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The Battle of Worcester took place on Sept. 3, 1651. In it the royalists sustained a final and disastrous defeat, the annihilation of every prospect of success in competition with the genius of the ever-successful Cromwell. It was the last of a great series of victories by which the Commonwealth was established and consolidated.

2. "What circumstances led to the signing of the Magna Charta? State its chief provisions.'

The tyranny, cruelty, and treachery of King John's Charter were the proximate causes that gave rise to the Great Charter. His total want of honourable feeling had been frequently tested by his breach of word to the confederate barons whom his rapacious cruelty and vindictiveness had driven into a defensive league against him. To avert the consequences of an interdict, John made a most abject submission to Pope Innocent III., swore allegiance to him, and agreed to hold his kingdom as a fief of the holy see. His subjects had in no way been consulted as to this disposition of themselves and their country, and their universal feeling of indignation, soon sought a way of vindicating their violated rights. The leading men of the kingdom, lay and clerical, banded themselves together, drew up a charter of privileges, and demanded of the king a solemn acceptance of its provisions. With much reluctance John signed this great bulwark of popular liberties at Runnemede, near Staines, on the 19th of June, 1215. Its more important concessions were:-1. No aids or subsides were to be levied upon the subject, without the consent of the great council of the nation. 2. All men to be allowed to pass from, and to return to the kingdom at their pleasure. 3. The estate of every freeman to be regulated by his will. 4. The King's court to be stationary, and open to all. 5. No person to be tried

on suspicion alone, but on the evidence of lawful witnesses. 6. No person to be tried or punished but by the judgment of his equals (a jury), and the law of the land.

3. "State some of the principal circumstances attending the establishment or introduction of the present chief manufactures of England.”

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The introduction of our great textile manufactures of cotton and woollen goods as distinguishing national occupations, resulted from Edward the Third's marriage with the Flemish princess, Philippa of Hainault. close alliance thus brought about between England and Flanders, led Edward, in 1331, to invite a colony of Flemish clothiers into this country, and under the favourable auspices of the royal protection, they soon became a thriving body. They settled at Bolton, and there introduced the processes of spinning and weaving. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes (a sort of charter of toleration to Protestants), in 1685, drove many industrious artizans from France into our large towns. Vast numbers of these were weavers of silk and woollen goods; Spitalfields, and the towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, were the localities of their settlement. The use of wooden clogs, in the last named counties, dates from the arrival of the Flemish clothiers; and the numerous French names among the weavers of Spitalfields, is a standing memorial of the bigotry of Louis XIV. Before the time of Edward III., the principal export of England was wool; pasturing and grazing were the chief occupations of our agricultural population. Even in 1354, as appears from an Exchequer record, wool constituted thirteen-fourteenths of the whole value of the exports of the kingdom. From that period the system has been gradually reversed, till we have become the greatest importers of raw wool;

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and the increased value of land consequent on the accumulation and increase of population, has led to the appropriation, for the production of grain, of a large proportion of the land that was previously in grass, or totally uncultivated.

The first authenticated case of the manufacture of cotton goods in England was in 1641, when we borrowed the crude methods of Italy. Before this, the only cottons known, were imported from the East Indies. Nor was it till 1760 that we exported any considerable quantity of the products of our looms. As soon as a demand for them arose abroad, the manufacture received a corresponding impulse. The thread had hitherto been spun entirely, as it still continues to be, in India, by the tedious process of the distaff and spindle. But the total inadequacy of this domestic manufacture to the supply of the growing demands of our export trade, soon induced numerous attempts to contrive some more effective method of spinning than that which had hitherto sufficed. A host of inventors

sprang up almost simultaneously, but Arkwright, of Preston, and Kay, of Bury, are the names most prominently associated with the application of machinery, properly so called, to weaving and spinning. The use of steam-power as a prime mover of machinery (1785) gave a grand impetus to the cotton manufacture. The gradual advance of this great branch of our national industry, is strikingly illustrated by a reference to the amount of raw cotton imported at different periods. At the beginning of the last century this was less than 2 million pounds annually; in 1780, it was between 6 and 7 millions; in 1800, it had realized 56 millions; in 1825, 228 millions; and at the present time it ranges between 300 and 400 millions of lbs. Our exports of cotton goods now nearly equal all our other exports put together. In 1760, not more than 40,000 persons

were employed in the cotton manufacture, which now engages more than a million persons.

The French Protestant refugees brought with them the hand-loom weaving of silks. In 1717, the first silk mill, which is yet in operation, was erected at Derby, by John Lombe, who, at great risk, obtained, clandestinely, a knowledge of the processes previously unknown in any other European country than Italy. The biographers of that enterprising and ingenious man, represent him as having been poisoned by an Italian, whom he had in his employ. The increase in our silk manufacture has scarcely been in a greater ratio than that of the increase of population. "Of all our great manufactures, that of iron has increased more remarkably than any other, except cotton. Iron ore was smelted in the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, several centuries ago, for wood was found there in sufficient abundance to supply fuel. But the ministers of Queen Elizabeth, considering that the consumption of wood was becoming too great, restrained it by act of parliament. In 1619, a patent was taken out for using coal in the smelting process, but the woodcutters, thinking their interest invaded, rose and destroyed the works. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the continued use of wood became a pressure on the inhabitants of the districts in the neighbourhood of the mines, and it was therefore resolved to have recourse to coal, the use of which had, by that time, grown more familiar. In 1760, our manufactures consumed almost entirely Swedish iron, and the quantity of English iron submitted to the furnaces, amounted to only 20,000 tons. In 1832 the number of tons was 700,000; and the value, seventeen millions sterling, of which four millions were sent abroad." (Ency. Metrop.) From that time to the present year, the rate of increase must have been quite unprecedented to

supply the enormous demand for home and foreign railways.

Such are the operations which give life and bustle to our thickly-peopled manufacturing districts, have caused the erection of five or six thousand factories and works, called forth the skill of mechanists and engine-makers, and which give employment to half a million persons within the factories, and two or three times as many out of them. Every part of the world exhibits some of the products of English art and industry; our manufactures precede our most enterprising travellers; and England has become the great workshop of the world. (See British Manufactures, Knight's Weekly Volume.)

SECTION III.

1. "State the circumstances which led to the introduction of the Potatoe, Tobacco, Cotton, and Tea."

The Potatoe is an indigenous production of Virginia, whence it was first introduced by Raleigh and his contemporaries, the founders of that colony. Youghall, in the county of Cork, claims the distinction of being the first place in Europe at which potatoes were grown.

Tobacco was brought into England for the first time by the disappointed colonists, whom Raleigh had endeavoured to settle in his Virginian plantations. They returned to England in 1578, and brought the knowledge of Tobacco, and the habit of smoking which they had acquired from the native savages of the place of their settlement. The use of Tobacco spread through England and Europe with astonishing rapidity; and scarcely a nation in the world is now ignorant of it.

The introduction of the Cotton manufacture is usually referred to the date 1641, but the terms in which it is then mentioned, imply that it had already reached a condition of considerable advancement. Our know

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