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South Kensington Museum, speci-

mens of Tuscan sculpture in, cxxi.
533, 545; the Cupid of Michael
Angelo, 550; terra-cotta model
ascribed to Raphael, 551

history of the collections in,
cxxiii. 77 ; ship-building models

at, 79

and Lagrange on, 106; velocity of,
in an elastic medium, ib.; experi-
ments of Laplace, ib.; M. Le
Roux's method of measurement,
ib. ; doctrine of the sensation of,
108, 109 ; phenomena of reflec-
tion and refraction of, 110; expe-
riments of Doppler and Sondhauss
thereon, 111; interference a third
property of wave-motion, 112 ;
König's apparatus, 113; theory of
beats, 114; consonance and disso-
nance, 115 ; analogy between light
and sound completed by polarisa-
tion, 116; longitudinal and trans-
versal vibrations of, 117; experi-
ments of Savart, Weber, and
Kundt, ib. ; Chladni's optical ex-
hibition of vibrations, ib. ; his
euphon and clavi-cylinder, 118;
his method adopted by Kundt,
119; three fundamental qualities
of, viz., intensity, pitch, and
Tyndall's clang-tint, 120; notes
and overtones, 121, 122 ; resona-
tors of Helmholtz, ib. ; artificial

. ;
larynx, 123 ; analysis of alphabetic
sounds, 124; vowel - apparatus,
ib.; mechanism of the vocal or-
gans, 125 ; Heidenhain's Tetano-
motor, 126 ; theory of sympathetic
vibrations, 128, 129; physiology
of sound neglected in the last cen-

tury, 130
Southey (Robert, 1774-1843), his

prophecy of religious imposture
in America fulfilled by Mormon-
ism, cxv. 188

his “Life of Nelson' a typi-
cal biography, cxvi. 115

his intimacy with Landor,
cxxx. 237, 238; his Colloquies on
Society, ib., 239

his translations from Spanish
ballads, cxxxv. 479
South Kensington Museum, Mr.

Redgrave's evidence on the lec-
tures in the Schools of Design,
cxviii. 503, 504

earliest historical portraits at,
cxxiv. 361

textile fabrics and embroide-
ries at, cxxxv. 49, 50
South Sea Islands, slave-trade out-

rages in, cxxxvi. 429, See Fiji

Southwark, military etymology of,

cxxxi. 159
Souza (Anna Liberata de), her pic-

turesque Hindoo fairy-legends,

cxxviii. 352
Sovereignty, Mr. Austin's theory of,

cxiv. 470
"Spas,' fashionable places of resort in

England, cxxxviii. 495
Spain, dearth of modern literature

in, cxiv. 99; natural beauties of
Andalusia, 103; religious legends,
105; Mr. Buckle on earthquakes
in, 189; religious contests, 192;
the rebellion of 1521, 197 ; recent
progress of, 199

her territorial claims in
America, cxv. 8

English recognition of her
American provinces, cxvii. 300

English hatred of, in the
reign of James I., cxx. 6

facilities for modern travel in,
cxxii. 143; choice of autumn re-
commended, 145; Gothic cathe-
drals in, 146–171 ; Moorish build-
ings, 165, 173; the Romanesque
style in, 172, 175

early collections of customary
law in, cxxvi. 357

depopulation of, after Philip
II., cxxix. 3; expulsion of the
Moors, 4; emigration to America,
ib.; scarcity of food, 5; penury of
the Court under Charles II., 6;
and of the army, 7 ; debasements
of coin by the Duke of Lerma, 8;
laws against enclosure of fields, 9;
consequent decline of agriculture,
ib.; accumulation of property in
mortmain, 10; paralysis of in-
dustry, ib.; contempt of nobility
for trade, 12; foreign workmen,
ib.; universal love of display, 13;
typical character of Court life, ib.;
French queens of, 16;

Oriental in-
fluence of Moors in, 34; atrocities
of autos-da-fé, 36; religious super-
stitions, ib.; brutal intolerance of
the people, 37 (see Charles II.);
trials of monarchy in, 38; recent
fall of the dynasty, ib.; authority
for statement (p. 3) as to depopu-

lation of, 605 note
Spain, her misgovernment of Cuba,
cxxxviii. 395, 424

French campaign of 1808,
cxxxi. 73, 84. See Branılt, Gen-

eral von
Spain, New, projected British inva-

sion of in 1806–8, cxvi. 49
Spalding (William), his relntions

with Sir W. Hamilton, cxxxi. 210;
his contributions to the Edinburgh

Rerier, ib.
Spalding Club, the, cxxv. 233
Spaniards, their priority in interna-

tional law, cxii. 403
Spanish America. See Spain, New
Spanish Armada, preparations for,

cxiii. 204; English tactics, 215; its
final destruction, 218

descriptions of, cxxxi. 36 ; its
defeat not due to Elizabeth, 37;
tradition of, in the Shetland Isles,

38 note
Sparta, beauty of the Vale of, cxxii.

540; best approach to, ib.; charac-
ter of the scenery, 541; straggling
aspect of New Sparta, 548, 549;
conjectural map by Colonel Leake,
560; need of excavation for an-
cient site, ib.

Species, various ideas as to the ope-

ration of the creative law' on,
cxi. 497; definitions of Lamarck
and Cuvier, ib.; influences of pre-
mature birth on, 505; plants and
animals compared, 506; Buffon on
the mutability of, 509; extinction
of, prior to man's existence, 515;
the theory of natural selection'un-
satisfactory, 532 (see Darwin, C.);
separate functions of classification,
as opposed to nature, ib.

the term defined, cxxviii.
416, 418; effects of domestication
on, ib. 442; Mr. Darwin's prin-
ciples of heredity and variation,
ib.; effects of external conditions
on, 443; parallel of, with breeds,
443; latent power of adaptation
to change of conditions, 444; fal-
lacies in theory of invariability of,

445; theory of Pangenesis, 447, 450
Spectrum Analysis, cxiii. 535 note

revolution in chemistry
caused by, cxiv. 302 ; infancy of
the science, 307

summary of discoveries in,
cxxxi. 56

cosmical nature of its dis-
coveries, cxxxii. 157
Spedding (James), his hypothesis of

Fletcher's joint authorship with
Shakspeare in “Henry VIII.,'

cxxiii, 177
Speech, the faculty of, cxv. 95; the

low-wow theory of, 97. See Lan-

Speight (Mr.), his edition of Chau-

cer, cxxxi, 9
Speir (Mrs.), her 'Life in Ancient

India,' cxxii. 371
Speke (Captain), his Nile expedition
with Captain Burton, cxii. 325

his expedition in 1857-9
with Burton to Lake Tanganyika,
cxviii. 211; ascribes the source of
the Nile to the Victoria Nyanza,
ib.; his expedition in 1860 with
Capt. Grant, 212; discovers a

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southern outlet from Lake Tan- Spontaneous Generation, early opi-
ganyika, 217 ; his conduct at the nions on, cxxv. 389; introduction
Court of Uganda, 226; his un- of the microscope, 390; Mr.
friendly reception at Unyoro, 227; Crosse's electrical spiders, ib.; in-
his journey thence to Gondakoro, fusoria, 391; views of Professor

ib. ; his meeting with Baker, 229 Owen, 392; microscopic fungi,
Speke (Captain), his theory of Little 393; mould and mildew, ib. 394;

Luta N'zigé as a backwater of the theories of germs and vegetative
Nile, cxxiv, 159

force,' 396 ; hypothesis of Gay
Spelman (Sir Henry, 1562-1641), on Luesne, ib. 397; experiments on
the evils of tithe-impropriation by preserved meat in France, ib.;
laymen, cxvii. 375

prize offered by the French Acade-
Spencer (Herbert), on the pheno- my, ib. (see Pasteur, M. L.);

mena of variation in vegetable life, floating spores, 398; views of M.
cxxviii. 438; his hypothesis of Pouchet, 399-402 ; theory of, sup-
gemmules or physiological units, ported by M. Donné, 403 ; experi-

ments of Dr. Child, 405; need of
deductive character of his further research, ib. ; influence of
evolutionism, cxxxvii. 498

minute organisms, ib.; sporadic
Spenser (Edmund, 1553-1599), com- particles in food, 408, 409

pared by M. Taine to Rubens, Spontini (1778-1851), his opera of
cxxi. 302

Olympia,' cxxii. 409; his hatred
Spenserian stanza, the, as a vehicle of Weber, 411

for IIomeric translation, cxvii. 355 Sport, national love of, cxxxiv. 391 ;
Spider,tradition of its venomous cha- modern sociable customs of, 408,
racter, cxxviii. 67

Spinels, mineralogical group of, "Sports, Book of,' issued by James L.,
cxxiv. 242

cxxxiv. 186; its object, ib.; sup-
Spinola (Ambrose, Marquis, 1569– pressed by the Puritans, 187

1630), his policy respecting the Spottiswoode (John, Archbishop of
Mantuan Succession, cxxiii. 40; St. Andrews, 1565–1839), his zeal
invades Piedmont, 47

for the restoration of episcopacy,
Spinoza (Baruch, 1632-1677), his cxiv. 411

influence on modern thought, Sprenger (Dr. von Adolf), his Life
cxvii. 190; character of his scepti- and Teachings of Mahomet,' cxxis.
cism, ib.

1; his opinion of Mahomet's bs-
Spirits, taxes on, in France and Ger- steria, 19
many, cxxxi. 387

Spring-bok, introduction of, into
Spiritualism in America, cxxii. 505; England, cxi. 170
stories of spirit-rappings, 588; Spruce (Mr.), collects plants of the
Dr. Hare's spiritoscope, 591 ; me- Chinchona in Ecuador, cxviii. 515
diums, 591; descriptions of spirit- Sprye (Capt.), his projected trade-

land, 597; amusements of the route to Western China, cxxxvii.
spirits, 598; visions of Judge Ed- 300
monds, ib. 600; the result of hyp- Spurgeon (Mr.), his disgraceful criti-
notic sleep, ib. ; degrading aspect cism of Ecce Homo,' cxxiv. 474

of spiritualist doctrines, 604 Squarcione (Francesco, 1394-1474),
Spitalfields, early history of, cxxxi. his artist's life at Padua, cxxxv.142

Squatters, Australian, contrasted



with those in America, cxviii. 320;
original meaning of the word, 321
note; improved class of, 323 ; re-
gulations respecting their sheep-
runs, ib.; their grievances, 324;
extravagant concessions in 1846 to,
ib. 325; jealousies of other colo-
nists towards, 326; evils of their
pre-emptive right, ib. See Queens-

Squier (E. G.), his Antiquities of

the State of New York, cxxv.
332 ; on the Temple of Palenqué,

Squires, early English, cxxxviii. 8,10
Staël (Holstein, Anna Louisa Ger-

maine Necker, Baroness de, 1766-
1817), her first meeting with Va-
dame Récamier, cxi. 211; receives
her hospitality during exile, 224

Canning's allusion to, in the
• Anti-Jacobin,' cxvii. 64

her life at Coppet, cxix. 432;
her friendship with Bonstetten,
ib.; Dr. Jurine's account of her
death, 433

her meeting with Curran,
cxxii. 325; Miss Berry's sketch of,
ib. 326

Buonaparte's instruction to
Fouché respecting, cxxvi. 329,
330; and to Cambacérès, 331;
anecdotes of, by Miss Edgeworth,

sketch of, by Mr. Crabb Ro-
binson, cxxx. 516
Stames, early word explained,

cxxxii. 43
Stamps or stamp-seals ; Assyrian and

Persian, cxxiv. 533; of the Sassa-

nian period, 534
Standing-armies, growing evils of,

cxxxii. 584
Stanhope of Elvaston and Mahon

(Philip Henry, Earl, the present,
b. 1805), his “Life of Pitt,' cxvi.
113; his merits as an historian,
114; his eulogy of Pitt's financial
policy, 136

Stanhope of Elvaston and Mahon,

Miss Edgeworth’s notice of his
cleverness as a child, cxxvi. 484

his History of England dur-
ing the reign of Anne, cxxxii.
519; fragmentary character of his
work, ib.; change in his political
creed, 520; altered estimate of
leading personages, ib.; panegyric
of Marlborough, 521, 529; lauda-
tion of the Age of Anne' opposed
to Macaulay, 535 ; on competi-
tion for employment, 540 ; on the

relations of lords and wits, 542
Stanislas Leczinski (1677-1766),

obtains the Duchy of Lorraine,
cxii. 81; a mere pensioner of

France, 86
Stanley (Lord). See Derby, Earl of
Stanley (Arthur Penrhyn, Dean of

Westminster, b. 1815), his ap-
pointment to the Deanery opposed
by Canon Wordsworth, cxix. 151
note; his lectures on the Jewish
Church, 152; charm of his narra-
tive, ib.

his biographical articles in
the Dictionary of the Bible,'
cxxi. 63

his Address at Sion College
on the Connexion between Church
and State, cxxviii. 251; on the
true principles of Church Govern-
ment in England, 262 ; his
opinions denounced as Erastian,
ib.; his vindication of State and
Church, 269

his Memorials of Westmin-
ster Abbey, cxxix. 170; on mural

monuments in the Abbey, 197

bis treatise on the Athanasian
Creed, cxxxiii. 414 note ; repre-
sentative of the Broad Church

School, 417
Starke (Mariana), her handbooks of

foreign travel, cxxxviii. 196 ; fate

of her works, ib.
Stars, phenomenon of shooting stars,

cxxv. 207, 208



Stars, affinity of, to the sun proved 426 ; expelled from the House of

by spectrum analysis, cxxxi. 62 Commons, ib.
Star-showers, cxl. 418. See Metcors

his article in the 'Guardian'
Star-fish, their ravages on oysters, on light versification, cxl. 359
cxxvii. 51,

Steelyard, the, early history of, in
deep-sea specimen of, dis- | London, cxxxi. 174
covered by Dr. Wallich, cxxx. Stein (Heinrich F. Karl, Baron von,

1757-1831), description 01, by
State, the, duties of, in case of Arndt at St. Petersburg, cxxxii.

Church aggression, cxxxix. 363 429
State Papers (English), Calendars Steinkirk, battle of (1692), buckles,

of, cxxiii. 248; Mr. Brewer's edi- powder, &c., called after, cxxis.
tion, ib. ; graphic impressions 304
from, 249. See Englanı, State Steinle, his fresco-paintings, cxxiii. 9

Steinmetz (Prussian General), his
Statius (about 61-96), Politian's skill in the war of 1866, cxxv.

MS. of his ‘Sylvæ,' cxxxvii. 72 370; his advance on Nachod, 371;
Statute Law, need of its consolida- defeats Ramming there, 373 ; his

tion, cxi. 201 (see Parliament, victory at Skalitz, 377, 378; his
Acts of); question of a Code, march to Gradlitz, ib.

Stephen III. (Pope, d. 757), his
compared with judiciary law, election at the Roman Forum,
cxviii. 463

cxviii. 360
confusion of, lamented by Stephen (Mr. Fitzjames), his .Gene-
Edward VI., cxxvi. 365; later ral view of the Criminal Law of
efforts at revision, 366; want of England,' cxxi. 109 ; didactic
method in the Statute Law Com- form of his work, ib.; his proposed
mission, 367; Lord Westbury's Court of review criticised, 120,
scheme of expurgation completed, 122 ; on the proper division of
ib.; Commission of 1866, ib. ; offences, ib. ; his redefinition of
their first Report, 368; require- larceny, 129; on the law of pro-
ments of a Statute Code, 372. See cedure and evidence, 131

on the influence of religion
Steam, probable effects of on the on morality, cxxxviii. 227 ; his

naval strength of England, cxviii. vigorous reply to John Stuart Mill,

ib, note
Steel, use of, in the Middle Ages, Stephenson (Robert, 1803-1859),

cxvi. 205 ; locomotive axles of, his mode of lighthouse illumina-

tion, cxv. 179
manufacture of, in Germany

his invention of the tubular
and France, cxxvii. 442, 443

bridge, cxvi. 210
its properties compared with Stepney, etymology of, cxxxi. 101
metallic iron, cxxix. 368 ; immense Sterling (John, 1806-1811), his
progress in, shown at the Paris character, by J. S. Mill, cxxxix.
Exhibition, 371 ; the Bessemer 114
process, 373; use of, for rails and Sterne (Laurence, 1713–1768), M.
bridges, 376

Taine's criticism of, cxxi. 320
Steele (Sir Richard, 1671-1729), his Stewart (Mr. Balfour), his observa-

pamphlet "The Crisis,' cxviii. tions of sun-spots, cxxxvi. 421

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