for Africa.—Volvere; to decree. The three Parcae are Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. The first is fancied to draw the thread from the distaff, the second to wind or twist it by turning (volvere) the spindle, and the last to decide the destinies of men by cutting the thread with the shears.. But volvere may have reference merely to the revolving or circling of events (see on 9), and not to this fanciful representation of the fates.−23. Id;

the destiny of Rome and Carthage above described.- -Veteris; not ancient; but either former or long continued.- -Saturnia; a term applied to Juno as the daughter of Saturn.- -24. Prima; foremost. She was the leader and chief instigator of the gods and heroes who fought on the Grecian side at Troy; comp. ii. 613.- Quod. See on qui, above, 1.- -Pro Argis; for Greece.- -25. Nec dum etiam; nor even yet. Not only was the war itself still fresh in her memory, with all the irritating circumstances attending the ten years' siege of Troy, but she had not ceased to think of the three provocations which had preceded and brought about the war. The passage from 25 to 28, inclusive, is a parenthesis.- -26. Repostum; for repositum.— 27. Injuria is explanatory of judicium.—Formae; an objective genitive; Gr. § 211, R. 2.- -28. Invisum; hated, odious; on account of her jealousy of Electra, from whom and Jupiter the Trojan race descended.Rapti. Ganymede, according to the myth, when hunting on Mount Ida, was seized by the eagle of Jupiter, or by Jupiter in the form of an eagle, and carried to Olympus. See woodcut, page 475.- -29. The construction of the sentence, interrupted by the four preceding parenthetical lines, is here resumed. His accensa super; being inflamed by these things moreover namely, by the three circumstances just mentioned. These causes of hostility are added to her jealousy for Carthage. Super, according to the best annotators, is used here adverbially for insuper; others make it a preposition, and join it with his; see Gr. § 279, 10, (f.)—30. Troas; for this form of the accusative see heros, Gr. § 86.- -Reliquias Danaum; for reliquias Danais ereptas; the remnant escaped from the Greeks; referring to Aeneas and his followers. Danaum, genit. as superum, above, 4.- -Achilli. For this form of the genit. see Gr. § 86; Z. § 61, 1.- -31. Arcebat; was repelling from. Gr. § 251. She did this by stratagems, not by direct opposition; she instigated the inferior powers, as for example, Aeolus, Iris, and Allecto, to injure the Trojans.- -32. Acti fatis; led by the fates; see on fato profugus, 2.- -Circum; see on contra, above, 13, and Z. § 324.- -33. Molis is equivalent to laboris. For the genit. see Gr. § 211, R. 8, (3); Z. § 426; literally: to found the Roman nation was (a thing) of so great labor.

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34-49. Six years after the fall of Troy (see introductory note to Book Third) Aeneas and his followers arrived at Drepanum, in the west of Sicily, where they were hospita bly entertained by Acestes, a prince of Trojan descent. During this visit Anchises, the father of Aeneas, died. The Trojans were now, in the seventh summer, setting sail again from Drepanum, joyful (laeti) in the hope of soon reaching Italy, the end of their wanderings. The narrative therefore begins in the middle of the adventures which form the subject of the poem What had previously transpired is related by Aeneas himself in the second and third books.

34. In altum vela dabant; were unfurling their sails for the deep; ventis is understood after dabant: were giving their sails to the winds.- -35. Salis; Sal is frequent for mare.-Aere; with the brazen ship. Sometimes the whole ship was coppered, but more frequently the prow alone, or the stern and prow. Aere is here used, as we often find trabs or pinus, for the ship itself. Some refer aere to the three projecting points of metal which formed the rostrum, or beak of the ship; but these were of iron. See Smith's Dic. Antiq., article rostrum. On the form of the ship, see woodcut, page 406; on the rostrum, page 598.- -Ruebant is here transitive; ploughed or cut, as G. ii. 308; ruit nubem. Comp. x., 214.- -36. Aeternum servans vulnus; cherishing the eternal wound; the bitter grief mentioned in 25.37. Mene-desistere. Am I to desist from my purpose, defeated? A vehement question is often expressed by an infinitive standing unconnected. Gr. § 270, R. 2, (a); Zumpt, § 609, supposes an ellipsis of credibile est, or verumne est ?. -39. Quippe; because forsooth. The following sentence, Pallasne etc., in less excited style would have been affirmative with at tamen, instead of being expressed in the more forcible interrogative form. -Classem Argivum; a, not the, fleet of the Greeks. Virgil often uses the terms Argos and Argivi, for Greece and Greeks in general; as above, 24.-10. Ipsos; themselves, personally, as distinguished from the ships. Comp. iii. 619. Ponto. After mergo and submergo the ablative, either with sub or in, or without a preposition, is used. See vi. 342; also below, 584. Rams. horn's Gram., § 150, B. 4.- -41. Unius; of one only. Pallas was angry with Ajax alone, and friendly to the rest of the Greeks, whereas Juno was angry with the whole of the Trojan race. The i in unius is scanned short here, as frequently in genitives of this termination. Gr. § 283, exc. 4; Z. § 16.Ob noxam; the outrage offered to Cassandra by Ajax the less, or the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva, during the sack of Troy. See ii. 403–405. Pallas, enraged on account of this violation of her sanctuary, raised a storm against the fleet of Ajax, on his return from Troy, when passing near the Euboean promontory of Caphareus, destroying the fleet, and killing Ajax himself with lightning. His body was then cast by the waves upon the rocks.—Oileì is a trisyllable; the genitive of the noun Oileus, not of the adjective Oilēüs. The genitive limits filius understood; the son of O-i-leus. See Gr. § 211, R. 7; Z. § 761. The other Ajax, called "the greater," was the son of Telamon.. -42. Ipsa signifies that Pallas did this herself, personally, without the interposition of any other divinity. Only Pallas and



-43. Juno were allowed to hurl the thunderbolt. Comp. iv. 122, xii. 812.Him breathing forth flames from his breast pierced (with the thunderbolt). -45. Infigo takes indifferently the dative or ablative. Comp. v. 504, ix. -46. Ego, contrasted with Pallas.- -Divum; for divorum. See on superum, 4. -Incedo, is a majestic walk. Comp. 405. It is substituted here for sum to express in a livelier manner the conscious su periority of Juno.-Regina; Gr. § 210, (a).47. Soror. Juno and Jupiter were children of Sat-48. Praeterea; for posthac, hereafter.---Aris; imponere takes the dative more frequently than the ablative. The indicative, adorat and imponet, has better manuscript authority here than the subjunctive, given in some editions. The indicative also expresses the idea more forcibly; surely no one henceforth adores, no one will bring sacrifice. The present is occasionally found for the future. See ii. 322.- -Junonis is more forcible than meum would have been. See on 354.

50-63. Description of the realm of Aeolus in the Liparæan islands.

51. Loca; Gr. § 204, R. 3.- -Austris; with furious winds; the names of particular winds are often put for the general term. For the ablative, see Gr.


§ 250, 2, (1); Z. § 462; comp. ii. 238. The Auster was a south wind, dry, hot, and violent.- -52. Aeoliam; one of the Lipari islands, north-east of Sicily;

perhaps Lipara itself. See the account of Aeolus in the Classical Dictionary.—Antro; join with premit; it does not denote the situation of Aeolus, but of the winds alone. They are represented as luctantes, struggling; that is, with each other. Comp. ii. 417.54. Vinclis; by confinement; not, by chains.- -55. Magno cum murmure montis ; with the loud re-echoing of the mountain; the mountain resounds with the roaring of the winds, impatient at being thus confined, and furious to burst the barriers. Comp. below, 245.56. Arce. His palace was built on the summit of a mountain, and is called in 140 aula. Here Ulysses was entertained by Aeolus, or Hippotades, as described at the beginning of the Tenth Book of the Odyssey. Virgil conceives of the king seated on a throne in the open air. -58. Ni faciat, ferant verrant. For the present subjunctive, see Gr. § 261, 2; Z. § 524; also Madvig, § 347, obs. 1; comp. ii. 599, vi. 293, xi. 912. The present in these examples is used for the sake of greater liveliness, to represent as possible a thing which is believed in itself impossible or improbable. -59. Quippe ; for, because; it is removed from its proper place, at the beginning of the sentence, by poetic license; translate, for should he not do this, they would swiftly bear away with themselves the seas and lands and deep heaven, and sweep them through the air.-60. Speluncis. For the case, comp. ii. 553; though the ablative also occurs after abdere.61. Molem et montes altos. An instance of hendiadys, for molem montium altorum. Gr. § 323, 2, (3); Z. § 741.- -Insuper; above or upon them; comp. iii. 579; though some prefer to render it moreover.- -62. Foedere certo; according to a determinate law. Gr. § 249, ii. Join with the infinitives.- -63. Premere; to restrain (them); eos, understood, is the object. Sciret; subjunctive under Gr. § 264, 5; Z. § 567; who might, or that he might know.-Jussus; when ordered; that is, by Jupiter.

64-80. The address of Juno to Aeolus, and his reply.

64. Vocibus; Gr. § 245. To whom then Juno addressed these words. -65. Namque is elliptical here, like enim above, 19. It introduces the ground of her appeal to Aeolus: I come to thee,-for-. Comp. i. 731, vii. 195. -66. Mulcere and tollere are governed by dedit as accusatives, instead of being in the form of the participle in dus. Gr. § 274, R. 7, b ; Z. 8658. The father has given to you to calm (the calming)—to raise (the raising of) the waves.— -67. Tyrrhenum aequor; the Tuscan water; that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica: Aeneas was now entering upon it. For the accusative after navigat, see Gr. § 232, (2); Z. § 383; Madvig, § 223, obs. 4.68. Victos. The household gods of Troy, as its protectors, must be considered vanquished in suffering it to be captured and destroyed.- -69. Ventis; strike fury into the winds. Gr. § 223.- -Submersas obrue puppes; literally, the ships being sunk bury (thou) in the waves; a Latin idiom which should be turned into English by two independent verbs: sink and bury the ships in the waves; Gr. § 274, 3, (b).—70. Diversos; (their crews) asunder;

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