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of the middle class, 327 (see Reformation, Scottish); linen manu

facture in, 336, 344 Scotland, account of, in 1498, cxxi.

212, 213; features of feudalism in, 337; baronial jurisdiction, ib.; permanency of old families, ib.; subinfeudation, 338; local surnames, ib.; Highland coats of arms, 340; legendary pedigrees in, ib. 341 (see Heraldry); origin of family names in, 343; early use of seals

in, 348

coroners, 507; social differences between the east and west of,

514 Scotland, wealth of popular poetry in, cxiii. 108

Mr. Buckle's views of Scottish history, cxiv. 200; his charge of national superstition, 204; growth of the Sabbatarian theory in, 639; the present observance condemned, 542

share of, in the Darien expedition, cxv. 6; proportional increase of national wealth, 15; poorlaws in, 34

restoration of Episcopacy in, cxviii. 6; persecution of the Conventiclers, 8; Declarations of the Cameronians, 14; the rebellion justifiable, 15; murder of John Brown, 14; case of the Wigton Martyrs, 17-33; alliance of, with France, 230; preservation of French habits in, ib.; origin of the league, 231; links of national sympathy with France, ib.; Scottish mercenaries abroad, 234; the higher classes attracted to Paris, 236; French emigrants to, 237; early Flemish colonies in, 240; Scotch colleges abroad, 243; Scholarly knight-errants,' 246; home connexion preserved by emigrants to France, 248; ecclesiastical ties before the Reformation, 249 ; resident French embassies in, 251; designs of Henry II. of France

customary leases of moorlands, etc., in, cxxv. 199

English claims to early feudal superiority in, cxxvi. 241; relations of, with the Normans, 242; turbulent condition after the death of Bruce, 244; defects of the Par-. liament, 245; results of the War of Independence, ib.; prosperity under the Alexanders, 246; decline in the seventeenth century, 247; independence purchased at the cost of freedom, ib. ; rea! nature of the war shown by Mr. Burton, 248; Norman tyranny, 249; policy of Edward, 250; romantic eulogy of the Highlanders, ib.; use of Gaelic in, 251; power of the nobility under the Stuarts, 253; services of the middle class, 254; struggles between the Crown and nobles, 255; altered relations with France, 256; chance of conciliation neglected by Henry VIII., 257

early commendation of, to England, denounced, cxxx. 206, 210; views of Mr. Freeman and Mr. Burton thereon, ib.; marriage laws of, 268, 276 (see Marriage, Laws of)

the Union of, compared with that of Ireland, cxxxiii. 527,

upon, 253

unpopularity of Roman Catholicism at the Reformation, cxix. 185; Protestant intolerance, 187; influence of clanship on religion, 189; disguised missionaries in, 190; inroads of the Jesuits, 191; state of the nobility of, under Elizabeth, 267

office of heritable Baillie in, cxx. 321 note; deplorable state of, under Bruce, 323; establishment


her liberties twice sared by the middle-class, cxxxiv. 104, 105; Mr. Burton's account of the Re

formation, 108; early Reformation 410; Spottiswoode and the Five Acts, ib.; the Iluguenot system Articles of Perth,' ib.; Laud's new repudiated by the Estates, ib.; liturgy resisted, ib. ; Presbyteriantriumph of Presbyterianism over ism under Cromwell, 412; tyranEpiscopacy, 109; struggle for nical Episcopacy of Sharp at the church-lands, ib.; conduct of Mary Restoration, 413; oppressed conend Knox, ib. ; Episcopacy re- dition of the Presbyterians, ib.; stored, 110; Articles of Perth, theology of the Covenanters, 414; 111; moderation of English effects of the Revolution, 415; Church polity contrasted there- Presbyterianism newly established, with, 112; fear and hatred of 416; its contact with English Popery, 113; the crisis of 1640, Puritanism, 417; the General 114; Presbyterian system recon- Assembly excused the Oath of structed, 115; grievances under Allegiance, 418; new career in Charles I., 118; tyrannous conduct the last century, 419; rise of Moof Charles II., 119; Prelacy estab- deratism, 420; uniformity of belished, ib.; base conduct of Lau- lief more apparent than real, ib.; derdale and Sharp, 121 ; depravity accusations of heresy, ib. 421; inof the nobles, 122; increased tellectual spirit of theology, 422; power of the clergy, 124; bad decline of the moderate party in effects of the struggle of the seven- the present century, ib.; accessions teenth century, 125; good effects to the Evangelical party, 423; the of Presbyterianism, 126 ; position disruption of 1843, ib. 424 of Dissenting bodies, ib. ; wise le- Scotland, Church of, controversy gislation of Cromwell, 127; growth respecting patronage, cxl. 273; of municipal law, 129

the Confession of Faith and Scotland, modern progress of social Shorter Catechism, 274; the Auchfusion with England, cxl. 261 terarder dispute, 277; secession

Church of, absence of priestly from, and establishment of the exclusiveness in, cxiv. 206 ; its

Free Church, 279; Lord Aberdemocratic character, 207; Mr. deen's Act, 282; difficulties of Cunningham's history of, 394 ; de- reunion, 284 fects of previous historians, ib.; Scotland, Free Church of, claims of, effects of the Reformation, 397; to spiritual authority, cxxviii. 262; early missionary period, 398; its extra-legal pretensions illuscharacter of the Culdees, 400; trated in the Cardross case, their degeneracy and overthrow, 277 401 ; establishment of Roman

establishment of, cxl. 281 Catholicism, ib.; development of Scotland-yard, formerly a royal resiRoman influence, 402; French dence, cxxxi, 178 education of the clergy, ib.; sub- Scott (Sir Walter, 1771-1832), his version of Catholicism, 403 ; the ballad of the Battle of the Harlaw parochial system its legacy, 404 ; a unique imitation of ancien Archbishop "Hamilton's Cate- phraseology, cxi. 462 chism,' 406; liturgical service of

his account of the Darien ex the early Reformed Church, 407; pedition, cxv. 4; his partialities as Morton's Tulchan Episcopacy, an historian, 5; his monument at 408; opposition of Melville, ib.; Edinburgh, 546 Episcopacy restored by James,

his talent for anecdote ill


531 ;

trated, cxix. 318; laments his

want of humour, 319
Scott (Sir Walter), his prefaces to

his novels, cxx. 54 note; anecdote
of his dog Diamond rejected by Sir
D. Brewster, 210

M. Taine's unjust estimate
of, cxxi. 322, 323

sepulchral vase sent to him
by Byron, cxxiv. 345

his obligations to Miss Edge-
worth's writings, cxxvi. 458

his battle-pieces, cxxix. 501 ;
his conscious pathos, ib.
Landor's estimate of, cxxx.

his habitual overwork,
546 ; anecdote of, by Lockhart, ib.

his · Life of Napoleon 'criti-
cised by J. S. Mill, cxxxix. 110;
Dumont's epigram on his History,
ib. ; fertility of his literary genius,
384; deterioration of his latest
works, ib.

his "Tales of a Grandfather,'
cxl. 223 ; his character and ap-

pearance, by Lord Cockburn, 269
Scott (Capt. R.N.), his criticism of

the coil-system of constructing

guns, cxix. 516
Scottish monasteries abroad, cxix.

168; their perfection in the
twelfth century, 174; subsequent
decline, 175; Irish claims to their
foundation, ib.; disputed meaning
of the word 'Scoti,'176; vacancies
filled by Irishmen, 178; seminaries
for instruction of Scottish mission-
ary priests, 192; the Collegio
Scozzese at Rome, ib.; establish-
ments of the Jesuits in Spain, 194;

and in France, 197
Screech-owl, early spelling of, as

scritch-owl, cxl. 157, 159
Scriptures, various theories of inspi-

ration historically discussed, cxix.
147; enlightened spirit of recent

criticism in England, 150
Scullabogue Barn, burning of, by

the Irish rebels, cxxxix. 504


Sculpture, use of, in Christian art,

cxx. 104; its historical precedence
to painting, 105

study of the antique in,
cxxii. 84

different theories of expres-
sion in, cxl. 171 ; canon of sym-
metry, 175; proportions of the

head, 187
Sculpture (Christian), the study long

neglected, cxxi. 520; richness of,
in the middle ages, 521; heath-
enisms of Ghiberti, 538; vicious
compromise with paganism,

old Italian monuments of,
cxxii. 83
Sea, currents and temperature of,

cxxxv. 435, 471. See Oceanic

Sea-coal, early mention of, in London,

cixxx. 173
Sea Island Cotton, varieties of,

cxviii. 338
Seam,' sporting-term used by Shak-

speare, cxxxvi. 357
Sebastopol, siege of, Jomini's remarks

on, cxxiii. 115, 116
Seker (Thomas, Archbishop of Cac-

terbury, 1693 1768), advocates
Colonial bishoprics for the pur-
poses of confirmation, cxviii. 556,
557 ; his argument with Dr. May-

hew thereon, ib. note
Secondary punishments, the question

re-opened, cxxi. 110; old system
of transportation now impossible,

117, 119
Secret Societies, sketch of, in Russia,

cxxxii. 364
Sedan, French capitulation at (1870),

cxxxii. 517, 518
Seeley (Professor), his views on Uni-

versity reform, cxxvii. 154, 162
Segovia (Spain), its picturesque situ-

ation, cxxii. 161; Gothic architec-

ture at, ib.
Séguin (M.), on the mechanical the-

ory of heat, cxix. 17


Séguin (M. Edouard), on the Treat-

and Essays relating to Ireland,
ment of Idiots,' cxxii. 39; his cxxviii. 324; his Irish articles in
institution at Bicêtre, 40; defini- the Edinburgh Review, ib. ; his per-
tion of a typical idiot, 45

sonal knowledge of Ireland, 325;
"Seibo,' a tree common in the Argen- period comprised in his work, 326;
tine Republic, cxxxix. 451

on the vices of the former landed
Selden (John, 1584–1654), anecdote system, ib.; advocated emigration,

of his knowledge of legal prece- his hostility to class clamour,
dents, cxx. 23; committed to the ib.; his defence of the land-own-
Tower, 35

ing class, 329; on the difficulties
on the authorised version of of managing landed property, 332;
the Bible, cxxii. 120

his proposed tribunal for compen-
enters Oxford' at fourteen, sation of evicted tenants, 383 ;
cxxv. 59; matrimonial precedent his sketch of Ireland in 1858,
in his • Uxor Ebraica,' 89 and note 334 ; on the evils of the Estab-

his comparison of spiritual lished Church, 336; on the Irish
authority to prerogative, cxxviii. priesthood, 339; his scheme of

religious equality, 340; on the
his hostility to Scotland, claims of Church property, 343;
cxxxvii. 192

opposed to the Lord-Lieutenancy,
Selkirk, early history of, cxii. 509 344; and to local unpaid magis-
Sellar (Professor), his remarks on trates, 345; his conversation with
Lucretius, cxxii. 246, 252

Whately on a Roman Catholic
Selwyn (Mr.), his Report on the gold University at Dublin, 346; im-
deposits of Victoria, cxii. 8

pressions of Ireland derived from
Semiramis, conflicting mentions of, his writings, 349

in ancient history, cxi. 60, 61 Sensation, definitions of the term,
Semitic races, their early adoption cxxiv. 122; not the object of con-

of monotheism, cxxiv. 11; sim- sciousness, 126; viewed as a form
plicity of their mind, ib.; their of consciousness, 127 ; a mental
use of prophecy, ib.

act, 131 ; its relation to the ob-
Semmering Railway, the, cxxii. 125 ject, 132, 137; mental process of,
Sempill (Col. W.), founds the Scots 145
College at Madrid, cxix. 195

propagation of, through the
Semple (James, d. about 1840), bis

nerves, cxxvii. 108
literary works, cxxxi. 206

Sensational Philosophy, recent de-
Seneca (Lucius Annæus, 1-65), his velopment of, cxxvi. 92

praise of poverty, cxxiv. 343; *Sensational' school of modern
cxxxii. 151

writers, cxxxiv. 93, 95
Seneca (Lucius Annæus, 1-65), Separate System Act, the, cxvii.

compared with'Plutarch, cxxix. 77 247
Senior (Nassau W.), his “Sugges- Sepoys, mutinous risings confined to,

tions on Popular Education,' cxiv. cxxiv. 320, 321. See Indian
1; bis objections to local school- Mutiny
rates, 33

Septennial Act (1714), duration of
his early love of Poor Law Parliaments since, cxxii. 291 note;
Reform, cxx. 302 ; his capacity objection to, 293
for the task, 393

Septinzonium of Severus at Rome,
his Journals, Conversations, cxviii. 344; its condition in the

ninth century, 361; besieged by

Henry IV., 374
Septuagint, Roman edition of, in
1586, cxii. 260

original copy of, cxxiv. 346
Sepulture, ancient mode of, cxvi.

165; burning coincident with the

age of iron, 166
Serpents, problem of the early wer-

ship of, cxxx. 488; Turanian
theory of Mr. Fergusson, 489;
association with human sacrifice,
ib. ; worship of, in Greece, 492 ;
and Italy, 492; in Scandinavia,

etc., 493; in India, 494
Servants, modern domestic, cxy.

409; complaints of their employ-
ers, 410; chiefly labourers' daugh-
ters, 412; desire of independence
a cause of discontent, 414; female
pupil-teachers, 415; neglect of
training, 417 ; requisites to ensure
a better class, 419; injudicious
treatment of, 421; scale of board-
wages, 423 ; evils of short ser-
vice, 428; decline of providence,
429; enforced society of the kit-
chen, 431; provident societies,

Servetus (Michael, 1509–1563), his

early career, cxxxi. 146 ; his
• Restitutio Christianismi,' ib.;

his arrest and burning, 147
Sesostris, different monarchs of that

name, cxi. 53, 54
Sessa (Duke de), his negotiations

with Sixtus V., cxxxii. 324
Seton (George, Advocate), his 'Law

and Practice of Heraldry in Scot-

land,' cxxi. 336
Settignano (Desiderio dn, Tuscan

sculptor), cxxi. 541
Settlement, Law of, origin of, cxxviji.

505; its ovil effects on the labour-
ing classes, ib.; final blow to, 506;

defective dwellings due to, 518
• Seven,' mystical reverence for the

number, cxiv. 547
Severn, thie, Dr. Hassall's analysis of

the water of, cxxiii. 402; district

drained by, 408
Severus (Lucius Septimius, Roman

Emperor, 146-211), his Septin-

zonium at Rome, cxviii. 344
Severus (Sulpicius, 363-410), his

plagiarism from Tacitus, cxxiv.

Sevigné (Madame de, 1626-1606),

her pretended letter to Fouquet,

cxxiv, 375
Seville, Moorish ajimes windows at,

cxxii. 172
Sèvres, porcelain manufactory at,

cxxv. 509
Seward (Miss), on Dr. Johnson's

friendship with Mrs. Thrale, cxiii.

Sewell (Mr.), Minister in New Zea-

land, on Lord Granville's despatch

of 1869, cxxxi. 119
Sex, comparatively small effect of, on

character, cxxx. 573
Sexes, the, relative influence of, ou

the character of children, cxxxii.
121, 122

canons of beauty in Art
applied to, cxl. 200
Sexual selection, Mr. Darwin's theory

of, cxxxiv. 229, 234
Seymour (Admiral Sir Michael), his

delay in bringing up gunboats to

the Peiho, cxi. 102
Sforza (Francesco, Duke of Milan),

his alliance with Louis XI. of

France, cxix, 543
Shaftesbury(Anthony Ashley Cooper,

Earl of, 1621-1683), lis city resi-

dence, cxxxi. 181
Shaftesbury (Earl, the present, b.

1801), his denunciation of Ecce

Homo,' cxxiv. 475
Shakspeare (William, 1564-1616),

alleged forgeries of, cxi. 452 (see
Collier, J. Payne); folly of deci-
ding genuineness on óæsthetic'
grounds, 456; need of peculiar
criticism of, founded on the ab-
sence of a real text, 450; borse

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