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grieved them exceedingly that there was come a man to seek the welfare of the children of Israel. And again : But it came to pass that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Afbdodites heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth, and conspired all of them together, to come and to fight against Jerusalem and to binder itf. When force would not do, they af-' sayed fraud: Now it came to pass, when SANBALLAT, and TOBIAH, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein, then Sanballat and Geshem fent unto me, saying, Come, let us meet together in some one of the villages in the plain of Ono : but they thought to do me mischief The Writer of the book of Tobit seems to have had this idea of the three friends, where he says: Nam ficut beato Job insultabant Reges, ita isti parentes & cognati ejus irridebant vitam ejus". But we are to observe this is now only to be found in the Latin translation, which St. Jerom tells us, he made from the Chaldee. But, what is still of more moment, is a paragraph at the end of the Septuagint translation of the book of Job, which makes of these three friends, two Kings and a Tyrant.

The marks of resemblance between the allegerical and real persons, are many and strong.

Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar are delivered as the allies and friends of Job: So Sanballat che Horonite had given his daughter to one of the fons of Joiada the son of Eliashib the high priest': And

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• Nehem. ii. 9, 10.

Chap. iv, ver. 7, 8.

: Chap. vi. ver. 1, 2.

Тов. ii. 14.

I NEHEM. xiii. 28.


G 3


Tobiah had made two alliances with the Jews: his son Johanan had married the daughter of Meshullam the son of Berechiah, and he himself had taken to wife the daughter of Shechaniah the son of Arah

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Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar came in a friendly manner with offers of service and affiftance: So did these enemies of the Jews, as we are informed both by Ezra and Nehemiah: “ Now when the “ ADVERSARIES of Judah and Benjamin heard “ that the children of the captivity builded the " temple unto the Lord God of Israel : Then

they came to Zerubbabel, and to the chief of “ the fathers, and said unto them, Let US BUILD

WITH YOU. But Zerubbabel and Jeshua and " the rest of the chief of the fathers of Israel, said “ unto them, You have nothing to do with us “ to build a house unto our God, but we ourselves “ will build unto the Lord God of Israel, as king “ Cyrus the king of Persia hath commanded us!! And Nehemiah's answer to Sanballat, Tobiah, and Geshem, shews, they had made this request:-“then

“ $6 answered I them, and said unto them, The “ God of heaven he will prosper us; therefore we 6 his servants will arise and build, but you have no portion, nor right, nor memorial in Jerusalem ".' And of Tobiab in particular, he says; Moreover in these days the nobles of Judah sent many letters unto Tobiah : and the letters of Tobiah came unto them. Also they reported his good deeds before me, and uttered my words to him. And Tobiah sent letters to put mịe in fear",

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k Neh. vi. 18. 20.

! Ezra iv. 1, 2, 3. A Neh. vi. 17, 19.

m Neh. ii.

The The three Friends of Job were worshipers of the true God; and so were these Adversaries of the Jews: For when, in the place quoted above, they asked to build with the Jews, they give this reason of their request: FOR WE SEEK Your God as ye do, and we do sacrifice unto him since the days of Eferhaddon king of Afur, which brought us up bitbero.

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The three Friends were perpetually deriding and upbraiding him for his sis : And of this Job frequently complains in the course of the disputation P. So Nehemiah tells us, that when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian beard that they were set upon building the walls of Yerusalem, they

laughed then to scorn, and despised them, and said, What is this thing ibat ye do? Will

do ? Will ye rebel against the king ?? And again: But it came to pass that when Sanballat heard that we builded the wall, he was wrath, and took great indignation, and mocked the Jews. Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, Even that which they build, if a fox go up, he fall even. break down their stone wall". God, by the Prophet Malachi, tells them, Judah hath profaned the holiness of the Lord which be loved, and hath married the daughter of a strange God'. And it is remarkable that they with whom the Jews had committed this crime, as Sanballat, Tobiah, and the Cutheans, were made the instruments of their punishment.-Eliphaz the Temanite charges and upbraids Job with the most flagitious crimes: Is not thy wickedness great,

o Ezra iv, 2. p Chap. iv. 27. Chap. xii. ver. 4. Chap. xiii. ver. 4. Chap. xvi. ver. 1, 20. Chap. xvii, ver. 2. Chap. xix. ver. 2. Chap. xxi. ver. 3. Chap. xxvi. ver. 4. 9 Nen, ii. 19. Chap. iv, ver. 1, 3.

s Mal, ii, ii. G4


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and thine iniquities infinite'? And thus the Cutheans reprefented the Jews, to Artaxerxes : “ Be “ it known unto the king, that the Jews, which

came up from thee to us, are come unto Jeru“ falem, building the rebellious and the bad city, « and have set up the walls thereof. - Therefore “ have we certified the king that search may be “ made in the book of the records of thy fathers, « fo fhalt thou find in the book of the records, " and know, that this city is a rebellious city, and “ hurtful unto kings and provinces; and that

they have moved ledition within the fame of old « time; for which cause was this city destroyed."-. If their Adversaries could accuse them thus unjustly, we are not to think they would spare them where there was more ground for condemnation. When Nehemiah came to the administration of affairs, the Rich had opprefled the Poor by a rigorous exaction of their debts : And there was a great cry of the people and of their wives, against their brethren the Jews. For there were that said, We, our fons, and our daughters are many: therefore we take up corn for them, that we may eat and live. Some also there were that said, bave mortgaged our lands, vineyards, and houses, that we may buy corn because of the dearth. There were also that said, We have borrowed money for the king's tribute, and that upon our lands and vineyards. Yet now our fles is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children: and lo we bring into bondage our fons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already, neither is it in our power to redeem tbem ; for otber men bave our lands and vineyards. This abuse Nehemiah reformed: and in reproving the oppref

+ Chap. xxii. ver, 5* Neh. V, 1, Suleg

* Ezra iv, 12, 14, 13


sors, he said : It is not good that ye do: Ought ye, not to walk in the fear of our Lord, because of the rePROACH OF THE HEATHEN OUR ENEMIES'? which reproach was intended to be represented in these words of Eliphaz: For thou haft taken a pledge from thy brother for nought, and stripped the naked of their cloathing?

But the three Friends are at length condemned by God himself: The Lord said to Eliphaz the Temanite : My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends : For be bave not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job bath. And in the same manner he speaks, by the Prophet, concerning these Adversaries of the Jews : And I am very sore displeased with the Heatben that are AT EASE: For I was but a LITTLE DISPLEASED, and they HELPED FORWARD THE AFFLICTION His sentence against the three Friends goes on in these words : Therefore take now unto you feven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering, and my fervant Job shall pray for you, for bim will I accept: Left I deal with you after your folly, in that ye have not Spoken of me the

thing which is right, like my fervant Jobe This, I suppose, is designed to represent the defeat of their Adversaries, in the decree which the Jews, by the good providence of God, procured from Darius, commanding the Cutbeans (who had hitherto so much hindered) now to affift the Jews to the utmost of their power in rebuilding the Temple : “ Then Darius the king made a de“ cree-Now therefore Tatnai, Governor beyond " the river Shetharboznai, and your companions

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