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new bishoprics were endowed, but the greater portion of the enormous wealth was misappropriated. When Edward came to the throne in 1547, the reformers found full scope for the complete development of their views; and the church soon assumed a condition in respect to faith and practice from which the present differs but slightly. Images and relics were removed from churches; the communion in both kinds given to laity; and the liturgy in English compiled.
1. "What do the articles affirm concerning the sufficiency of the Holy Scripture ?"
That they contain all things accessory to salvation. See Art. 6.
2. "What errors are guarded against in the definition of the two sacraments?"
We reply to this question by a few extracts from Burnet, on the Articles.
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"The virtue of the sacrament being great in the worthy receiving excludes the doctrine of opus operatum (the very working of them) as effectually as if it had been expressly condemned; and the naming the two sacraments instituted by Christ, is upon the matter, the rejecting of all the rest. All sacramental actions are acceptable to God only with regard to the temper and the inward acts of the person to whom they are applied. The other extreme that we likewise avoid is that of sinking the sacraments so low as to be mere rites and ceremonies. *** They are not bare and naked remembrances and tokens, but are actuated and animated by a divine blessing that attends them."
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3. "What authority is there from Scripture and antiquity for the use of a language 'understanded of the people,' in the services of the church?"
St. Paul, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, 14th chapter, 19th verse—and indeed through a greater part of the chapter-argues, expressly, against the use of an unknown tongue in the services of religious assemblies. Justin Martyr's APOLOGY, and many other writings of antiquity, imply, in a manner not to be misunderstood, the use of the language of the people, in the services of the church. An unwarrantable reverence for antiquity led Boniface, in the eighth century, to insist on the use of the Latin liturgy in the churches which he founded among heathen nations. Before the subversion of the Roman empire and its occupation by the northern invaders, Latin was, to a great extent, the common language of southern and western Europe. Some plea existed for endeavouring to preserve uniformity when most Europeans were, in one sense Romans; but this was no longer in force when new nations and new languages took the place of old Roman provinces. See Burnet, on Article xxiv.
4. "How many of the articles refer to the doctrine of the Holy Trinity? Quote one of these, giving proofs from Holy Scripture."
The first article distinctly enumerates the doctrines of the Trinity; the three following ones refer expressly to our Saviour, the second person of the Trinity; and the fifth declares the belief of the church in the divinity of the Holy Ghost, the third person in the blessed Trinity in Unity.
For Scripture authority for the first article, see 1 John, v. 7; Matt. iii. 16, 17; 2 Cor. xiii. 14; Matt. xxviii. 19. These are the chief texts in which the Trinity is mentioned altogether.
1. "State by what progressive steps the Holy Scriptures were rendered accessible to the people in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI.
In 1535 a Convocation determined on the preparation of an authorized version of the English Bible, to supply, in some degree, the great desire in the popular mind for the word of God. In the same year Miles Coverdale completed his translation, and obtained permission to dedicate it to the king. About the same time Lord Cromwell, vicar-general to the king, obtained a royal injunction commanding every incumbent of a parish church to provide a copy "of the Bible, both in Latin and in English, and to lay it on the choir for every man that would, to look and read therein." In 1537, the royal licence was given to the translation, which had been appointed and prepared under the auspices of the Convocation. The remainder of this question, and also the next, is answered in Appendix ii.
2. "When, and by whom, was our present authorized version of the Scriptures made?”
See Appendix i. Question 3.
3. "Give a short account of the origin of the book of Common Prayer, and the principal changes which it has undergone."
Before the reign of Edward VI., the only advance towards the use of English in the public services of the church, was "the form of praying in their own tongue" provided in Henry VIII.'S PRINCE. It contained the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, a Litany, almost the same as at present, together with prayers, hymns, and select passages of Scripture, for morning and evening service. This manual was published in 1545. Up to that date, the Roman
Breviary, Missal, and Ritual, similar to those now used in Roman Catholic services, were the formularies of our English Church. In 1547, a Commission met at Windsor, and drew up a Book of Common Prayer, in English, which was approved by the Convocation of Canterbury and York, and ratified by act of parliament, in January, 1549. This Liturgy, substantially the same with that now in use, is, for the most part, simply a translation of ancient formularies, with the omission of all doctrinal or superstitious errors, the growth of later and corrupt ages. In 1650-1, owing to the remonstrances of the more enlightened reformers against the retention of some passages savouring of the old Romish superstitions-passages which had not been expunged from a respect to popular prejudice-a Commission was appointed to revise the Book of Common Prayer. Martin Bucer, and Peter Martyr, two distinguished German reformers, whom Cranmer had invited to England and appointed to the office of Regius Professor of Theology, in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge respectively, exerted a leading influence in this revision. This edition was distinguished from the former by the following additions: the sentences, exhortation, confession, and absolution, at the commencement of morning and evening service, some of the occasional prayers, forms for the consecration and ordination of bishops, priests, and deacons; and a rubric, at the end of the Communion Service, explaining the reason of kneeling. From it were expunged some rites and ceremonies, as the use of oil in baptism, unction for the sick, and prayers for the dead.
On the accession of Mary, 1553, an act was passed prohibiting the use of King Edward's Liturgy, and ordering a return to that of Henry VIII. This act of repeal was reversed as soon as Elizabeth came to the throne, and a Commission, with Parker, afterwards
archbishop of Canterbury, at its head, appointed to make another revision of the liturgies of King Edward. This Commission adopted as its groundwork the second book of Edward VI., with which it incorporated the lessons for every Sunday in the year. Some slight alterations were made in the Litany; and the sentences addressed to communicants were added, with the prayers for the queen, the prayer for the clergy, and some minor modifications. No further alterations were made till the first year of James I., when the form of thanksgiving at the end of the Litany, and the part of the Catechism relating to the Sacraments, were added. In this state the Liturgy continued to the Restoration, when an attempt was made by the Savoy Conference to remove the scruples of the Presbyterians. But their demands were found to be so unreasonable that none of their propositions were adopted. The episcopal divines, however, changed some of the lessons in the Calender for others more appropriate to the days, added the prayers for parliament and for all conditions of men, altered several of the collects, and added the office for the baptism of such as are of riper years, and the form of prayer to be used at sea. This final revision was completed in 1661.